American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)

Topics

             

Adult Basic and Advanced Life Support

Introduction

Pediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support

Neonatal Life Support

Resuscitation Education Science

These Highlights summarize the key issues and changes in the 2020 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)Systems of Care

   . The 2020 Guidelines are a comprehensive revision of the AHA’s guidelines for adult, pediatric, neonatal, resuscitation education science, and systems of care topics. They have been developed for resuscitation providers and AHA instructors to focus on the resuscitation science and guide- lines recommendations that are most signi cant or controversial, or those that will result in changes in resuscitation training and practice, and to provide the rationale for the recommendations.

Because this publication is a summary, it does not reference the supporting published studies and does not list Classes
of Recommendation (COR) or Levels of Evidence (LOE). For more detailed information and references, please read the 2020 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC, including the Executive Summary,1 published in Circulation in October 2020, and the detailed summary of resuscitation science in the 2020 International Consensus on CPR and ECC Science With Treatment Recommendations, developed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) and published simultaneously in Circulation2 and Resuscitation3 in October 2020. The methods used by ILCOR to perform evidence evaluations4 and by the AHA to translate these evidence evaluations into resuscitation guidelines5 have been published in detail.

The 2020 Guidelines use the most recent version of the AHA de nitions for the COR and LOE (Figure 1). Overall, 491 speci c recommendations are made for adult, pediatric, and neonatal life support; resuscitation education science; and systems of care. Of these recommendations, 161 are class 1 and 293 are class 2 recommendations (Figure 2). Additionally, 37 recommendations are class 3, including 19 for evidence of no bene t and 18 for evidence of harm.

The American Heart Association thanks the following people for their contributions to the development of this publication: Eric J. Lavonas, MD, MS; David J. Magid, MD, MPH; Khalid Aziz, MBBS, BA, MA, MEd(IT); Katherine M. Berg, MD; Adam Cheng, MD; Amber V. Hoover, RN, MSN; Melissa Mahgoub, PhD; Ashish R. Panchal, MD, PhD; Amber J. Rodriguez, PhD; Alexis A. Topjian, MD, MSCE; Comilla Sasson, MD, PhD; and the AHA Guidelines Highlights Project Team.

© 2020 American Heart Association

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Figure 1. Applying Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence to Clinical Strategies, Interventions, Treatments, or Diagnostic Testing in Patient Care (Updated May 2019)*

 

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Figure 2. Distribution of COR and LOE as percent of 491 total recommendations in the 2020 AHA Guidelines for CPR and ECC.*

*Results are percent of 491 recommendations in Adult Basic and Advanced Life Support, Pediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support, Neonatal Life Support, Resuscitation Education Science, and Systems of Care.

Abbreviations: COR, Classes of Recommendation; EO, expert opinion; LD, limited data; LOE, Level of Evidence; NR, nonrandomized; R, Randomized.

About the Recommendations

The fact that only 6 of these 491 recommendations (1.2%) are based on Level A evidence (at least 1 high-quality randomized clinical trial [RCT], corroborated by a second high-quality trial or registry study) testi es to the ongoing challenges in perform- ing high-quality resuscitation research. A concerted national and international e ort is needed to fund and otherwise support resuscitation research.

Both the ILCOR evidence-evaluation process and the AHA guidelines-development process are governed by strict AHA disclosure policies designed to make relationships with industry and other con icts of interest fully transparent and to protect these processes from undue in uence. The AHA sta processed con ict-of-interest disclosures from all participants. All guidelines writing group chairs and at least 50% of guidelines writing group members are required to be free of all

con icts of interest, and all relevant relationships are disclosed in the respective Consensus on Science With Treatment Recommendations and Guidelines publications.

  

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Adult Basic and Advanced Life Support

Summary of Key Issues and Major Changes

In 2015, approximately 350 000 adults in the United States experienced nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) attended by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. Despite recent gains, less than 40% of adults receive layperson-initiated CPR, and fewer than 12% have an automated external de brillator (AED) applied before EMS arrival. After signi cant improvements, survival from OHCA has plateaued since 2012.

In addition, approximately 1.2% of adults admitted to US hospitals su er in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). Outcomes from IHCA are signi cantly better than outcomes from OHCA, and IHCA outcomes continue to improve.

pressure control, evaluation for percutaneous coronary intervention, targeted temperature management, and multimodal neuroprognostication.

• Because recovery from cardiac arrest continues long after the initial hospitalization, patients should have formal assessment and support for their physical, cognitive, and psychosocial needs.

• After a resuscitation, debrie ng for lay rescuers, EMS providers, and hospital-based healthcare workers may be bene cial to support their mental health and well-being.

• Management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy focuses on maternal resuscitation, with preparation for early perimortem cesarean delivery if necessary to save the infant and improve the chances of successful resuscitation of

the mother.

Algorithms and Visual Aids

The writing group reviewed all algorithms and made focused improvements to visual training aids to ensure their utility as point-of-care tools and re ect the latest science. The major changes to algorithms and other performance aids include the following:

• A sixth link, Recovery, was added to the IHCA and OHCA Chains of Survival (Figure 3).

• The universal Adult Cardiac Arrest Algorithm was modi ed to emphasize the role of early epinephrine administration for patients with nonshockable rhythms (Figure 4).

• Two new Opioid-Associated Emergency Algorithms have been added for lay rescuers and trained rescuers (Figures 5 and 6).

• The Post–Cardiac Arrest Care Algorithm was updated to emphasize the need to prevent hyperoxia, hypoxemia, and hypotension (Figure 7).

• A new diagram has been added to guide and inform neuroprognostication (Figure 8).

• A new Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy Algorithm has been added to address these special cases (Figure 9).

Recommendations for adult basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) are combined in the 2020 Guidelines. Major new changes include the following:

• Enhanced algorithms and visual aids provide easy-to- remember guidance for BLS and ACLS resuscitation scenarios.

• The importance of early initiation of CPR by lay rescuers has been re-emphasized.

• Previous recommendations about epinephrine administration have been rea rmed, with emphasis on early epinephrine administration.

• Use of real-time audiovisual feedback is suggested as a means to maintain CPR quality.

• Continuously measuring arterial blood pressure and end- tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) during ACLS resuscitation may be useful to improve CPR quality.

• On the basis of the most recent evidence, routine use of double sequential de brillation is not recommended.

• Intravenous (IV) access is the preferred route of medication administration during ACLS resuscitation. Intraosseous (IO) access is acceptable if IV access is not available.

• Care of the patient after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) requires close attention to oxygenation, blood

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Despite recent gains, less than 40% of adults receive layperson-initiated CPR, and fewer than 12% have an AED applied before EMS arrival.

Figure 3. AHA Chains of Survival for adult IHCA and OHCA.

 

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Figure 4. Adult Cardiac Arrest Algorithm.

 

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Figure 5. Opioid-Associated Emergency for Lay Responders Algorithm.

 

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Figure 6. Opioid-Associated Emergency for Healthcare Providers Algorithm.

 

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Figure 7. Adult Post–Cardiac Arrest Care Algorithm.

 

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Figure 8. Recommended approach to multimodal neuroprognostication in adult patients after cardiac arrest.

 

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Figure 9. Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy In-Hospital ACLS Algorithm.

 

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Major New and Updated Recommendations

Early Initiation of CPR by Lay Rescuers

2020 (Updated): We recommend that laypersons initiate CPR for presumed cardiac arrest because the risk of harm to the patient is low if the patient is not in cardiac arrest.

2010 (Old): The lay rescuer should not check for a pulse and should assume that cardiac arrest is present if an adult suddenly collapses or an unrespon- sive victim is not breathing normally. The healthcare provider should take no more than 10 seconds to check for a pulse and, if the rescuer does not de nitely feel a pulse within that time period, the rescuer should start chest compressions.

and unfavorable neurologic outcome in the epinephrine group.

Of 16 observational studies on timing in the recent systematic review, all found an association between earlier epinephrine and ROSC for patients with nonshockable rhythms, although improvements in survival were not universally seen. For patients with shockable rhythm, the literature supports prioritizing de brillation and CPR initially and giving epinephrine
if initial attempts with CPR and de brillation are not successful.

Any drug that increases the rate
of ROSC and survival but is given after several minutes of downtime will likely increase both favorable and unfavorable neurologic outcome. Therefore, the most bene cial approach seems to be continuing
to use a drug that has been shown to increase survival while focusing broader e orts on shortening time to drug for all patients; by doing so, more survivors will have a favorable neurologic outcome.

Real-Time Audiovisual Feedback

2020 (Unchanged/Rea rmed): It may be reasonable to use audiovisual feedback devices during CPR for real-time optimization of CPR performance.

Why: A recent RCT reported a 25% increase in survival to hospital dis- charge from IHCA with audio feedback on compression depth and recoil.

Physiologic Monitoring of CPR Quality

2020 (Updated): It may be reasonable to use physiologic parameters such as arterial blood pressure or ETCO2 when feasible to monitor and optimize

2015 (Old): Although no clinical study has examined whether titrating resuscita- tive e orts to physiologic parameters during CPR improves outcome, it may be reasonable to use physiologic parameters (quantitative waveform cap- nography, arterial relaxation diastolic pressure, arterial pressure monitoring, and central venous oxygen saturation)

when feasible to monitor and optimize CPR quality, guide vasopressor therapy, and detect ROSC.

Why: Although the use of physiologic monitoring such as arterial blood pressure and ETCO2 to monitor CPR quality is an established concept, new data support its inclusion in the guidelines. Data from the AHA’s Get With The Guidelines®-Resuscitation registry show higher likelihood of ROSC when CPR quality is monitored using either ETCO2 or diastolic blood pressure.

This monitoring depends on the presence of an endotracheal tube (ETT) or arterial line, respectively. Targeting compressions to an ETCO2 value of at least 10 mm Hg, and ideally 20 mm Hg or greater, may be useful as a marker
of CPR quality. An ideal target has not been identi ed.

Double Sequential Defibrillation Not Supported

2020 (New): The usefulness of double sequential de brillation for refractory shockable rhythm has not been established.

Why: Double sequential de brillation
is the practice of applying near- simultaneous shocks using 2 de brillators. Although some case reports have shown good outcomes,
a 2020 ILCOR systematic review found no evidence to support double sequen- tial de brillation and recommended against its routine use. Existing studies are subject to multiple forms of bias, and observational studies do not show improvements in outcome.

A recent pilot RCT suggests that changing the direction of de brillation current by repositioning the pads may be as e ective as double sequential de brillation while avoiding the risks
of harm from increased energy and damage to de brillators. On the basis of current evidence, it is not known whether double sequential de brillation is bene cial.

 

Why: New evidence shows that the risk of harm to a victim who receives chest compressions when not in cardiac arrest is low. Lay rescuers are not able to determine with accuracy whether

 

a victim has a pulse, and the risk of withholding CPR from a pulseless victim exceeds the harm from unneeded chest compressions.

  

Early Administration of Epinephrine

2020 (Unchanged/Rea rmed): With respect to timing, for cardiac arrest with a nonshockable rhythm, it is reasonable to administer epinephrine as soon as feasible.

2020 (Unchanged/Rea rmed): With respect to timing, for cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm, it may be reason- able to administer epinephrine after initial de brillation attempts have failed.

Why: The suggestion to administer epinephrine early was strengthened
to a recommendation on the basis of a systematic review and meta-analysis, which included results of 2 randomized trials of epinephrine enrolling more than 8500 patients with OHCA, showing
that epinephrine increased ROSC and survival. At 3 months, the time point felt to be most meaningful for neurologic recovery, there was a nonsigni cant in- crease in survivors with both favorable

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CPR quality.

   

IV Access Preferred Over IO

2020 (New): It is reasonable for providers to rst attempt establishing IV access for drug administration in cardiac arrest.

2020 (Updated): IO access may be considered if attempts at IV access are unsuccessful or not feasible.

2010 (Old): It is reasonable for providers to establish intraosseous (IO) access if intravenous (IV) access is not readily available.

Why: A 2020 ILCOR systematic review comparing IV versus IO (principally pretibial placement) drug administra- tion during cardiac arrest found that the IV route was associated with better clinical outcomes in 5 retrospective studies; subgroup analyses of RCTs that focused on other clinical questions found comparable outcomes when IV or IO were used for drug administration. Although IV access is preferred, for situations in which IV access is di cult, IO access is a reasonable option.

Post–Cardiac Arrest Care and Neuroprognostication

The 2020 Guidelines contain signi – cant new clinical data about optimal care in the days after cardiac arrest. Recommendations from the 2015
AHA Guidelines Update for CPR and ECC
about treatment of hypotension, titrating oxygen to avoid both hypoxia and hyperoxia, detection and treatment of seizures, and targeted temperature management were rea rmed with new supporting evidence.

In some cases, the LOE was upgraded to re ect the availability of new data from RCTs and high-quality observational studies, and the post– cardiac arrest care algorithm has been updated to emphasize these important components of care. To be reliable, neuroprognostication should be performed no sooner than 72 hours after return to normothermia, and prognostic decisions should be based on multiple modes of patient assessment.

The 2020 Guidelines evaluate 19 di erent modalities and speci c ndings and present the evidence for each. A new diagram presents this multimodal approach to neuroprognostication.

Care and Support During Recovery

2020 (New): We recommend that cardiac arrest survivors have multimodal reha- bilitation assessment and treatment for physical, neurologic, cardiopulmonary, and cognitive impairments before discharge from the hospital.

2020 (New): We recommend that cardiac arrest survivors and their caregivers receive comprehensive, multidisci- plinary discharge planning, to include medical and rehabilitative treatment recommendations and return to activity/work expectations.

2020 (New): We recommend structured assessment for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and fatigue for cardiac arrest survivors and their caregivers.

Why: The process of recovering from cardiac arrest extends long after the initial hospitalization. Support is needed during recovery to ensure optimal physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being and return to social/role functioning. This process should be initiated during the initial hospitalization and continue as long as needed. These themes are explored in greater detail in a 2020 AHA scienti c statement.6

Debriefings for Rescuers

2020 (New): Debrie ngs and referral for follow up for emotional support for lay rescuers, EMS providers, and hospital-based healthcare workers after a cardiac arrest event may be bene cial.

Why: Rescuers may experience anxiety or posttraumatic stress about providing or not providing BLS. Hospital-based care providers may also experience emotional or psychological e ects of caring for a patient with cardiac arrest. Team debrie ngs may allow a review of team performance (education, quality

improvement) as well as recognition of the natural stressors associated with caring for a patient near death. An AHA scienti c statement devoted to this topic is expected in early 2021.

Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy

2020 (New): Because pregnant patients are more prone to hypoxia, oxygenation and airway management should be prioritized during resuscitation from cardiac arrest in pregnancy.

2020 (New): Because of potential interference with maternal resusci- tation, fetal monitoring should not be undertaken during cardiac arrest in pregnancy.

2020 (New): We recommend targeted temperature management for pregnant women who remain comatose after resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

2020 (New): During targeted tempera- ture management of the pregnant patient, it is recommended that the fetus be continuously monitored for bradycardia as a potential complication, and obstetric and neonatal consultation should be sought.

Why: Recommendations for manag-
ing cardiac arrest in pregnancy were reviewed in the 2015 Guidelines Update and a 2015 AHA scienti c statement.7 Airway, ventilation, and oxygenation are particularly important in the setting of pregnancy because of an increase
in maternal metabolism, a decrease in functional reserve capacity due to the gravid uterus, and the risk of fetal brain injury from hypoxemia.

Evaluation of the fetal heart is not helpful during maternal cardiac arrest, and it may distract from necessary resuscitation elements. In the absence of data to the contrary, pregnant women who survive cardiac arrest should receive targeted temperature management just as any other survivors would, with consideration for the status of the fetus that may remain in utero.

Adult BAsic And AdvAnced life support

           

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Pediatric Basic and Advanced Life Support

Summary of Key Issues and Major Changes

More than 20 000 infants and children have a cardiac arrest each year in the United States. Despite increases in survival and comparatively good rates of good neurologic outcome after pediatric IHCA, survival rates from pediatric OHCA remain poor, particularly in infants. Recommendations

for pediatric basic life support (PBLS) and CPR in infants, children, and adolescents have been combined with rec- ommendations for pediatric advanced life support (PALS) in a single document in the 2020 Guidelines. The causes of cardiac arrest in infants and children di er from cardiac arrest in adults, and a growing body of pediatric-specif-

ic evidence supports these recommendations. Key issues, major changes, and enhancements in the 2020 Guidelines include the following:

• Algorithms and visual aids were revised to incorporate the best science and improve clarity for PBLS and PALS resuscitation providers.

• Based on newly available data from pediatric resuscitations, the recommended assisted ventilation rate has been increased to 1 breath every 2 to 3 seconds (20-30 breaths per minute) for all pediatric resuscitation scenarios.

• Cu ed ETTs are suggested to reduce air leak and the need for tube exchanges for patients of any age who require intubation.

• The routine use of cricoid pressure during intubation is no longer recommended.

• To maximize the chance of good resuscitation outcomes, epinephrine should be administered as early as possible, ideally within 5 minutes of the start of cardiac arrest from a nonshockable rhythm (asystole and pulseless
electrical activity).

• For patients with arterial lines in place, using feedback from continuous measurement of arterial blood pressure may improve CPR quality.

• After ROSC, patients should be evaluated for seizures; status epilepticus and any convulsive seizures should be treated.

• Because recovery from cardiac arrest continues long after the initial hospitalization, patients should have formal assessment and support for their physical, cognitive, and psychosocial needs.

• A titrated approach to uid management, with epinephrine

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or norepinephrine infusions if vasopressors are needed, is appropriate in resuscitation from septic shock.

• On the basis largely of extrapolation from adult data, balanced blood component resuscitation is reasonable for infants and children with hemorrhagic shock.

• Opioid overdose management includes CPR and the timely administration of naloxone by either lay rescuers or trained rescuers.

• Children with acute myocarditis who have arrhythmias, heart block, ST-segment changes, or low cardiac output are at high risk of cardiac arrest. Early transfer to an intensive care unit is important, and some patients may require mechanical circulatory support or extracorporeal life support (ECLS).

• Infants and children with congenital heart disease and single ventricle physiology who are in the process of staged reconstruction require special considerations in PALS management.

• Management of pulmonary hypertension may include the use of inhaled nitric oxide, prostacyclin, analgesia, sedation, neuromuscular blockade, the induction of alkalosis, or rescue therapy with ECLS.

Algorithms and Visual Aids

The writing group updated all algorithms to re ect the latest science and made several major changes to improve the visual training and performance aids:

• A new pediatric Chain of Survival was created for IHCA in infants, children, and adolescents (Figure 10).

• A sixth link, Recovery, was added to the pediatric OHCA Chain of Survival and is included in the new pediatric IHCA Chain of Survival (Figure 10).

• The Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Algorithm and the Pediatric Bradycardia With a Pulse Algorithm have been updated to re ect the latest science (Figures 11 and 12).

• The single Pediatric Tachycardia With a Pulse Algorithm now covers both narrow- and wide-complex tachycardias in pediatric patients (Figure 13).

• Two new Opioid-Associated Emergency Algorithms have been added for lay rescuers and trained rescuers (Figures 5 and 6).

• A new checklist is provided for pediatric post–cardiac arrest care (Figure 14).

pediAtric BAsic And AdvAnced life support

 

The causes of cardiac arrest in infants and children differ from cardiac arrest in adults, and a growing body of pediatric-specific evidence supports these recommendations.

Figure 10. AHA Chains of Survival for pediatric IHCA and OHCA.

  

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Figure 11. Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Algorithm.

 

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Figure 12. Pediatric Bradycardia With a Pulse Algorithm.

 

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Figure 13. Pediatric Tachycardia With a Pulse Algorithm.

 

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Figure 14. Pediatric Post–Cardiac Arrest Care Checklist.

 

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Major New and Updated Recommendations

Changes to the Assisted Ventilation Rate: Rescue Breathing

Cuffed ETTs

2020 (Updated): It is reasonable to choose cu ed ETTs over uncu ed ETTs for intubating infants and children. When a cu ed ETT is used, attention should be paid to ETT size, position, and cu in ation pressure (usually <20-25 cm H2O).

2010 (Old): Both cu ed and uncu ed ETTs are acceptable for intubating infants and children. In certain circum- stances (eg, poor lung compliance, high airway resistance, or a large glottic air leak) a cu ed ETT may be preferable to an uncu ed tube, provided that atten- tion is paid to [ensuring appropriate] ETT size, position, and cu in ation pressure.

Why: Several studies and systematic reviews support the safety of cu ed ETTs and demonstrate decreased need for tube changes and reintubation. Cu ed tubes may decrease the risk of aspiration. Subglottic stenosis is rare when cu ed ETTs are used in children and careful technique is followed.

Cricoid Pressure During Intubation

2020 (Updated): Routine use of cricoid pressure is not recommended during endotracheal intubation of pediatric patients.

2010 (Old): There is insu cient evidence to recommend routine application of cricoid pressure to prevent aspiration during endotracheal intubation in children.

Why: New studies have shown that routine use of cricoid pressure reduces intubation success rates and does not reduce the rate of regurgitation. The writing group has rea rmed previous recommendations to discontinue cricoid pressure if it interferes with ventilation or the speed or ease of intubation.

Emphasis on Early Epinephrine Administration

2020 (Updated): For pediatric patients in any setting, it is reasonable to admin- ister the initial dose of epinephrine within 5 minutes from the start of chest compressions.

2015 (Old): It is reasonable to administer epinephrine in pediatric cardiac arrest.

Why: A study of children with IHCA who received epinephrine for an initial nonshockable rhythm (asystole and pulseless electrical activity) demon- strated that, for every minute of delay in administration of epinephrine, there was a signi cant decrease in ROSC, survival at 24 hours, survival to dis- charge, and survival with favorable neurological outcome.

Patients who received epinephrine within 5 minutes of CPR initiation compared with those who received epinephrine more than 5 minutes after CPR initiation were more likely
to survive to discharge. Studies of pediatric OHCA demonstrated that earlier epinephrine administration increases rates of ROSC, survival to intensive care unit admission, survival to discharge, and 30-day survival.

In the 2018 version of the Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Algorithm, patients with nonshockable rhythms received epinephrine every 3 to 5 minutes, but early administration of epinephrine was not emphasized. Although

the sequence of resuscitation has
not changed, the algorithm and recommendation language have been updated to emphasize the importance of giving epinephrine as early as possible, particularly when the rhythm is nonshockable.

Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring to Assess CPR Quality

2020 (Updated): For patients with continuous invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring in place at the time of cardiac arrest, it is reasonable for providers to use diastolic blood pressure to assess CPR quality.

   

2020 (Updated): (PBLS) For infants and children with a pulse but absent or inadequate respiratory e ort, it is rea- sonable to give 1 breath every

2 to 3 seconds (20-30 breaths/min).

2010 (Old): (PBLS) If there is a palpa- ble pulse 60/min or greater but there is inadequate breathing, give rescue breaths at a rate of about 12 to 20/min (1 breath every 3-5 seconds) until spontaneous breathing resumes.

Changes to the Assisted Ventilation Rate: Ventilation Rate During CPR With an Advanced Airway

 

2020 (Updated): (PALS) When perform- ing CPR in infants and children with an advanced airway, it may be reasonable to target a respiratory rate range of

1 breath every 2 to 3 seconds (20-30/min), accounting for age and clinical condition. Rates exceeding these recommendations may compromise hemodynamics.

 

2010 (Old): (PALS) If the infant or child is intubated, ventilate at a rate of about 1 breath every 6 seconds (10/min) without interrupting chest compressions.

Why: New data show that higher ventilation rates (at least 30/min in infants [younger than 1 year] and at least 25/min in children) are associated with improved rates of ROSC and survival in pediatric IHCA. Although there are no data about the ideal ventilation rate during CPR without

an advanced airway, or for children in respiratory arrest with or without an ad- vanced airway, for simplicity of training, the respiratory arrest recommendation was standardized for both situations.

  

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2015 (Old): For patients with invasive hemodynamic monitoring in place at the time of cardiac arrest, it may be reasonable for rescuers to use blood pressure to guide CPR quality.

treatment of status epilepticus is bene cial in pediatric patients in general.

Evaluation and Support for Cardiac Arrest Survivors

2020 (New): It is recommended that pediatric cardiac arrest survivors be evaluated for rehabilitation services.

2020 (New): It is reasonable to refer pediatric cardiac arrest survivors for ongoing neurologic evaluation for at least the rst year after cardiac arrest.

Why: There is growing recognition that recovery from cardiac arrest continues long after the initial hospitalization. Survivors may require ongoing integrat- ed medical, rehabilitative, caregiver, and community support in the months to years after their cardiac arrest. A recent AHA scienti c statement highlights the importance of supporting patients and families during this time to achieve the best possible long-term outcome.6

Septic Shock

Fluid Boluses

2020 (Updated): In patients with septic shock, it is reasonable to administer uid in 10 mL/kg or 20 mL/kg aliquots with frequent reassessment.

2015 (Old): Administration of an initial uid bolus of 20 mL/kg to infants and children with shock is reasonable, including those with conditions such as severe sepsis, severe malaria, and dengue.

Choice of Vasopressor

2020 (New): In infants and children with uid-refractory septic shock, it is rea- sonable to use either epinephrine or norepinephrine as an initial vasoactive infusion.

2020 (New): In infants and children
with uid-refractory septic shock, if epinephrine or norepinephrine are un- available, dopamine may be considered.

Corticosteroid Administration

2020 (New): For infants and children with septic shock unresponsive to uids and requiring vasoactive support, it may be reasonable to consider stress-dose corticosteroids.

Why: Although uids remain the main- stay of initial therapy for infants and children in shock, especially in hypovo- lemic and septic shock, uid overload can lead to increased morbidity. In recent trials of patients with septic shock, those who received higher uid volumes or faster uid resuscitation were more likely to develop clinically signi cant uid overload and require mechanical ventilation. The writing group rea rmed previous recommen- dations to reassess patients after each uid bolus and to use either crystalloid or colloid uids for septic shock resus- citation.

Previous versions of the Guidelines did not provide recommendations about choice of vasopressor or the use of corticosteroids in septic shock. Two RCTs suggest that epinephrine

is superior to dopamine as the initial vasopressor in pediatric septic shock, and norepinephrine is also appropriate. Recent clinical trials suggest a bene t from corticosteroid administration in some pediatric patients with refractory septic shock.

Hemorrhagic Shock

2020 (New): Among infants and children with hypotensive hemorrhagic shock following trauma, it is reasonable to administer blood products, when avail- able, instead of crystalloid for ongoing volume resuscitation.

Why: Previous versions of the Guidelines did not di erentiate the treatment of hemorrhagic shock from other causes of hypovolemic shock. A growing body of evidence (largely from adults but with some pediatric data) suggests a bene t to early, balanced resuscitation using packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets. Balanced resuscitation is supported by recommendations from the several US and international trauma societies.

 

Why: Providing high-quality chest compressions is critical to successful resuscitation. A new study shows that, among pediatric patients receiving CPR with an arterial line in place,

rates of survival with favorable neu- rologic outcome were improved if the diastolic blood pressure was at least 25 mm Hg in infants and at least

30 mm Hg in children.8

Detecting and Treating Seizures After ROSC

2020 (Updated): When resources are available, continuous electroencepha- lography monitoring is recommended for the detection of seizures following cardiac arrest in patients with persistent encephalopathy.

2020 (Updated): It is recommended to treat clinical seizures following cardiac arrest.

2020 (Updated): It is reasonable to treat nonconvulsive status epilepticus following cardiac arrest in consultation with experts.

2015 (Old): An electroencephalography for the diagnosis of seizure should be promptly performed and interpreted and then should be monitored frequent- ly or continuously in comatose patients after ROSC.

2015 (Old): The same anticonvulsant regimens for the treatment of status epilepticus caused by other etiologies may be considered after cardiac arrest.

Why: For the rst time, the Guidelines provide pediatric-speci c recommen- dations for managing seizures after cardiac arrest. Nonconvulsive sei- zures, including nonconvulsive status epilepticus, are common and cannot be detected without electroenceph- alography. Although outcome data from the post–cardiac arrest popula- tion are lacking, both convulsive and nonconvulsive status epilepticus are associated with poor outcome, and

       

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Opioid Overdose

2020 (Updated): For patients in respiratory arrest, rescue breathing
or bag-mask ventilation should be maintained until spontaneous breathing returns, and standard PBLS or PALS measures should continue if return of spontaneous breathing does not occur.

2020 (Updated): For a patient with suspected opioid overdose who has a de nite pulse but no normal breathing or only gasping (ie, a respiratory arrest), in addition to providing standard PBLS or PALS, it is reasonable for responders to administer intramuscular or intrana- sal naloxone.

2020 (Updated): For patients known or suspected to be in cardiac arrest, in the absence of a proven bene t from the use of naloxone, standard resuscitative measures should take priority over naloxone administration, with a focus on high-quality CPR (compressions plus ventilation).

2015 (Old): Empiric administration of intramuscular or intranasal naloxone to all unresponsive opioid-associated life-threatening emergency patients may be reasonable as an adjunct to standard rst aid and non–healthcare provider BLS protocols.

2015 (Old): ACLS providers should support ventilation and administer naloxone to patients with a perfusing cardiac rhythm and opioid-associated respiratory arrest or severe respiratory depression. Bag-mask ventilation should be maintained until spontaneous breathing returns, and standard ACLS measures should continue if return of spontaneous breathing does not occur.

2015 (Old): We can make no recommendation regarding the administration of naloxone in con rmed opioid-associated cardiac arrest.

Why: The opioid epidemic has not spared children. In the United States
in 2018, opioid overdose caused 65 deaths in children younger than 15 years and 3618 deaths in people 15 to 24 years old,9 and many more children required resuscitation. The 2020 Guide- lines contain new recommendations

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for managing children with respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest from opioid overdose.

These recommendations are identical for adults and children, except that compression-ventilation CPR is recommended for all pediatric victims of suspected cardiac arrest. Naloxone can be administered by trained providers, laypersons with focused training, and untrained laypersons. Separate treatment algorithms
are provided for managing opioid- associated resuscitation emergencies by laypersons, who cannot reliably check for a pulse (Figure 5), and by trained rescuers (Figure 6). Opioid- associated OHCA is the subject of a 2020 AHA scienti c statement.10

Myocarditis

2020 (New): Given the high risk of cardiac arrest in children with acute myocarditis who demonstrate arrhythmias, heart block, ST-segment changes, and/or low cardiac output, early consideration of transfer to ICU monitoring and therapy is recommended.

2020 (New): For children with myocarditis or cardiomyopathy and refractory low cardiac output, prearrest use of ECLS or mechanical circulatory support can be bene cial to provide end-organ support and prevent cardiac arrest.

2020 (New): Given the challenges to successful resuscitation of children with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, once cardiac arrest occurs, early consideration of extracorporeal

Why: Although myocarditis accounts for about 2% of sudden cardiovascular deaths in infants,11 5% of sudden car- diovascular deaths in children,11 and 6% to 20% of sudden cardiac death in ath- letes, previous12,13 PALS guidelines did not contain speci c recommendations for management. These recommenda- tions are consistent with the 2018 AHA scienti c statement on CPR in infants and children with cardiac disease.14

Single Ventricle: Recommendations
for the Treatment of Preoperative
and Postoperative Stage I Palliation (Norwood/Blalock-Tausig Shunt) Patients

2020 (New): Direct (superior vena cava catheter) and/or indirect (near infrared spectroscopy) oxygen saturation monitoring can be bene cial to trend and direct management in the critically ill neonate after stage I Norwood palliation or shunt placement.

2020 (New): In the patient with an appro- priately restrictive shunt, manipulation of pulmonary vascular resistance
may have little e ect, whereas low- ering systemic vascular resistance with the use of systemic vasodilators (alpha-adrenergic antagonists and/or phosphodiesterase type III inhibitors), with or without the use of oxygen, can be useful to increase systemic delivery of oxygen (DO .)

2020 (New): ECLS after stage I Norwood palliation can be useful to treat low systemic DO2.

2020 (New): In the situation of known
or suspected shunt obstruction, it
is reasonable to administer oxygen, vasoactive agents to increase shunt perfusion pressure, and heparin (50-100 units/kg bolus) while preparing for catheter-based or surgical intervention.

2020 (Updated): For neonates prior to stage I repair with pulmonary over- circulation and symptomatic low systemic cardiac output and DO2, it is reasonable to target a Paco2 of 50 to 60 mm Hg. This can be achieved during mechanical ventilation by reducing minute ventilation or by administering analgesia/sedation with or without neu- romuscular blockade.

2010 (Old): Neonates in a prearrest
state due to elevated pulmonary- to-systemic ow ratio prior to Stage I repair might bene t from a Paco2 of
50 to 60 mm Hg, which can be achieved during mechanical ventilation by reduc- ing minute ventilation, increasing the inspired fraction of CO , or administer-

   

CPR may be bene cial.

2

2
ing opioids with or without chemical

paralysis.

Single Ventricle: Recommendations for the Treatment of Postoperative Stage II (Bidirectional Glenn/Hemi-Fontan) and Stage III (Fontan) Palliation Patients

2020 (New): For patients in a prearrest state with superior cavopulmonary anastomosis physiology and severe hypoxemia due to inadequate pul- monary blood ow (Qp), ventilatory strategies that target a mild respiratory acidosis and a minimum mean airway pressure without atelectasis can be useful to increase cerebral and system- ic arterial oxygenation.

2020 (New): ECLS in patients with su- perior cavopulmonary anastomosis or Fontan circulation may be considered to treat low DO2 from reversible causes or as a bridge to a ventricular assist device or surgical revision.

Why: Approximately 1 in 600 infants and children are born with critical con- genital heart disease. Staged surgery for children born with single ventricle physiology, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, spans the rst several years of life.15 Resuscitation of these infants and children is complex and di ers in important ways from standard

PALS care. Previous PALS guidelines did not contain recommendations for this specialized patient population. These recommendations are con- sistent with the 2018 AHA scienti c statement on CPR in infants and children with cardiac disease.14

Pulmonary Hypertension

2020 (Updated): Inhaled nitric oxide or prostacyclin should be used as the initial therapy to treat pulmonary hyper- tensive crises or acute right-sided heart failure secondary to increased pulmo- nary vascular resistance.

2020 (New): Provide careful respiratory management and monitoring to avoid hypoxia and acidosis in the postoper- ative care of the child with pulmonary hypertension.

2020 (New): For pediatric patients
who are at high risk for pulmonary hypertensive crises, provide adequate analgesics, sedatives, and neuromus- cular blocking agents.

2020 (New): For the initial treatment of pulmonary hypertensive crises, oxygen administration and induction of alka- losis through hyperventilation or alkali

administration can be useful while pulmonary-speci c vasodilators are administered.

2020 (New): For children who develop refractory pulmonary hypertension, including signs of low cardiac output or profound respiratory failure despite optimal medical therapy, ECLS may be considered.

2010 (Old): Consider administering inhaled nitric oxide or aerosolized prostacyclin or analogue to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance.

Why: Pulmonary hypertension, a rare disease in infants and children, is associated with signi cant morbidity and mortality and requires specialized management. Previous PALS guidelines did not provide recommendations for managing pulmonary hypertension in infants and children. These recommen- dations are consistent with guidelines on pediatric pulmonary hypertension published by the AHA and the American Thoracic Society in 2015,16 and with recommendations contained in a 2020 AHA scienti c statement on CPR in infants and children with

Summary of Key Issues

and Major Changes

• Newborn resuscitation requires anticipation and preparation by providers who train individually and as teams.

• Most newly born infants do not require immediate cord clamping or resuscitation and can be evaluated and monitored during skin-to-skin contact with their mothers after birth.

• Prevention of hypothermia is
an important focus for neonatal resuscitation. The importance of skin-to-skin care in healthy babies is reinforced as a means of promoting parental bonding, breastfeeding, and normothermia.

neonAtAl life support

    

Neonatal Life Support

There are over 4 million births every year in the United States and Canada. Up to 1 of every 10 of these newborns will need help to transition from the uid- lled environment of the womb
to the air- lled room. It is essential
that every newborn have a caregiver dedicated to facilitating that transition and for that caregiver to be trained and equipped for the role. Also, a signi – cant proportion of newborns who need facilitated transition are at risk for com- plications that require additional trained personnel. All perinatal settings should be ready for this scenario.

The process of facilitating
transition is described in the Neonatal Resuscitation Algorithm that starts with the needs of every newborn
and proceeds to steps that address the needs of at-risk newborns. In
the 2020 Guidelines, we provide recommendations on how to follow the algorithm, including anticipation and preparation, umbilical cord management at delivery, initial actions, heart rate monitoring, respiratory support, chest compressions, intravascular access and therapies, withholding and discontinuing resuscitation, postresuscitation care, and human factors and performance. Here, we highlight new and updated recommendations that we believe will have a signi cant impact on outcomes from cardiac arrest.

cardiac disease.14

eccguidelines.heart.org 23

• In ation and ventilation of the lungs are the priority in newly born infants who need support after birth.

• A rise in heart rate is the most important indicator of e ective ventilation and response to resuscitative interventions.

• Pulse oximetry is used to guide oxygen therapy and meet oxygen saturation goals.

• Routine endotracheal suctioning for both vigorous and nonvigorous infants born with meconium-stained amniotic uid (MSAF) is not recommended. Endotracheal suctioning is indicated only if airway obstruction is suspected after providing positive-pressure ventilation (PPV).

• Chest compressions are provided if there is a poor heart rate response to ventilation after appropriate ventilation-corrective steps, which preferably include endotracheal intubation.

• The heart rate response to
chest compressions and medications should be monitored electrocardiographically.

• When vascular access is required in newly born infants, the umbilical venous route is preferred. When IV access is not feasible, the IO route may be considered.

• If the response to chest compressions is poor, it may be reasonable to provide epinephrine, preferably via the intravascular route.

• Newborns who fail to respond to epinephrine and have a history or an exam consistent with blood loss may require volume expansion.

• If all these steps of resuscitation
are e ectively completed and there is no heart rate response by 20 minutes, redirection of care should be discussed with the team and family.

Major New and Updated Recommendations

Anticipation of Resuscitation Need

2020 (New): Every birth should be at- tended by at least 1 person who can perform the initial steps of newborn resuscitation and initiate PPV and whose only responsibility is the care of the newborn.

Why: To support a smooth and safe newborn transition from being in the womb to breathing air, every birth should be attended by at least 1 person whose primary responsibility is to the newly born and who is trained and equipped to begin PPV without delay. Observational and quality-improvement studies indicate that this approach enables identi cation of at-risk newborns, promotes use of checklists to prepare equipment, and facilitates team brie ng. A systematic review of neonatal resuscitation training in low- resourced settings showed a reduction in both stillbirth and 7-day mortality.

Temperature Management for Newly Born Infants

2020 (New): Placing healthy newborn infants who do not require resuscitation skin-to-skin after birth can be e ective in improving breastfeeding, tempera- ture control, and blood glucose stability.

Why: Evidence from a Cochrane systematic review showed that
early skin-to-skin contact promotes normothermia in healthy newborns. In addition, 2 meta-analyses of RCTs and observational studies of extended skin- to-skin care after initial resuscitation and/or stabilization showed reduced mortality, improved breastfeeding, shortened length of stay, and improved weight gain in preterm and low-birth- weight babies.

Clearing the Airway When Meconium Is Present

2020 (Updated): For nonvigorous new- borns (presenting with apnea or ine ective breathing e ort) delivered through MSAF, routine laryngoscopy with or without tracheal suctioning is not recommended.

2020 (Updated): For nonvigorous new- borns delivered through MSAF who have evidence of airway obstruction during PPV, intubation and tracheal suction can be bene cial.

2015 (Old): When meconium is present, routine intubation for tracheal suction in this setting is not suggested because there is insu cient evidence to continue recommending this practice.

Why: In newly born infants with MSAF who are not vigorous at birth, initial steps and PPV may be provided. Endo- tracheal suctioning is indicated only if airway obstruction is suspected after providing PPV. Evidence from RCTs suggests that nonvigorous newborns delivered through MSAF have the same outcomes (survival, need for respiratory support) whether they are suctioned before or after the initiation of PPV. Direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal suctioning are not routinely required for newborns delivered through MSAF, but they can be bene cial in newborns who have evidence of airway obstruction while receiving PPV.

Vascular Access

2020 (New): For babies requiring vascular access at the time of delivery, the um- bilical vein is the recommended route.
If IV access is not feasible, it may be reasonable to use the IO route.

Why: Newborns who have failed to respond to PPV and chest compressions require vascular access to infuse epinephrine and/ or volume expanders. Umbilical venous catheterization is the preferred technique in the delivery room. IO access is an alter- native if umbilical venous access is not feasible or care is being provided outside of the delivery room. Several case reports have described local complications associ- ated with IO needle placement.

       

24 American Heart Association

Termination of Resuscitation

2020 (Updated): In newly born babies receiving resuscitation, if there is no heart rate and all the steps of resusci- tation have been performed, cessation of resuscitation e orts should be discussed with the healthcare team and the family. A reasonable time frame for this change in goals of care is around 20 minutes after birth.

2010 (Old): In a newly born baby with no detectable heart rate, it is appropriate to consider stopping resuscitation if the heart rate remains undetectable for

Why: Newborns who have failed to respond to resuscitative e orts by approximately 20 minutes of age have a low likelihood of survival. For this

reason, a time frame for decisions about discontinuing resuscitation e orts is suggested, emphasizing engagement of parents and the resus- citation team before redirecting care.

Human and System Performance

2020 (Updated): For participants who have been trained in neonatal resus- citation, individual or team booster training should occur more frequently than every 2 years at a frequency that supports retention of knowledge, skills, and behaviors.

2015 (Old): Studies that explored how frequently healthcare providers or healthcare students should train showed no di erences in patient outcomes but were able to show some

advantages in psychomotor perfor- mance and knowledge and con dence when focused training occurred every 6 months or more frequently. It is therefore suggested that neonatal resuscitation task training occur more frequently than the current 2-year interval.

Why: Educational studies suggest that cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowl- edge and skills decay within 3 to 12 months after training. Short, frequent booster training has been shown to improve performance in simulation studies and reduce neonatal mortality in low-resource settings. To anticipate and prepare e ectively, providers and teams may improve their performance with frequent practice.

Virtual reality, which is the use of
a computer interface to create
an immersive environment, and gami ed learning, which is play and competition with other students, can be incorporated into resuscitation training for laypersons and healthcare providers.

• Laypersons should receive training in how to respond to victims of opioid overdose, including the administration of naloxone.

• Bystander CPR training should target speci c socioeconomic, racial,
and ethnic populations who have historically exhibited lower rates of bystander CPR. CPR training should address gender-related barriers to improve rates of bystander CPR performed on women.

• EMS systems should monitor how much exposure their providers receive in treating cardiac arrest victims. Variability in exposure among providers in a given EMS system

may be supported by implementing targeted strategies of supplementary training and/or sta ng adjustments.

• All healthcare providers should complete an adult ACLS course or its equivalent.

resuscitAtion educAtion science

    

10 minutes.

Resuscitation Education Science

E ective education is a key variable
in improving survival outcomes from cardiac arrest. Without e ective education, lay rescuers and
healthcare providers would struggle
to consistently apply the science supporting the evidence-based treatment of cardiac arrest. Evidence- based instructional design is critical to improving provider performance and patient-related outcomes from cardiac arrest. Instructional design features are the active ingredients, the key elements of resuscitation training programs that determine how and when content is delivered to students.

In the 2020 Guidelines, we provide recommendations about various instructional design features in resuscitation training and describe how speci c provider considerations in uence resuscitation education. Here, we highlight new and updated recommendations in education that we believe will have a signi cant impact on outcomes from cardiac arrest.

Summary of Key Issues

and Major Changes

• The use of deliberate practice and mastery learning during life

support training, and incorporating repetition with feedback and minimum passing standards, can improve skill acquisition.

• Booster training (ie, brief retraining sessions) should be added to massed learning (ie, traditional course based) to assist with retention of CPR skills. Provided that individual students can attend all sessions, separating training into multiple sessions (ie, spaced learning) is preferable to massed learning.

• For laypersons, self-directed training, either alone or in combination
with instructor-led training, is recommended to improve willingness and ability to perform CPR. Greater use of self-directed training may remove an obstacle to more widespread training of laypersons in CPR.

• Middle school– and high school–age children should be trained to provide high-quality CPR.

• In situ training (ie, resuscitation education in actual clinical spaces) can be used to enhance learning outcomes and improve resuscitation performance.

eccguidelines.heart.org 25

• Use of CPR training, mass training, CPR awareness campaigns, and hands-only CPR promotion should continue on a widespread basis to improve willingness to provide CPR to cardiac arrest victims, increase the prevalence of bystander CPR, and improve outcomes from OHCA.

Major New and Updated Recommendations

Deliberate Practice and Mastery Learning

2020 (New): Incorporating a deliberate practice and mastery learning model into basic or advanced life support courses may be considered for improv- ing skill acquisition and performance.

The frequency of booster sessions should be balanced against student availability and the provision of resources that support implementation of booster training. Studies show that spaced-learning courses, or training that is separated into multiple sessions, are of equal or greater e ectiveness when compared with courses delivered as a single training event. Student attendance across all sessions is required to ensure course completion because new content is presented at each session.

Lay Rescuer Training

2020 (Updated): A combination of self-instruction and instructor-led teaching with hands-on training is recommended as an alternative to instructor-led courses for lay rescuers. If instructor-led training is not available, self-directed training is recommended for lay rescuers.

2020 (New): It is recommended to train middle school– and high school–age children in how to perform high-quality CPR.

2015 (Old): A combination of self- instruction and instructor-led
teaching with hands-on training can
be considered as an alternative to traditional instructor-led courses for lay providers. If instructor-led training is not available, self-directed training may be considered for lay providers learning AED skills.

Why: Studies have found that self- instruction or video-based instruction is as e ective as instructor-led training for lay rescuer CPR training. A shift
to more self-directed training may
lead to a higher proportion of trained lay rescuers, thus increasing the chances that a trained lay rescuer
will be available to provide CPR when needed. Training school-age children to perform CPR instills con dence and a positive attitude toward providing CPR. Targeting this population with CPR training helps build the future cadre of community-based, trained lay rescuers.

In Situ Education

2020 (New): It is reasonable to conduct in situ simulation-based resuscitation training in addition to traditional train- ing.

2020 (New): It may be reasonable to conduct in situ simulation-based resus- citation training in place of traditional training.

Why: In situ simulation refers to train- ing activities that are conducted in actual patient care areas, which has the advantage of providing a more realistic training environment. New evidence shows that training in the in situ envi- ronment, either alone or in combination with traditional training, can have a positive impact on learning outcomes (eg, faster time to perform critical tasks and team performance) and patient outcomes (eg, improved survival, neu- rological outcomes).

When conducting in situ simulation, instructors should be wary of potential risks, such as mixing training supplies with real medical supplies.

Gamified Learning and Virtual Reality

2020 (New): The use of gami ed learning and virtual reality may be considered for basic or advanced life support train-
ing for lay rescuers and/or healthcare providers.

Why: Gami ed learning incorporates competition or play around the topic of resuscitation, and virtual reality uses a computer interface that allows the user to interact within a virtual environment. Some studies have demonstrated positive bene ts on learning outcomes (eg, improved knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and CPR skills) with these modalities. Programs looking to implement gami ed learning or virtual reality should consider

    

Why: Deliberate practice is a training approach where students are given a discrete goal to achieve, immediate feedback on their performance, and ample time for repetition to improve performance. Mastery learning is de ned as the use of deliberate practice training and testing that includes a set of criteria to de ne

a speci c passing standard, which implies mastery of the tasks being learned.

Evidence suggests that incorporating a deliberate practice and mastery learning model into basic or advanced life support courses improves multiple learning outcomes.

Booster Training and Spaced Learning

2020 (New): It is recommended to imple- ment booster sessions when utilizing a massed-learning approach for resusci- tation training.

2020 (New): It is reasonable to use a spaced-learning approach in place of a massed-learning approach for resusci- tation training.

Why: The addition of booster training sessions, which are brief, frequent sessions focused on repetition of prior content, to resuscitation courses im- proves the retention of CPR skills.

26 American Heart Association

high start-up costs associated with purchasing equipment and software.

  

resuscitAtion educAtion science

 

Bystander CPR training should target specific socioeconomic, racial,
and ethnic populations who have historically exhibited lower rates of bystander CPR. CPR training should address gender-related barriers

to improve rates of bystander CPR performed on women.

 

Opioid Overdose Training for Lay Rescuers

2020 (New): It is reasonable for lay rescu- ers to receive training in responding to opioid overdose, including provision of naloxone.

stander CPR and CPR training. Women are also less likely to receive bystander CPR, which may be because bystand- ers fear injuring female victims or being accused of inappropriate touching.

Targeting speci c racial, ethnic,
and low-socioeconomic populations for CPR education and modifying education to address gender di erences could eliminate disparities in CPR training and bystander CPR, potentially enhancing outcomes from cardiac arrest in these populations.

EMS Practitioner Experience and Exposure to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

2020 (New): It is reasonable for EMS systems to monitor clinical personnel’s exposure to resuscitation to ensure treating teams have members com- petent in managing cardiac arrest cases. Competence of teams may be supported through sta ng or training strategies.

Why: A recent systematic review found that EMS provider exposure to cardiac arrest cases is associated with im- proved patient outcomes, including rates of ROSC and survival. Because exposure can be variable, we rec-

ommend that EMS systems monitor provider exposure and develop strate- gies to address low exposure.

ACLS Course Participation

2020 (New): It is reasonable for health- care professionals to take an adult ACLS course or equivalent training.

Why: For more than 3 decades, the ACLS course has been recognized as an essential component of resuscita- tion training for acute care providers. Studies show that resuscitation teams with 1 or more team members trained in ACLS have better patient outcomes.

Willingness to Perform Bystander CPR

2020 (New): It is reasonable to increase bystander willingness to perform
CPR through CPR training, mass CPR training, CPR awareness initiatives, and promotion of Hands-Only CPR.

Why: Prompt delivery of bystander CPR doubles a victim’s chances of survival from cardiac arrest. CPR training, mass CPR training, CPR awareness initiatives, and promotion of Hands-Only CPR are all associated with increased rates of bystander CPR.

  

Why: Deaths from opioid overdose in the United States have more than doubled in the past decade. Multiple studies have found that targeted resuscita-

tion training for opioid users and their families and friends is associated with higher rates of naloxone administration in witnessed overdoses.

 

Disparities in Education

2020 (New): It is recommended to target and tailor layperson CPR training to speci c racial and ethnic populations and neighborhoods in the United States.

2020 (New): It is reasonable to address barriers to bystander CPR for female victims through educational training and public awareness e orts.

Why: Communities with low socio- economic status and those with predominantly Black and Hispanic populations have lower rates of by-

    

eccguidelines.heart.org 27

Systems of Care

Survival after cardiac arrest requires an integrated system of people, training, equipment, and organizations. Willing bystanders, property owners who maintain AEDs, emergency service telecommunicators, and BLS and ALS providers working within EMS systems all contribute to successful resuscita- tion from OHCA. Within hospitals, the work of physicians, nurses, respirato- ry therapists, pharmacists, and other professionals supports resuscitation outcomes.

Successful resuscitation also depends on the contributions
of equipment manufacturers, pharmaceutical companies, resuscitation instructors, guidelines developers, and many others. Long- term survivorship requires support from family and professional caregivers, including experts in cognitive, physical, and psychological rehabilitation and recovery. A systems-wide commitment to quality improvement at every

level of care is essential to achieving successful outcomes.

Summary of Key Issues

and Major Changes

• Recovery continues long after the initial hospitalization and is a critical component of the resuscitation Chains of Survival.

• E orts to support the ability and willingness of the members of the general public to perform CPR and use an AED improve resuscitation outcomes in communities.

• Novel methods to use mobile phone technology to alert trained lay rescuers of events that require
CPR are promising and deserve more study.

• Emergency system telecommunica- tors can instruct bystanders to per- form hands-only CPR for adults and children. The No-No-Go framework is e ective.

• Early warning scoring systems and rapid response teams can prevent cardiac arrest in both pediatric and adult hospitals, but the literature

is too varied to understand what components of these systems are associated with bene t.

• Cognitive aids may improve resuscitation performance by untrained laypersons, but in simulation settings, their use delays the start of CPR. More development and study are needed before these systems can be fully endorsed.

• Surprisingly little is known about the e ect of cognitive aids on the performance of EMS or hospital- based resuscitation teams.

• Although specialized cardiac arrest centers o er protocols and technology not available at all hospitals, the available literature about their impact on resuscitation outcomes is mixed.

• Team feedback matters. Structured debrie ng protocols improve the performance of resuscitation teams in subsequent resuscitation.

• System-wide feedback matters. Implementing structured data collection and review improves resuscitation processes and survival both inside and outside the hospital.

Major New and Updated Recommendations

Using Mobile Devices to Summon Rescuers

New (2020): The use of mobile phone technology by emergency dispatch systems to alert willing bystanders to nearby events that may require CPR or AED use is reasonable.

Why: Despite the recognized role of lay rst responders in improving OHCA outcomes, most communities experi- ence low rates of bystander CPR and AED use. A recent ILCOR systematic review found that noti cation of lay

rescuers via a smartphone app or
text message alert is associated with shorter bystander response times, higher bystander CPR rates, shorter time to de brillation, and higher rates of survival to hospital discharge for people who experience OHCA. The di erences in clinical outcomes were seen only
in the observational data. The use of mobile phone technology has yet to be studied in a North American setting, but the suggestion of bene t in other coun- tries makes this a high priority for future research, including the impact of these alerts on cardiac arrest outcomes in diverse patient, community, and geo- graphic contexts.

Data Registries to Improve System Performance

New (2020): It is reasonable for organiza- tions that treat cardiac arrest patients to collect processes-of-care data and outcomes.

Why: Many industries, including health- care, collect and assess performance data to measure quality and identify opportunities for improvement. This can be done at the local, regional, or national level through participation in data registries that collect informa- tion on processes of care (eg, CPR performance data, de brillation times, adherence to guidelines) and outcomes of care (eg, ROSC, survival) associated with cardiac arrest.

Three such initiatives are the AHA’s Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry (for IHCA), the AHA Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival registry (for OHCA), and the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Epistry (for OHCA), and many regional databases exist. A 2020 ILCOR systematic review found that most studies assessing the impact of data registries, with or without public reporting, demonstrate improvement in cardiac arrest survival in organizations and communities that participated in cardiac arrest registries.

    

28 American Heart Association

References

1. Merchant RM, Topjian AA, Panchal AR, et al. Part 1: executive summary: 2020 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2020;142(suppl 2):In press.

2. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2020;142(suppl 1):In press.

3. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation. 2020:In press.

4. Morley P, Atkins D, Finn JM, et al. 2: Evidence-evaluation process and management of potential con icts of interest: 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation. 2020;142(suppl 1):In press.

5. Magid DJ, Aziz K, Cheng A, et al. Part 2: evidence evaluation and guidelines development: 2020 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2020;142(suppl 2):In press.

6. Sawyer KN, Camp-Rogers TR, Kotini-Shah P, et al; for the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Genomic and Precision Medicine; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; and Stroke Council. Sudden cardiac arrest survivorship: a scienti c statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020;141:e654-e685. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000747

7. Jeejeebhoy FM, Zelop CM, Lipman S, et al; for the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation, Council on Cardiovascular Diseases in the Young, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Cardiac arrest in pregnancy: a scienti c statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;132(18):1747-1773. doi: 10.1161/ CIR.0000000000000300

8. Berg RA, Sutton RM, Reeder RW, et al; for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Intensive Care Quality of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation Investigators. Association between diastolic blood pressure during pediatric in- hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival. Circulation. 2018;137(17):1784-1795. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032270

9. Wilson N, Kariisa M, Seth P, Smith H IV, Davis NL. Drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths—United States, 2017-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(11):290-297. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6911a4

10. Dezfulian, et al. Opioid-associated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: distinctive clinical features and implications for healthcare and public responses: a scienti c statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020:In press.

11. Maron BJ, Udelson JE, Bonow RO, et al. Eligibility and disquali cation recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities: task force 3: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and other cardiomyopathies, and myocarditis: a scienti c statement from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology. Circulation. 2015;132(22):e273-e280. doi: 10.1161/ cir.0000000000000239

12. Maron BJ, Doerer JJ, Haas TS, Tierney DM, Mueller FO. Sudden deaths in young competitive athletes: analysis of 1866 deaths in the United States, 1980-2006. Circulation. 2009;119(8):1085-1092. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.804617

13. Fung G, Luo H, Qiu Y, Yang D, McManus B. Myocarditis. Circ Res. 2016;118(3):496-514. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306573

14. Marino BS, Tabbutt S, MacLaren G, et al; for the American Heart Association Congenital Cardiac Defects Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants and children with cardiac disease: a scienti c statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018;137(22):e691-e782. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000524

15. Oster ME, Lee KA, Honein MA, Riehle-Colarusso T, Shin M, Correa A. Temporal trends in survival among infants with critical congenital heart defects. Pediatrics. 2013;131(5):e1502-e1508. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-3435

16. Abman SH, Hansmann G, Archer SL, et al; for the American Heart Association Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; and the American Thoracic Society. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension: guidelines from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society. Circulation. 2015;132(21):2037-2099. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000329

eccguidelines.heart.org 29

30 American Heart Association

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