Tag Archives: neurology/psychiatry

The side effect

“You see, I put the ampicillin next to the Tylenol—a packet of pink pills, a packet of blue pills. The colors have to look good together. If my display doesn’t catch the eye, no one will buy anything.”Aristil Bonord adjusts the blue plastic bucket on his right shoulder as he speaks. Inside it, a steeple […]

coma

Coma is unresponsiveness from which the patient cannot be aroused. Impaired consciousness refers to similar, less severe disturbances of consciousness; these disturbances are not considered coma. The mechanism for coma or impaired consciousness involves dysfunction of both cerebral hemispheres or of the reticular activating system (also known as the ascending arousal system). Causes may be […]

psp

Progressive supranuclear palsy is a rare, degenerative CNS disorder causing loss of voluntary eye movements, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity with progressive axial dystonia, pseudobulbar palsy, and dementia. The cause of progressive supranuclear palsy is unknown. Neurons in the basal ganglia and brain stem degenerate; neurofibrillary tangles containing an abnormally phosphorylated tau protein are also present. Multiple […]

apraxia

Apraxia is inability to execute purposeful, previously learned motor tasks, despite physical ability and willingness, as a result of brain damage. Diagnosis is clinical, often including neuropsychologic testing, with brain imaging (eg, CT, MRI) to identify cause. Prognosis depends on the cause and extent of damage and patient age. There is no specific treatment, but […]

aphasia

Aphasia is language dysfunction that may involve impaired comprehension or expression of words or nonverbal equivalents of words. It results from dysfunction of the language centers in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia or of the white matter pathways that connect them. Diagnosis is clinical, often including neuropsychologic testing, with brain imaging (CT, MRI) to […]

amnesia

Amnesia is partial or total inability to recall past experiences. It may result from traumatic brain injury, degeneration, metabolic disorders, seizure disorders, or psychologic disturbances. Diagnosis is clinical but often includes neuropsychologic testing and brain imaging (eg, CT, MRI). Treatment is directed at the cause. Processing of memories involves registration (taking in new information), encoding […]

intracranial tumors

Intracranial tumors may involve the brain or other structures (eg, cranial nerves, meninges). The tumors usually develop during early or middle adulthood but may develop at any age; they are becoming more common among the elderly. Brain tumors are found in about 2% of routine autopsies. Some tumors are benign, but because the cranial vault […]

rehabilitation

Rehabilitation aims to facilitate recovery from loss of function. Loss may be due to fracture, amputation, stroke or another neurologic disorder, arthritis, cardiac impairment, or prolonged deconditioning (eg, after some disorders and surgical procedures). Rehabilitation may involve physical, occupational, and speech therapy; psychologic counseling; and social services. For some patients, the goal is complete recovery […]

exercise

Exercise stimulates tissue change and adaptation (eg, increase in muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular endurance), whereas rest and recovery allow such change and adaptation to occur. Recovery from exercise is as important as the exercise stimulus. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood of medical illness, decreases the incidence of the major causes of death, and […]

foreign travel

About 1 in 30 people traveling abroad requires emergency care. Illness in a foreign country may involve significant difficulties. Many insurance plans, including Medicare, are not valid in foreign countries; overseas hospitals often require a substantial cash deposit for nonresidents, regardless of insurance. Travel insurance plans, including some that arrange for emergency evacuation, are available […]

air travel

Air travel can cause or worsen certain medical problems; some are considered a contraindication to flight (see Table 1: Medical Aspects of Travel: Contraindications to Flying), and others may cause discomfort. Serious complications are rare. During a flight, any health care practitioner among the passengers may be asked to help fellow passengers who become ill. […]

exercise in elderly

At least 75% of people age > 65 yr do not exercise at recommended levels despite the known health benefits of exercise Longer survival Improved quality of life (eg, endurance, strength, mood, flexibility, cognitive function) Furthermore, many elderly people are not aware of how hard to exercise and also do not appreciate how much exercise […]

suicide

Suicidal behavior includes 3 types of self-destructive acts: completed suicide, attempted suicide, and suicide gestures. Thoughts and plans about suicide are referred to as suicide ideation. Completed suicide is a suicidal act that results in death. Attempted suicide is an act intended to be self-lethal, but one that does not result in death. Frequently, suicide […]

gad

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive, almost daily anxiety and worry for ≥ 6 mo about many activities or events. The cause is unknown, although it commonly coexists in people who have alcohol abuse, major depression, or panic disorder. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination. Treatment is psychotherapy, drug therapy, or […]

anxiety

Everyone periodically experiences fear and anxiety. Fear is an emotional, physical, and behavioral response to an immediately recognizable external threat (eg, an intruder, a car spinning on ice). Anxiety is a distressing, unpleasant emotional state of nervousness and uneasiness; its causes are less clear. Anxiety is less tied to the exact timing of a threat; […]

hyponatremia

_ _ _ Hyponatremia is decrease in serum Na concentration < 136 mEq/L caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, and renal disease. Clinical manifestations are primarily neurologic (due to an osmotic shift of water into brain cells causing edema), especially in acute hyponatremia, and […]

drug related problems in elderly

Drug-related problems include Adverse effects Ineffectiveness Adverse drug effects are effects that are unwanted, uncomfortable, or dangerous. Common examples are oversedation, confusion, hallucinations, falls, and bleeding. Among ambulatory people ≥ 65, adverse drug effects occur at a rate of about 50 events per 1000 person-years. Hospitalization rates due to adverse drug effects are 4 times […]

sleep and wake fullness disorder

The most commonly reported sleep-related symptoms are insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia is difficulty falling or staying asleep or a sensation of unrefreshing sleep. EDS is the tendency to fall asleep during normal waking hours. Insomnia and EDS are not disorders themselves but are symptoms of various sleep-related disorders. Parasomnias are abnormal sleep-related […]

parkinsons disease

Parkinson’s disease is an idiopathic, slowly progressive, degenerative CNS disorder characterized by resting tremor, muscular rigidity, slow and decreased movement, and postural instability. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is with levodopa plus carbidopa, other drugs, and, for refractory symptoms, surgery. Parkinson’s disease affects about 0.4% of people > 40 yr, 1% of people ≥ 65 yr, […]

neurological procedures

Diagnostic procedures should not be used for preliminary screening, except perhaps in emergencies when a complete neurologic evaluation is impossible. Evidence uncovered during the history and physical examination should guide testing. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap): Lumbar puncture is used to evaluate intracranial pressure and CSF composition (see Table 1: Approach to the Neurologic Patient: Cerebrospinal […]

approach to neurological patient

Patients with neurologic symptoms are approached in a stepwise manner termed the neurologic method, which consists of the following: Identifying the anatomic location of the lesion or lesions causing symptoms Identifying the pathophysiology involved Generating a differential diagnosis Selecting specific, appropriate tests Identifying the anatomy and pathophysiology of the lesion through careful history taking and […]

muscle cramps

A muscle cramp (charley horse) is a sudden, brief, involuntary, painful contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Cramps commonly occur in healthy people (usually middle-aged and elderly people), sometimes during rest, but particularly during or after exercise or at night (including during sleep—see Sleep and Wakefulness Disorders: Sleep-related leg cramps). Leg cramps at […]

numbness

“Numbness” can be used by patients to describe various symptoms, including loss of sensation, abnormal sensations, and weakness or paralysis. However, numbness is actually loss of sensation, either partial (hypesthesia) or complete (anesthesia). Numbness may involve the 3 major sensory modalities—light touch, pain and temperature sensation, and position and vibration sensation—to the same or different […]

weakness

Weakness is one of the most common reasons patients present to primary care clinicians. Weakness is loss of muscle strength, although many patients also use the term when they feel generally fatigued or have functional limitations (eg, due to pain or limited joint motion) even though muscle strength is normal. Weakness may affect a few […]

memory loss

Memory loss is a common complaint in the primary care setting. It is particularly common among the elderly but also may be reported by younger people. Sometimes family members rather than the patient report the memory loss (typically in an elderly person, often one with dementia). Clinicians and patients are often concerned that the memory […]

coma

Overview of Coma and Impaired Consciousness Share This Coma is unresponsiveness from which the patient cannot be aroused. Impaired consciousness refers to similar, less severe disturbances of consciousness; these disturbances are not considered coma. The mechanism for coma or impaired consciousness involves dysfunction of both cerebral hemispheres or of the reticular activating system (also known […]

subarachnoid heamorrage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is sudden bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The most common cause of spontaneous bleeding is a ruptured aneurysm. Symptoms include sudden, severe headache, usually with loss or impairment of consciousness. Secondary vasospasm (causing focal brain ischemia), meningismus, and hydrocephalus (causing persistent headache and obtundation) are common. Diagnosis is by CT or MRI; if […]

intracerebral haemorrage

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Intracerebral Hemorrhage Share This Intracerebral hemorrhage is focal bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain parenchyma. The cause is usually hypertension. Typical symptoms include focal neurologic deficits, often with abrupt onset of headache, nausea, and impairment of consciousness. Diagnosis is by CT or MRI. Treatment […]

ischemic stroke

Ischemic Stroke Share This Ischemic stroke is sudden neurologic deficits that result from focal cerebral ischemia associated with permanent brain infarction (eg, positive diffusion-weighted MRI). Common causes are (from most to least common) nonthrombotic occlusion of small, deep cortical arteries (lacunar infarction); cardiogenic embolism; arterial thrombosis that decreases cerebral blood flow; and artery-to-artery embolism. Diagnosis […]

stroke

Overview of Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident) Share This Strokes are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving sudden, focal interruption of cerebral blood flow that causes neurologic deficit. Strokes can be ischemic (80%), typically resulting from thrombosis or embolism, or hemorrhagic (20%), resulting from vascular rupture (eg, subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage). Stroke symptoms lasting < 1 h […]

migraine

Migraine is an episodic primary headache disorder. Symptoms typically last 4 to 72 h and may be severe. Pain is often unilateral, throbbing, worse with exertion, and accompanied by symptoms such as nausea and sensitivity to light, sound, or odors. Auras occur in about 25% of patients, usually just before but sometimes after the headache. […]

headaches

Headache is pain in any part of the head, including the scalp, face (including the orbitotemporal area), and interior of the head. Headache is one of the most common reasons patients seek medical attention. Pathophysiology Headache is due to activation of pain-sensitive structures in or around the brain, skull, face, sinuses, or teeth. Etiology Headache […]

dementia

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is severe enough to affect daily functioning.[2] Other common symptoms include emotional problems, difficulties with language, and a decrease in motivation.[2][3] Consciousness is usually not affected.[11] A diagnosis of dementia requires a change from a person’s usual mental functioning and a greater decline […]

schizoaffective disorder

Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness. It includes a mix of the symptoms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. What is the cause? The cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. It seems to occur more in some families, and stress may trigger symptoms. About one person in 100 has schizoaffective disorder. What are the symptoms? […]

interview-dr harsh mahajan

so far as a doctor? I belong to Delhi as I was born here. My parents came from Punjab and settled in Delhi. I went to Delhi Public School, Mathura Road. After that I went to Maulana Azad Medical College and did my MBBS from there. After completing my MBBS, I did MD in radio […]

cognitive therapy

What is cognitive therapy? Cognitive therapy is a very active and direct type of therapy that works by changing negative thoughts that cause emotional distress. Although there are many kinds of cognitive therapy that go by different names, they all focus on your thoughts and beliefs as a primary cause of your symptoms. This type […]

snacks for diabetics

Snacks help prevent low blood sugar levels and provide energy between meals. Typical snacks contain 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrate. Below are some low-fat snack ideas to try. Snacks containing about 15 grams of carbohydrate: 1 medium apple or orange 18 small pretzel twists 2 popcorn cakes 1/2 small bagel with fat-free cream cheese […]

dr.pk gupta

deemagclinic

What is kleptomania?

What is kleptomania? Kleptomania is an impulse disorder. People who have this disorder are unable to resist an urge to steal, even though they know it is harmful. The urge makes them anxious, tense, or aroused. They may feel regret or guilt later. Normally, people who steal take something because it is worth money or […]

bipolar disorders in pregnancy,to treat or not to treat

salvatore_gentile@alice.it The real question is how to treat most effectively In a linked research paper (doi:10.1136/bmj.e7085), Bodén and colleagues analysed the risks for the fetus associated with treated and untreated bipolar disorder during pregnancy.1 They found that women with untreated bipolar disorder were at increased risk of producing offspring with microcephaly and neonatal hypoglycaemia, and […]

problem solving!

What are problems? A problem is the difference between what you have and what you want. You may want to get something, get rid of something, avoid something, or deal with something. Everyone has problems, no matter who they are or what they do. Problems don’t all go away by themselves, and they be more […]

living with mentally ill patient

Mental illness is a health condition that involves the brain. Mental illness causes problems with thinking, mood, or behavior that interfere with daily life and cause distress. If you are a family member or friend of someone who is mentally ill, you have probably been suffering too. You are likely to feel worried, frustrated, confused, […]

sibling rivalry

Most siblings argue and quarrel occasionally. They fight over possessions, space on the sofa, time in the bathroom, or the last donut. On most days, though, siblings are friends and companions instead of rivals and competitors. The ambivalence between love and hate is present in all close relationships. This ambivalence becomes more intense in siblings […]

Aging and sex

Aging brings changes in many aspects of life. There are emotional, social, and physical changes and diseases that may occur in later life. These changes also affect sexuality. Social and Family Changes Social and family changes can affect sexual function. As we age, we may have to adjust goals and desires. Goals set earlier in […]

Why is calcium so important?

Why is calcium so important? Calcium is the main mineral that strengthens bones. Getting enough calcium is important for everyone, but for children and teens, it is critical. These are the years that bones are growing fast and calcium is being stored in the bone to make them strong. Most of the stored calcium for […]

dementia

Regional volumetric analysis reveals distribution of neurofibrillary tangles Background Three subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been pathologically defined on the basis of the distribution of neurofibrillary tangles: typical AD, hippocampal-sparing AD, and limbic-predominant AD. Compared with typical AD, hippocampal-sparing AD has more neurofibrillary tangles in the cortex and fewer in the hippocampus, whereas the […]

debate on new mental health bill

Sagarika Ghose: Hi there. We are focusing in this show on a subject that concerns us all, mental illness. Currently 130 million Indians are diagnosed with some form of mental illness, including depression, bipolarity and schizophrenia, 90 per cent of these cases remain untreated. The government has come up with new Mental Health Bill 2012. […]

alternate therapies to manage pain.

There are many ways to help manage pain. Medicine is one way, but other methods can be used along with medicine. Sometimes these other approaches may be used without medicine to control pain. Many can be used any place or any time. Some do not cost anything. Acupuncture. Acupuncture is a procedure in which a […]

Medical Profession – Noble or Ignoble?

Medical Profession – Noble or Ignoble? Thursday, October 18, 2012 Dr O P Yadava CEO & Chief Cardiac Surgeon National Heart Institute, New Delhi Much brouhaha has lately been raised over corruption in society in general and in medicine in specific. Few months back, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on health looked at the irregularities in […]