Daily Archives: 29/12/2012

falls in elderly

_ Falls in the Elderly Share This A fall results in a person coming to rest on the ground or another lower level; sometimes a body part strikes against an object that breaks the fall. Typically, events caused by acute disorders (eg, stroke, seizure) or overwhelming environmental hazards (eg, being struck by a moving object) […]

hypothyroidism

_ _ _ _ Hypothyroidism (Myxedema) Share This view related topics in this manual Hypothyroidism is thyroid hormone deficiency. It is diagnosed by clinical features such as a typical facies, hoarse slow speech, and dry skin and by low levels of thyroid hormones. Management includes treatment of the cause and administration of thyroxine. Hypothyroidism occurs […]

erectile dysfunction

_ _ Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to attain or sustain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Most erectile dysfunction is related to vascular, neurologic, psychologic, and hormonal disorders; drug use can also be a cause. Evaluation typically includes screening for underlying disorders and measuring testosterone levels. Treatment options include oral phosphodiesterase inhibitors or […]

drug interaction

Drug interactions are changes in a drug’s effects due to recent or concurrent use of another drug or drugs (drug-drug interactions) or due to ingestion of food (drug-nutrient interactions—see Nutrition: General Considerations: Nutrient-Drug Interactions). A drug interaction may increase or decrease the effects of one or both drugs. Clinically significant interactions are often predictable and […]

lipids

Lipids are fats that are either absorbed from food or synthesized by the liver. Triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol contribute most to disease, although all lipids are physiologically important. The primary function of TGs is to store energy in adipocytes and muscle cells; cholesterol is a ubiquitous constituent of cell membranes, steroids, bile acids, and signaling […]

hypoglycemia

Share This Hypoglycemia unrelated to exogenous insulin therapy is an uncommon clinical syndrome characterized by low plasma glucose level, symptomatic sympathetic nervous system stimulation, and CNS dysfunction. Many drugs and disorders cause it. Diagnosis requires blood tests done at the time of symptoms or during a 72-h fast. Treatment is provision of glucose combined with […]

Diabetes Mellitus

_ _ _ Diabetes mellitus (DM) is impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia. Early symptoms are related to hyperglycemia and include polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria. Later complications include vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and predisposition to infection. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma glucose. Treatment is diet, exercise, and drugs […]

hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is decrease in serum Na concentration < 136 mEq/L caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, and renal disease. Clinical manifestations are primarily neurologic (due to an osmotic shift of water into brain cells causing edema), especially in acute hyponatremia, and include headache, confusion, […]

stroke rehabilitation

Rehabilitation after stroke aims to preserve or improve range of motion, muscle strength, bowel and bladder function, and functional and cognitive abilities. Specific programs are based on the patient’s social situation (eg, prospects of returning to home or work), ability to participate in a rehabilitation program supervised by nurses and therapists, learning ability, motivation, and […]

clinical use of genetics

Genetics has advanced understanding of many disorders, sometimes allowing them to be reclassified. For example, classification of many spinocerebellar ataxias has been changed from one based on clinical criteria to one based on genetic criteria (see Movement and Cerebellar Disorders: Hereditary ataxias). The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database is a searchable catalog of […]