Daily Archives: 19/12/2012

coma

Overview of Coma and Impaired Consciousness Share This Coma is unresponsiveness from which the patient cannot be aroused. Impaired consciousness refers to similar, less severe disturbances of consciousness; these disturbances are not considered coma. The mechanism for coma or impaired consciousness involves dysfunction of both cerebral hemispheres or of the reticular activating system (also known […]

subarachnoid heamorrage

Subarachnoid hemorrhage is sudden bleeding into the subarachnoid space. The most common cause of spontaneous bleeding is a ruptured aneurysm. Symptoms include sudden, severe headache, usually with loss or impairment of consciousness. Secondary vasospasm (causing focal brain ischemia), meningismus, and hydrocephalus (causing persistent headache and obtundation) are common. Diagnosis is by CT or MRI; if […]

intracerebral haemorrage

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Intracerebral Hemorrhage Share This Intracerebral hemorrhage is focal bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain parenchyma. The cause is usually hypertension. Typical symptoms include focal neurologic deficits, often with abrupt onset of headache, nausea, and impairment of consciousness. Diagnosis is by CT or MRI. Treatment […]

ischemic stroke

Ischemic Stroke Share This Ischemic stroke is sudden neurologic deficits that result from focal cerebral ischemia associated with permanent brain infarction (eg, positive diffusion-weighted MRI). Common causes are (from most to least common) nonthrombotic occlusion of small, deep cortical arteries (lacunar infarction); cardiogenic embolism; arterial thrombosis that decreases cerebral blood flow; and artery-to-artery embolism. Diagnosis […]

stroke

Overview of Stroke (Cerebrovascular Accident) Share This Strokes are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving sudden, focal interruption of cerebral blood flow that causes neurologic deficit. Strokes can be ischemic (80%), typically resulting from thrombosis or embolism, or hemorrhagic (20%), resulting from vascular rupture (eg, subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage). Stroke symptoms lasting < 1 h […]

migraine

Migraine is an episodic primary headache disorder. Symptoms typically last 4 to 72 h and may be severe. Pain is often unilateral, throbbing, worse with exertion, and accompanied by symptoms such as nausea and sensitivity to light, sound, or odors. Auras occur in about 25% of patients, usually just before but sometimes after the headache. […]

headaches

Headache is pain in any part of the head, including the scalp, face (including the orbitotemporal area), and interior of the head. Headache is one of the most common reasons patients seek medical attention. Pathophysiology Headache is due to activation of pain-sensitive structures in or around the brain, skull, face, sinuses, or teeth. Etiology Headache […]

dementia

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is severe enough to affect daily functioning.[2] Other common symptoms include emotional problems, difficulties with language, and a decrease in motivation.[2][3] Consciousness is usually not affected.[11] A diagnosis of dementia requires a change from a person’s usual mental functioning and a greater decline […]

epilepsy

Seizure Disorders Share This (See also Neurologic Disorders in Children: Febrile Seizures and see also Neurologic Disorders in Children: Neonatal Seizure Disorders.) A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge that occurs within the brain’s cortical gray matter and transiently interrupts normal brain function. A seizure typically causes altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements, […]