Suicide data

Each suicide is a personal tragedy that prematurely takes the life of an individual and has a continuing ripple effect, dramatically affecting the lives of families, friends and communities. Every year, more than 1,00,000 people commit suicide in our country. There are various causes of suicides like professional/career problems, sense of isolation, abuse, violence, family problems, mental disorders, addiction to alcohol, financial loss, chronic pain etc. NCRB collects data on suicides from police recorded suicide cases.

Rate of suicides has been calculated using projected population for the non-census years whereas for the census year 2011, the population of the Population Census 2011 was used.

A total of 1,34,516 suicides were reported in the country during 2018 showing an increase of 3.6% in comparison to 2017 and the rate of suicides has increased by 0.3 during 2018 over 2017. [Table2 (A)] The incidence and rate of suicides during 2008-2018 is presented in Table-2.1.

CHAPTER – 2 SUICIDES IN INDIA

Table – 2 (A)
Number of Suicides, Growth of Population and Rate of Suicides during 2014 – 2018

Sl. No.

(1)

1

2

3

4

5

Year

(2)

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

Total Number of Suicides

(3)

1,31,666 1,33,623 1,31,008 1,29,887 1,34,516

Mid-Year Projected Population*
(in Lakh)+

(4)

12,440.4 12,591.1 12,739.9

13091.6# 13233.8#

Rate of Suicides*** (Col.3/Col.4)

(5)

10.6 10.6 10.3

9.9 10.2

* Source: # Source:

The Registrar General of India.
Report of the Technical Group on Population Projections (November, 2019), National Commission on Population, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

+ One Lakh = 0.1 Million
*** Rate of Suicides = Incidence of suicides per one lakh (1,00,000) of population.  As per data provided by States/UTs.

 

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[195]

Number and Percentage Share of Suicides in States/UTs

The State/UT and City wise information on the incidents of suicides, its percentage share in total suicides and rate of suicides during the year are presented in Table–2.2.

Majority of suicides were reported in Maharashtra (17,972) followed by 13,896 suicides in Tamil Nadu, 13,255 suicides in West Bengal, 11,775 suicides in Madhya Pradesh and 11,561 suicides in Karnataka accounting for 13.4%, 10.3%, 9.9%, 8.8% and 8.6% of total suicides respectively. These 5 States together accounted for 50.9% of the total suicides reported in the country. The remaining 49.1% suicides were reported in

the remaining 24 States and 7 UTs. Uttar Pradesh, the most populous State (16.9% share of country population) has reported comparatively lower percentage share of suicidal deaths, accounting for only 3.6% of the total suicides reported in the country.

The States which have witnessed significantly higher number of suicidal deaths during the year 2016 to 2018 are presented in the Table–2(B). These States have continuously accounted for about 7.0% or more of the total suicides reported in the country from 2016 to 2018.

Figure – 2.1
State/UT wise Major Percentage Share of Suicides in States during 2018

Andhra Pradesh 4.0%

Chhattisgarh 5.2%

Gujarat 5.8%

Telangana 5.8% Kerala 6.1%

Karnataka 8.6%

Madhya Pradesh 8.8%

Uttar Pradesh 3.6%

  

Other States/UTs 18.6%

West Bengal 9.9%

Maharashtra 13.4%

Tamil Nadu 10.3%

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

Note: OTHER STATES/UTs include Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Odisha, Uttarakhand, A & N Island, Chandigarh, D & N Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018 [196]

STATE/UT – WISE TOTAL NUMBER OF SUICIDES DURING 2018

 

Number of Suicides

upto 50 51 to 300

301 to 2000 2001 to 10000 Above 10000

     

Map Powered by DevInfo, UNICEF

 As per data provided by States/UTs.
Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018 [197]

 

Table – 2 (B)
States with Higher Percentage Share of Suicides during 2016 to 2018

  

Sl. No.

Year

       

2016

         

1

Maharashtra
Tamil Nadu
West Bengal
Karnataka
Madhya Pradesh (8.0%)

2017

Maharashtra Tamil Nadu West Bengal Madhya Pradesh

(13.6%) (11.1%) (9.2%)

(9.1%) (9.0%)

2018

Maharashtra Tamil Nadu West Bengal Madhya Pradesh

Karnataka

(13.4%) (10.3%) (9.9%)

(8.8%) (8.6%)

2

3

4

Karnataka

Delhi, which is the most-populous UT, has reported the highest number of suicides (2,526) among UTs, followed by Puducherry (500). Seven UTs together accounted for 2.6% of total suicides in the country. A total of 21,408 suicides were reported in the 53 mega cities of the country during the 2018.

The States and UTs which have reported significant percentage increase in suicides in 2018 over 2017 were Arunachal Pradesh (48.3%), Chandigarh (41.6%), D & N Haveli (34.7%), Himachal Pradesh (28.5%), Uttarakhand (27.2%) and Manipur (20.9%) while highest percentage decrease was reported in Daman & Diu (14.6%), Puducherry

(13.9%), Mizoram (13.2%), Sikkim (7.0%) and Goa (6.2%) [Table–2.3].

Rate of Suicides — Trend in States/UTs

Rate of suicides i.e. the number of suicides per one lakh population, has been widely accepted as a standard yardstick for comparison. All India rate of suicides was 10.2 during the year 2018. A & N Islands reported the highest rate of suicide (41.0) followed by Puducherry (33.8), Sikkim (30.2), Chhattisgarh (24.7) and Kerala (23.5). The details of States/UTs which have recorded higher rate of suicides during 2016 to 2018 are given in Table–2(C).

5

(13.1%) (11.6%) (10.3%) (8.2%)

   

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

Figure – 2.2

60.0 40.0 20.0

0.0 -20.0 -40.0 -60.0 -80.0

State/UT-wise Percentage Variation in Suicides during 2018 over 2017

                                   

States / UTs

 As per data provided by States/UTs. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[198]

 

ANDHRA PRADESH ARUNACHAL PRADESH ASSAM BIHAR CHHATTISGARH GOA GUJARAT HARYANA HIMACHAL PRADESH JAMMU & KASHMIR JHARKHAND KARNATAKA KERALA MADHYA PRADESH MAHARASHTRA MANIPUR MEGHALAYA MIZORAM NAGALAND ODISHA PUNJAB RAJASTHAN SIKKIM TAMIL NADU TELANGANA TRIPURA UTTAR PRADESH UTTARAKHAND WEST BENGAL A & NISLANDS CHANDIGARH D & N HAVELI DAMAN & DIU DELHI (UT) LAKSHADWEEP PUDUCHERRY

-0.7

Percentage Variation

-13.2

-14.6

-13.9

-6.2
5.1

-7.0 -3.9

-1.3
4.7

0.0 1.8

4.5
14.2

9.1 2.2

3.0 4.0

2.6 0.0

11.6

4.7
28.5

15.0 8.5

20.9 14.5

15.7 12.9

9.6
27.2

10.3 18.0

41.6 34.7

48.3

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

Figure – 2.3

A & N ISLANDS PUDUCHERRY SIKKIM CHHATTISGARH KERALA TELANGANA D & N HAVELI TAMIL NADU TRIPURA KARNATAKA GOA MEGHALAYA MAHARASHTRA MADHYA PRADESH CHANDIGARH WEST BENGAL DELHI (UT) HARYANA GUJARAT ODISHA HIMACHAL PRADESH ANDHRA PRADESH ARUNACHAL PRADESH DAMAN & DIU ASSAM PUNJAB RAJASTHAN LAKSHADWEEP UTTARAKHAND JHARKHAND MIZORAM JAMMU & KASHMIR UTTAR PRADESH NAGALAND MANIPUR BIHAR

Rate of Suicides in States/UTs during 2018

30.2 24.7

23.5 21.2

19.1 18.4 18.2

17.7 16.7

16.0 14.8

14.5 13.7

13.7 12.9

12.5 11.6

10.5

10.2

10.2 8.9

8.8 7.0

5.8

5.7 4.3

3.8 3.6

2.5 2.5 2.2

1.7

1.7 0.4

41.0 33.8

                           

National Average 10.2

      

0.0 10.0 20.0

30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Rate

  

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[199]

States / UTs

STATE/UT – WISE SUICIDE RATE DURING 2018

 

Note:
Suicide Rate means Number of Suicides per One Lakh population.

Suicide Rate
All India Average 10.2

upto 2 3 to 5

6 to 10 11 to 20 Above 20

     

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

Map Powered by DevInfo, UNICEF

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018 [200]

Table – 2 (C)
States/UTs with Higher Suicide Rate during 2016 to 2018

2017 2018

Year

2016

Sikkim 40.5

Puducherry 33.3

A & N Islands 26.4

Chhattisgarh 25.8

Telangana 24.5

National Rate (10.3)

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

 

Causes of Suicides ‘Love

‘Family Problems’ and ‘Illness’ were the major causes of suicides which accounted for 30.4% and 17.7% of total suicides respectively during 2018. ‘Marriage Related Issues’ (6.2%), ‘Drug Abuse/Addiction’ (5.3%)

‘Bankruptcy or

Puducherry 40.1

A & N Islands 35.6

Sikkim 32.9

Kerala 22.6

Chhattisgarh 22.5

National Rate (9.9)

Affairs’ (4.0%),
Indebtedness’ (3.7%), ‘Failure in Examination’ and ‘Unemployment’ (2.0% each), ‘Professional/Career Problem’ (1.3%) and ‘Property Dispute’ (0.9%) were other causes of suicides [Table–2.4].

Figure – 2.4
Percentage Share of Various Causes of Suicides During 2018

A & N Islands 41.0 Puducherry 33.8 Sikkim 30.2 Kerala 23.5

Telangana 21.2

National Rate (10.2)

Fall in Social Reputation, 0.4%

Suspected/Illicit Relation , 0.5%

Death of Dear Person, 0.8%

Poverty, 0.9% Property Dispute, 0.9%

Professional/Career Problem, 1.3%

Unemployment, 2.0%

Failure in Examination, 2.0%

Bankruptcy or Indebtedness, 3.7%

Love Affairs, 4.0%

Impotency/Infertility, 0.2%

 

Other Causes, 12.7%

Family Problems, 30.4%

Illness , 17.7%

Causes Not Known, 11.0%

               

Marriage Related Issues, 6.2%

Drug Abuse/Alcoholic Addiction, 5.3%

  

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

* Figure of Suicides due to ideological causes/hero worshiping, physical abuse (rape etc.) and illegitimate pregnancy included along with Other Causes.

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[201]

State and UT wise and City wise details on various causes of suicides are presented in Table–2.5. The States/UTs which reported more than the All-India average share under the two major causes of suicides i.e. ‘Illness’ and ‘Family Problems’ are grouped in the Table–2(D).

Suicide Victims by Sex and Age Group

Age group wise distribution of suicides by causes during 2018 is presented in Table– 2(E). The overall male: female ratio of suicide

15 States/UTs have reported higher percentage share than the All India average in suicides due to ‘Illness’. Similarly, 17 States/UTs have reported higher share than the All India average in suicides committed due to ‘Family Problems’ during the year 2018.

Professional Status of Suicide Victims

Details on professional status of suicide victims are presented in Table–2.6. House- wives accounted for 54.1% of the total female victims (22,937 out of 42,391) and constitute

Table – 2 (D)
States & UTs Reporting Higher Share of Suicides due to Illness and Family Problems during 2018

2

Illness

Family Problems

  

All India % Share

      

17.7%

30.4%

 

Sl. No.

State/UT Suicides % Share

Sl. No.

           

1

Punjab 722 42.1 Sikkim 82 41.2 Lakshadweep 1 33.3

1

 

3

1610 30.3 150 30.0 46 28.0 3180 27.5 2122 25.8 60 23.4 1709 21.9 3034 21.8 697 19.7 3530 19.6 2279 19.4 Tripura 138 19.2

Andhra Pradesh Puducherry
A & N Islands Karnataka Kerala

Goa
Gujarat
Tamil Nadu Haryana Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh

2

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

11

10

11

12

12

13

13

14

14

15

15

16

17

State/UT Suicides

Manipur 32 Daman & Diu 21 Tripura 388 Chandigarh 84

% Share

61.5 60.0 53.9 52.5 46.3 39.0 38.6 37.9 35.6 33.8 33.7 33.0 31.8 31.5 31.2 31.0 30.9

       

Tamil Nadu Kerala
Uttar Pradesh Telangana Uttarakhand Maharashtra D & N Haveli Bihar

Odisha
Jammu & Kashmir Delhi (UT) Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan

6433

3213

1872

2972

150

6072

34

146

1460

104

787

3649

1339

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

victims for the year 2018 was 68.5:31.5, which remains same as compared to year 2017 (68.5:31.5). The proportion of female victims were more in ‘Marriage Related Issues’ specifically in ‘Dowry Related Issues’, and ‘Impotency/Infertility’. The age group (18 and above – below 30 years) and persons above 30 years – below 45 years of age were the most vulnerable groups resorting to suicides. These age groups accounted for 34.9% and 31.6% suicides respectively. ‘Family Problems’ (2,236), ‘Failure in Examination’ (1,529), ‘Love Affairs’ (1,131) and ‘Illness’ (932) were the main causes of suicides among children (below 18 years of age).

nearly 17.1% of total victims who committed suicides (22,937 out of 1,34,516) during 2018.

Government servants accounted for 1.3% (1,707 out of 1,34,516) of the total suicide victims as compared to 6.1% (8,246 out of 1,34,516) of total victims from Private Sector Enterprises. Employees from Public Sector Undertakings formed 1.5% (2,022 out of 1,34,516) of the total suicide victims, whereas students and un-employed victims accounted for 7.6% (10,159 victims) and 9.6% (12,936 victims) of total suicides respectively. Self- employed category accounted for 9.8% of total suicide victims (13,149 out of 1,34,516).

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[202]

A total of 10,349 persons involved in farming sector (consisting of 5,763 farmers/cultivators and 4,586 agricultural labourers) have committed suicides during 2018, accounting for 7.7% of total suicides victims (1,34,516) in the country. Out of 5,763 farmer/cultivator suicides, a total of 5,457 were male and 306 were female during 2018. Out of 4,586 suicides committed by

agricultural labourers during 2018, 4,071 were male and 515 were female.

Certain States/UTs namely, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Goa, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi UT, Lakshadweep and Puducherry reported zero suicides of Farmers/Cultivators as well as Agricultural Labourers.

Figure 2.5
Suicide Victims by Sex and Age Group during 2018

Figure 2.6
Percentage Distribution of Suicide Victims by Profession During 2018

  

60 years & above 45 and above – below 60 years 30 and above – below 45 years 18 and above – below 30 years

8049

19708 31024

2647 0 5274 0 11469 2

  

28894 below 18 years 4439

18009 4992

9 0

100%

     

0%
Male Female Transgender

50%

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

 

Retired Persons, 0.8%

Students, 7.6%

Persons Engaged in Farming Sector, 7.7%

Professionals/ Salaried Persons , 8.9%

Other Persons, 16.2%

Daily Wage Earner, 22.4%

House wife, 17.1%

Self‐employed Persons, 9.8%

Unemployed Persons, 9.6%

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[203]

Table 2(E)

Age and Gender – wise Distribution of Suicides during 2018 (Cause-wise)

Sl. No.

Cause

Below 18 years

18 yrs. – Below 30 years

30 yrs. – Below 45 years

M F Tr T

M F Tr T

M F Tr T

(1) (2)

(3) (4) (5) (6)

(7) (8) (9) (10)

(11) (12) (13) (14)

 

. 1  Bankruptcy or Indebtedness

. 2  Marriage Related Issues
(Total)

. 2.2  Dowry Related Issues

. 2.3  Extra Marital Affairs

. 2.4 Divorce 2.5 Others

. 3  Failure in Examination

. 4  Impotency/Infertility

. 5  Family Problems

. 6  Illness (Total)
6.1 AIDS/STD 6.2 Cancer

6.3 Paralysis

6.5 Other Prolonged Illness

. 7  Death of Dear Person

. 8  Drug Abuse/Alcoholic
Addiction

. 9  Fall in Social Reputation

. 10  Ideological Causes/Hero Worshipping

. 11  Love Affairs

12 Poverty

. 13  Unemployment

. 14  Property Dispute

. 16  Illegitimate Pregnancy (Other than Sl. No. 2.3)

. 17  Physical Abuse (Rape, etc.)

. 18  Professional/Career
Problem

. 19  Causes Not Known

. 20  Other Causes

7 1

135 163

0 8

0 298

731

1516

676

123

2926

647

1343

363

147

426

386

74 5940 2109 8 44 36

889

1132

99

28

51

19

1335

59 180 70

137 24

23 121

0 854

0 4442

0 1323 0 1394

1774 179 1537 1314

690 299 45 455

0 1953

0 2851

0 989

0 500

0 512 0 261 0 589 0 53 0 136 1 14097 0 6806 0 76 0 352 0 289

0 3122

0 2967 0 345

0 2861

0 182

0 29

0 654 0 469 0 963 0 395

0 250 0 13

1 52

0 652

0 4458

0 5276

2.1 Non Settlement of Marriage

30

53 0 83

57 23

5 10

9 5 34 72 757 772 2 7 979 1257 416 516 2 0 3 6 11 8

245 0 492

51 103

0 80
0 15 272

0 635 290 222

 

0 14
0 106 414

0 250
0 840 369 220

 

0 1529
0 9 35

0 1034
0 109 50 86

648 8456

3617

143 118 45 8

0 2236

0 932

0 14396

9868 4228

4817 1989 65 11 0 172 259 93 0 154 224 65

3 5729

0 2
0 9
0 19 118

31

0 39

 

6.4 Insanity/ Mental Illness

247

153 257 16 21 46 9 13 13

7 7

466 665 17 14 31 9 24 4

128 1969

0 410
0 37 198

1 2859 2 2505

2264 858 2005 962

1371

0 55
0 26 105

1 1774
2 158 144 38

1745

2797 64

0 297 226 119

0 14

0 1131
0 31
0 40 1240

18

0 37

19 10

2168

414 240 398 71

302 216

0 3503
0 361
0 1420 868 95

0 28 13 0 31

166

0

18

445

0 286 0 303

0 24 0 41 0 566

329 66 173 77

0 13 29 22

566 86

3208 1250

3762 1514

15

Suspected/ Illicit Relation (Other than Sl. No. 2.3)

18

0 5

9 24 22 26

639
835 744

0 5 0 33 0 48

0 1579

722 0 1361

Note: ‘M’- refers to Male, ‘F’- refers to Female, ‘Tr’- refers to Transgender and ‘T’ – Total As per data provided by States/UTs.

3600 2100 1 5701

3670 2205 2 5877

21 Total 4439 4992 0 9431

28894 18009 9 46912

31024 11469 2 42495

     

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[204]

Table 2(E)

Age and Gender – wise distribution of Suicides during 2018 (Concluded) (Cause-wise)

       

Sl. No.

Cause

60 years & above

Total

   

M

F Tr T

   

1 Bankruptcy or Indebtedness

Marriage Related Issues
(Total) 395 180

2.2 Dowry Related
Issues 10 30

2

0 575

0 40

0 75

0 7

0 7487

0 46

0 401

0 2878 0 1908

0 12 0 262 0 408

107 11

1 1 45 1 1 1 2058 661 9 0 183 75

1583 727 588 7

2 0 70 9 77 15

0 0

83 12 877 293

0 118 3690 4594

0 2 164 1852 0 46 343 303 0 2 1453 1172 0 2719 26975 13959 0 9 146 26 0 258 868 253

0 2310 7231 3837 0 595 7039 153

0 2 58 36 0 79 1023 179 0 92 988 221

0 0 0 44

0 95 1409 288

0 1170 11396 5451

0 8284

0 2016 0 646 0 2625 1 40935 0 172 0 1121

2 11070 1 7193

0 94 0 1202 0 1209

0 44

0 1697 2 16849

1562 127 0 1689 434 32 0 466 4508 462 0 4970

2.1 Non Settlement of Marriage

125 39 0 164 24 2 0 26 1545 1040 0 2585

66 34 0 100 0 1 0 1 633 630 0 1263

151 45 0 196 37 6 0 43 1005 769 0 1774

24 15 0 39 4 0 0 4 115 182 0 297

4483 1552 0 6035 2941 1321 0 4262 16274 7487 3 23764

339 108 0 447 199 88 0 287 928 339 0 1267

6.4 Insanity/ Mental Illness

1654 609 0 2263 967 431 0 1398 7101 3032 1 10134

155 69 0 224 119 51 0 170 714 359 0 1073

114 18 0 132 23 3 0 26 399 123 2 524

27 20 0 47 2 5 0 7 3077 2265 0 5342

237 21 0 258 55 5 0 60 2431 310 0 2741

15

Suspected/ Illicit Relation (Other than Sl. No. 2.3)

49 16 0 65 4 0 0 4 410 243 0 653

40 14 0 54 5 7 0 12 101 90 1 192

2008 487 0 2495 599 214 0 813 10054 4773 1 14828

21

19708 5274 0 24982 8049 2647 0 10696 92114 42391 11 134516

2.3 Extra Marital Affairs 2.4 Divorce
2.5 Others

43 32 2 5 5614 1873 39 7 6.3 Paralysis 332 69

6.5 Other Prolonged
Illness 2119 759

. 3  Failure in Examination

. 4  Impotency/Infertility

. 5  Family Problems

. 6  Illness (Total)

6.1 AIDS/STD 6.2 Cancer

. 7  Death of Dear Person

. 8  Drug Abuse/Alcoholic Addiction

. 9  Fall in Social Reputation

1863 45

10 Ideological Causes/ Hero Worshipping

12 0 12 Poverty 236 26

11 Love Affairs

. 13  Unemployment

. 14  Property Dispute

. 16  Illegitimate Pregnancy (OtherthanSl.No.2.3)

. 17  Physical Abuse (Rape, etc.)

. 18  Professional/Career

342 66

0

20 2

430 336 695 0 2947

Problem 293

. 19  Causes Not Known

. 20  Other Causes 2252

Total
Note: ‘M’- refers to Male, ‘F’- refers to Female, ‘Tr’- refers to Transgender and ‘T’ – Total

As per data provided by States/UTs.

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[205]

45 yrs. – Below 60 years

   

F Tr T

M

F Tr T

M

      

(1) (2)

(15) (16) (17) (18)

(19) (20) (21) (22)

(23) (24) (25) (26)

  

Out of total 92,114 male suicides, maximum suicides were committed by daily wage earners (26,589) followed by self- employed persons (12,175) and Unemployed Persons (10,687). A total of 42,391 females committed suicides during 2018 in the country. 22,937 females who committed suicides were house-wives followed by students (4,790) and daily wage earners (3,535). A total of 11 transgender have committed suicide. Out of 11 transgender, 3 were daily wage earners, 1 each were ‘Professionals/Salaried Persons’ and ‘Unemployed Persons’ while 6 falls under ‘Other Persons’.

State/UT-wise and profession wise analysis of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.7. Majority of suicides committed by house-wives were reported in Madhya Pradesh (2,876 out of 22,937 suicides) followed by Maharashtra (2,743 suicides) and Tamil Nadu (2,472 suicides) which accounted for 12.5%, 12.0% and 10.8% of total such suicides during 2018 respectively. Majority of suicides committed by government servants were reported in Maharashtra (231 out of 1,707 suicides) followed by Tamil Nadu (173 suicides), Madhya Pradesh (155 suicides), Karnataka (137 suicides) and Haryana (124 suicides) which accounted for 13.5%, 10.1%, 9.1%, 8.0% and 7.3% of total such suicides respectively. Majority of suicides committed by persons engaged in Private Sector Enterprises were reported in Maharashtra (1,749 out of 8,246 suicides), Tamil Nadu (1,146 suicides), West Bengal (778 suicides), Karnataka (760 suicides) and Gujarat (685 suicides), they accounted for 21.2%, 13.9%, 9.4%, 9.2% and 8.3% of total such suicides respectively. 14.3% of total suicides committed by students were reported in Maharashtra (1,448 suicides) followed by 9.4% in Tamil Nadu (953 suicides), 8.5% in Madhya Pradesh (862 suicides), 7.4% in Karnataka (755 suicides) and 6.0% in West Bengal (609 suicides). Majority of suicides committed by un-employed persons, 12.3% were in Kerala (1,585 out of 12,936 suicides), 12.2% in Tamil Nadu (1,579 suicides), 9.7% in Maharashtra (1,260 suicides), 8.5% in Karnataka (1,094 suicides) and 7.0% in Uttar Pradesh (902 suicides). Majority of suicides committed by persons engaged in business activities were reported by Karnataka (13.9%), Maharashtra (12.1%), Tamil Nadu (11.7%), West Bengal (8.9%) and Kerala (8.1%). Majority of victims engaged in farming sector

were reported in Maharashtra (34.7%), Karnataka (23.2%), Telangana (8.8%), Andhra Pradesh (6.4%) and Madhya Pradesh (6.3%).

Social Status of Suicide Victims

Social Status of victims is classified in seven categories namely ‘Un-married’, ‘Married’, ‘Widowed/Widower’, ‘Divorcee’, ‘Separated’, ‘Others’ and ‘Status Not Known’.

The information on the social status of suicide victims is presented in Table– 2.8(I). It is observed that 68.8% (92,533 out of 1,34,516) of the suicide victims were married while 22.7% were un-married (30,503). Widowed/Widower, Divorcees and Separated have accounted for 1.7% (2,329 victims), 0.7% (943 victims) and 0.6% (849 victims) of total suicide victims respectively during 2018.

The State/UT-wise information on the social status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.9.

Economic Status of Suicide Victims

The information on the economic status of suicide victims is presented in Table– 2.8(II). 66.2% of suicide victims in 2018 were having annual income of less than `1 lakh (88,986 out of 1,34,516 victims). 29.1% (39080 out of 1,34,516 victims) of suicide victims belong to annual income group of ‘`1 lakh & above to less than `5 lakh’. The State/UT wise information on the Economic Status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.10.

Educational Status of Suicide Victims

The sex-wise and education-wise break- up of suicide victims is presented in Table- 2.8(III). The maximum numbers of suicide victims (23.6%) (31,757 out of 1,34,516 victims) were educated up to Matriculation/ Secondary level. Middle level educated, Primary educated, Hr. Secondary/ Intermediate/Pre-University educated and Illiterate persons accounted for 19.5% (26,252 out of 1,34,516 victims), 17.1% (23,048 out of 1,34,516 victims), 16.4% (22,076 out of 1,34,516 victims) and 12.7% (17,026 out of 1,34,516 victims) respectively of total suicide victims during 2018. Only 3.3% (4,437 out of 1,34,516 victims) of total suicide victims were graduates and above during 2018.

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

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Figure – 2.7
Distribution of Suicide Victims by Social Status during 2018

 

Un‐Married Married Widowed/Widower Divorcee Separated Others Status Not Known

19987 64791

1257 520

559 1792

3208

20% 30% 40% Male

10512 4 27742 0 1072 0 423 0 288 2 884 4 1470 1

80% 90% 100%

                  

0% 10%

50% Female

60%

70%

 

As per data provided by States/UTs.

Figure – 2.8
Percentage Share of Suicide Victims by Educational Status during 2018

Professionals (MBA etc.)

0.3% Diploma/

Status Not Known 6.0%

Certificate/ ITI 1.1%

Graduate and above 3.3%

Matriculate/ Secondary 23.6%

Middle (up to class–8th) 19.5%

No Education 12.7%

Hr. Secondary/ Intermediate/ Pre‐ University (up to class–12th) 16.4%

Primary (up to class–5th) 17.1%

As per data provided by States/UTs.

 

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2018

[207]

Table – 2 (F)
Percentage of Suicide Victims by Educational Level during 2016 – 2018

  

Sl. No.

    

(2)

No Education
Primary Level
Middle Level
Matriculate/Secondary Level
Higher Secondary Level
Diploma 1.1

2017 2018 (4) (5)

13.0 12.7 16.3 17.1 19.4 19.5 23.6 23.6 15.9 16.4

1.2 1.1 3.5 3.3

0.3 0.3 6.8 6.0

100.0 100.0

(3)

 

Graduate & above Professionals (MBA etc.) Status Not Known

3.1 0.2 8.1

13.8 18.3 20.1 22.6 12.8

 

Total 100.0

The State/UT wise information on the Education Status of suicide victims is presented in Table– 2.11.

Out of 31,757 suicides committed by persons educated up-to matriculate/secondary level, 17.2% were reported in Maharashtra followed by Kerala (10.4%) and Tamil Nadu (10.1%). Out of 26,252 suicides committed by persons educated up-to middle level, 14.5% were reported in Maharashtra followed by Tamil Nadu (11.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (10.0%). Out of 17,026 suicides committed by persons with no education 15.5% were reported in Telangana followed by Madhya Pradesh (12.3%) and Tamil Nadu (11.1%) [Table–2.11].

Percentage share of suicide victims by educational level during 2016-18 is presented in Table–2(F).

Means Adopted for Committing Suicides

The means adopted for committing suicide varied from the easily available and effective means such as consumption of poison, jumping etc. to more painful means such as self-inflicted injuries, hanging etc. Like previous year, ‘Hanging’ (51.5%), consuming ‘Poison’ (26.7%), ‘Drowning’ (4.9%) and ‘Fire/Self- Immolation’ (4.4%) were the prominent means/mode of committing suicide. [Table – 2.12]

Percentage share of the means adopted in committing suicide during 2017-18 is presented in Table–2(G).

During the year 2018, the share of ‘Fire/Self Immolation (from 5.3% in 2017 to 4.4% in 2018) and ‘By Poison’ (from 27.5% in 2017 to 26.7% in 2018) as mode adopted by suicide victims has decreased while share of ‘Hanging’ (from 49.8% in 2017 to 51.5% in 2018), ‘By Drowning (from 4.8% in 2017 to 4.9% in 2018), and ‘By Jumping’ (from 1.7% in 2017 to 1.9% in 2018) have increased during 2018 over 2017. [Table – 2(G)]

The sex-wise break-up and means adopted for suicide in various States/UTs is presented in Table–2.13.

Table – 2 (G)

Percentage of Means/Mode Adopted by Victims to Commit Suicide during 2017-2018

 

SL.

Means/Mode Adopted

Percentage & Number 2017 2017

                

(1) (2) (3) (4)

   

1 Consuming Sleeping Pills

0.8% (1,015) 4.8% (6,235) 5.3% (6,858) 0.4% (480) 49.8% (64,705) 27.5% (35,671) 0.8% (975) 1.7% (2,203)

2.9% (3,816)

0.4% (560) 5.7% (7,369)

0.7% (939) 4.9% (6,579) 4.4% (5,950) 0.4% (521) 51.5% (69,306) 26.7% (35,862) 0.6% (772) 1.9% (2,557)

2.9% (3,848)

0.4% (565) 5.7% (7,617)

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

. 9  By Coming under Running Vehicles/Trains

. 10  By Touching Electric Wire

. 11  By Other Means

  

Drowning
Fire/Self Immolation Firearms
By Hanging
By Poison
By Self inflicting Injury By Jumping

                             

12 Total 100.0 100.0

Note: Bracket ( ) refer to Number of victims who have committed suicides

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

                

The number of male victims were more than females in all means of suicide except those who committed suicides by ‘Fire/Self- immolation’ where share of female victims was more (3,809 out of 5,950).

 

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Educational Level

Percentage Share

       

2016

      

(1)

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

 

10

 

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

Suicides in Cities

City refers to mega city i.e. city having population of 10,00,000 or more.

The numbers of suicides in 53 mega cities show an increasing trend during 2015 to 2018. It increased by 6.2% (from 19,665 in 2015 to 20,879 in 2016) and increased by 1.8% (from 20,879 in 2016 to 21,240 in 2017). It increased by 0.8% (from 21,240 in 2017 to 21,408 in 2018). Details on year-wise incidents in cities, percentage share to All-India, rate of suicides and percentage change during 2015 – 2018 may be seen in Table–2(H).

‘Marriage Related Issues’ accounting for 4.8% of total suicides in the cities.

Mass/Family Suicides

This section provides information on the number of cases where family members have committed suicide jointly. Out of 36 States/UTs, Mass/Family Suicides were reported in 11 States during the year 2018. State/UT & City- wise information on mass/family suicides is presented in Table–2.14.

Table – 2 (H)
Incidence of Suicides in Mega-Cities, percentage share to All-India, rate of suicides and

percentage change over previous year during 2015 – 2018

 

Year

Suicides Cities

19,665 20,879

21,240 21,408

in

Cities Share to All India

14.7 15.9

16.4 15.9

Rate in Cities

12.2 13.0

13.2 13.3

% Variation over Previous Year (Incidence)

0.3 6.2

1.8 0.8

          

2015

2016

2017

2018

   

 As per data provided by States/UTs.

The four Metropolitan Cities — Chennai (2,102), Delhi City (2,369), Bengaluru (2,082) and Mumbai (1,174) have reported higher number of suicides. These four cities together have reported almost 36.1% of the total suicides reported from 53 mega cities. Kolkata and Chennai Cities have shown a declining trend during 2018 over 2017. Delhi City has shown an increase of 8.2% (from 2,189 suicides in 2017 to 2,369 suicides in 2018) and Bengaluru has observed an increase of 2.5% (from 2,032 suicides in 2017 to 2,082 suicides in 2018). [Table – 2.3].

The suicide rate in cities (13.3) was higher as compared to All-India suicide rate (10.2). Kollam followed by Durg-Bhilainagar have reported the highest suicides rate of 35.4 and 33.1 respectively. [Table-2.2].

‘Family Problems (other than marriage related issues)’ was the major cause of suicide in cities which accounted for 37.7% (8,069 out of 21,408) of total suicides followed by ‘Illness’ (17.7%) (3,788 victims out of 21,408 victims). However, a total of 1,027 victims have committed suicide in 53 mega cities due to

A total of 64 cases of mass/family suicides were registered during the year 2018. In these 64 cases of mass/family suicides, a total of 173 persons, comprising of 119 married persons and 54 unmarried persons, have committed suicides during 2018.

Maximum cases of mass/family suicides were reported Tamil Nadu (15 cases) followed by Andhra Pradesh (11 cases), Madhya Pradesh (9), Punjab & Rajasthan (6 cases each) and Kerala (5 cases) during 2017. A total 35 persons in Tamil Nadu, 26 persons in Andhra Pradesh, 24 persons in Kerala and 22 persons in Uttarakhand have committed mass/family suicides during 2018 [Table-2.14].

Out of 53 cities, mass/family suicides were reported in 6 cities. These six cities have registered 9 cases of mass/family suicides in which 22 persons have committed suicides during 2018. Among these 22 persons, 17 were married and 5 were unmarried persons [Table-2.14].

************

 

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