Daily Archives: 03/01/2016

dara shikoh majma ul behrain

Dara Shikuh: Majma‘ ul-Bahrain or the Mingling of the Two Oceans [of Islam and Hinduism] Introduction: Dara Shikoh (1615-1659) was the eldest son the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. He was educated as heir apparent but developed since his youth a strong interest in esoteric aspects of Islam and in mysticism which brought him since his […]

Biruni’s Description of the Caste System in the 11th Century

Introduction: Al-Biruni (Alberuni, A.D. 973-1048) was one of the greatest universal geniuses of his age. Born in Khwarazm (today Uzbekistan), he wrote more than hundred books in various disciplines of science and humanities. In 1017, after the conquest of Khwarazm by Mahmud he was taken as a highly honoured “state prisoner” to Ghazna where he […]