Tag Archives: medical guidelines

Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) | Guidelines for Parents

How To Take Care of My Child 1. Guidelines for Healthy Eating and Junk Food 2. Guidelines for Normal Sleep and Physical Activity 3. Guideline for Dental Care, Diapers, and Clothing 4. Guidelines for Prevention of Accidents and Injuries 5. Screentime Guidelines for Parents 6. Guideline for School and My Child: Parental Concerns Regarding Schooling […]

falls in elderly

_ Falls in the Elderly Share This A fall results in a person coming to rest on the ground or another lower level; sometimes a body part strikes against an object that breaks the fall. Typically, events caused by acute disorders (eg, stroke, seizure) or overwhelming environmental hazards (eg, being struck by a moving object) […]

hypothyroidism

_ _ _ _ Hypothyroidism (Myxedema) Share This view related topics in this manual Hypothyroidism is thyroid hormone deficiency. It is diagnosed by clinical features such as a typical facies, hoarse slow speech, and dry skin and by low levels of thyroid hormones. Management includes treatment of the cause and administration of thyroxine. Hypothyroidism occurs […]

erectile dysfunction

_ _ Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to attain or sustain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Most erectile dysfunction is related to vascular, neurologic, psychologic, and hormonal disorders; drug use can also be a cause. Evaluation typically includes screening for underlying disorders and measuring testosterone levels. Treatment options include oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors or […]

drug interaction

Drug interactions are changes in a drug’s effects due to recent or concurrent use of another drug or drugs (drug-drug interactions) or due to ingestion of food (drug-nutrient interactions—see Nutrition: General Considerations: Nutrient-Drug Interactions). A drug interaction may increase or decrease the effects of one or both drugs. Clinically significant interactions are often predictable and […]

lipids

Lipids are fats that are either absorbed from food or synthesized by the liver. Triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol contribute most to disease, although all lipids are physiologically important. The primary function of TGs is to store energy in adipocytes and muscle cells; cholesterol is a ubiquitous constituent of cell membranes, steroids, bile acids, and signaling […]

hypoglycemia

Share This Hypoglycemia unrelated to exogenous insulin therapy is an uncommon clinical syndrome characterized by low plasma glucose level, symptomatic sympathetic nervous system stimulation, and CNS dysfunction. Many drugs and disorders cause it. Diagnosis requires blood tests done at the time of symptoms or during a 72-h fast. Treatment is provision of glucose combined with […]

Diabetes Mellitus

_ _ _ Diabetes mellitus (DM) is impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia. Early symptoms are related to hyperglycemia and include polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria. Later complications include vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and predisposition to infection. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma glucose. Treatment is diet, exercise, and drugs […]

hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is decrease in serum Na concentration < 136 mEq/L caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, and renal disease. Clinical manifestations are primarily neurologic (due to an osmotic shift of water into brain cells causing edema), especially in acute hyponatremia, and include headache, confusion, […]

stroke rehabilitation

Rehabilitation after stroke aims to preserve or improve range of motion, muscle strength, bowel and bladder function, and functional and cognitive abilities. Specific programs are based on the patient’s social situation (eg, prospects of returning to home or work), ability to participate in a rehabilitation program supervised by nurses and therapists, learning ability, motivation, and […]

clinical use of genetics

Genetics has advanced understanding of many disorders, sometimes allowing them to be reclassified. For example, classification of many spinocerebellar ataxias has been changed from one based on clinical criteria to one based on genetic criteria (see Movement and Cerebellar Disorders: Hereditary ataxias). The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database is a searchable catalog of […]

behavioral emergencies

_Patients who are experiencing severe changes in mood, thoughts, or behavior or severe, potentially life-threatening drug adverse effects need urgent assessment and treatment. Nonspecialists are often the first care providers for outpatients and inpatients on medical units, but whenever possible, such cases should also be evaluated by a psychiatrist. When a patient’s mood, thoughts, or […]

medical assessment of patient with psychiatric disorder

Medical assessment of patients with mental symptoms seeks to identify 2 things: Physical disorders mimicking mental disorders Physical disorders accompanying mental disorders Numerous physical disorders cause symptoms mimicking specific mental disorders (see Table 3: Approach to the Patient With Mental Symptoms: Selected Mental Symptoms Due to Physical Disorders). Other physical disorders may not mimic specific […]

drug categories of concern in elderly

Some drug categories (eg, analgesics, anticoagulants, antihypertensives, antiparkinsonian drugs, diuretics, hypoglycemic drugs, psychoactive drugs) pose special risks for elderly patients. Some, although reasonable for use in younger adults, are so risky as to be considered inappropriate for the elderly. The Beers Criteria are most commonly used to identify such inappropriate drugs (see Table 5: Drug […]

drug related problems in the elderly

Drug-related problems include Adverse effects Ineffectiveness Adverse drug effects are effects that are unwanted, uncomfortable, or dangerous. Common examples are oversedation, confusion, hallucinations, falls, and bleeding. Among ambulatory people ≥ 65, adverse drug effects occur at a rate of about 50 events per 1000 person-years. Hospitalization rates due to adverse drug effects are 4 times […]

pharmacodynamics in elderly

Pharmacodynamics is defined as what the drug does to the body or the response of the body to the drug; it is affected by receptor binding, postreceptor effects, and chemical interactions (see Pharmacodynamics: Drug-Receptor Interactions). In the elderly, the effects of similar drug concentrations at the site of action (sensitivity) may be greater or smaller […]

pharmacokinetics in elderly

Pharmacokinetics (see Pharmacokinetics) is best defined as what the body does to the drug; it includes absorption, distribution across body compartments, metabolism, and excretion. With aging, the metabolism and excretion of many drugs decrease, requiring that doses of some drugs be adjusted. Toxicity may develop slowly because levels of chronically used drugs tend to increase […]

neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica affects only the eyes and spinal cord. It causes acute optic neuritis, sometimes bilateral, plus demyelination of the cervical or thoracic spinal cord. Neuromyelitis optica was previously considered to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) but is now recognized as a different disorder. Symptoms include visual loss, paraparesis or quadriparesis, and incontinence. […]

ms

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by disseminated patches of demyelination in the brain and spinal cord. Common symptoms include visual and oculomotor abnormalities, paresthesias, weakness, spasticity, urinary dysfunction, and mild cognitive impairment. Typically, neurologic deficits are multiple, with remissions and exacerbations gradually producing disability. Diagnosis is by history of remissions and exacerbations plus clinical signs, […]

demyelinating disorders

Myelin sheaths cover many nerve fibers in the central and peripheral nervous system; they accelerate axonal transmission of neural impulses. Disorders that affect myelin interrupt nerve transmission; symptoms may reflect deficits in any part of the nervous system. Myelin formed by oligodendroglia in the CNS differs chemically and immunologically from that formed by Schwann cells […]

cerebellar disorders

Cerebellar disorders have numerous causes, including congenital malformations, hereditary ataxias, and acquired conditions. Symptoms vary with the cause but typically include ataxia (impaired muscle coordination). Diagnosis is clinical and often by imaging and sometimes genetic testing. Treatment is usually supportive unless the cause is acquired and reversible. The cerebellum has 3 parts: Archicerebellum (vestibulocerebellum): It […]