Story of Dr. Vidya Sagar MD

Triple Jubilee Celebrations 2023-24

years 60

INDEX (fo”k; lwph) i`”B la[;k

Preface

iii

Acknowledgment

v

Foreword: Dr. Rajiv Gupta

vii

Message : Sh. Manohar Lal Khattar CM, Haryana

ix

Message : Prof. Anita Saxena VC, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak

x

Message : Dr. O.P. Kalra Former VC, Univ. of Health Sciences, Rohtak

xi

Message : Dr. Rohtas Yadav Former Director, PGIMS, Rohtak

xiv

Message : Dr. Yogesh Sharma Civil Surgeon, Karnal

xv

Hkkx&1

MkW- fo|klkxj dk tUe] f’k{kk ,oa dk;Z

1-9

Family Tree of Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji

10-14

Hkkx&2

MkW- fo|k lkxj dk euksjksx lkfgR; esa ;ksxnku

15-160

1

Oration-i (Challenges of Our Times)

16-25

2

Oration-ii (Adress to the Rotary Club on The Presentation of Gold Medal)

26-30

3

Oration-iii (Address to the Lions Club on Presentation of Medal of Honor)

31-35

4

Role of Family In Psychiatry

36-40

5

Family involvement in the treatment of the mentally ill

41-56

6

Rehabilitation of mentally ill in the society

57-59

7

Mental health in the administration

60-66

8

Beyond the four walls of a mental hospital

67-76

9

Sex and Insanity

77-80

10

Religion and Mental Health

81-85

11

Religion, Mental Health and Psychiatry

86-89

12

Mental health programme within limited resources

90-93

13

Community psychiatry in India in prospects.

94-95

14

Mental healing and mental illness

96-97

i

15

ch-ch-lh- ,oa MkW- fo|k lkxj

98-100

16

ekufld LokLF; y?kq iqfLrdk (13 i`”B)

101-113

17

;qodksa esa ekufld fodkj

114-116

18

Teaching mental health principles to school children

117-118

19

Mental ailments of children & responsibilities of parents

119-120

20

ekufld LokLF; ds fu;e (MkW- fo|klkxj)

121

21

ekuo lsok la?k djuky ds ,d LFkkiuk fnol ds volj ij lans’k

122-123

22

Mk- fo|klkxj th }kjk fy[ks x, dqN i=

124-130

23

Papers publication, awards & tributes during life time

131-132

24

Greatest Tributes to Dr. Vidya Sagar during life time

133-155

25

History of mental health since undivided India

156-158

Hkkx&3

thou foJke] vafre ;k=k] tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka ,oa lEeku

161-207

i. Dr. A. K. Vohra ii. Dr. Rajiv Gupta & Dr. Hitesh Khurana 176 178

iii. Dr . Rajeev Dogra iv. Souvenier v. Dr. Alan De Sousa vi. Prateek Sharma 182 184 186 187

vii. Dr. Varinder Mohan viii. Dr Narinder Chawla ix. Lokeh iesz ewfrZ x. Dr. T.R Madaan 190 192 194 195

xi. DR. M. S. Lamba xii. Dr. K. B. Kanwal xii. Jherh izse yrk pkS/kjh 197 199 200

xiv. Dr. Ramesh Arya xv. MkW- ‘kkark ,oa MkW- lR;sUæ lHkjoky 201 206

Hkkx&4

MkW- fo|k lkxj th ds LFkk;h Lekjd (Permanent Memorials of Dr. Vidya Sagar)

209-226

Amritsar

210-212

Rohtak

213-215

Delhi

216-225

Bhiwani

226

Chandigarh

227-228

Hkkx&5

DR. VIDYA SAGAR & DR. J.C. BATHLA (xq: ,oa psyk)

229-256

ii

PREFACE

During the final period of Internship, I was posted for one month in the department of Psychiatry under Late Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji, I was very much impressed by his working of long hours of hard work, dedication and sincerity, I decided to take the profession of Psychiatry of my career. I did my house job for one year and afterward registrarship for three and a half years under Late Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji, on deputation from Haryana Govt service.

He had obsession (tuwu) to serve the psychiatric patients. I along with Dr. Virender Mohan (Dharampur-Himachal) were of the first batch of house physicians with him in 1970. During my house job in 1970 when the OPD was in G-Block (Last block of old OPD building,) about 11.00 p.m./12.00 p.m. or 1.00 a.m. after the OPD work was over, I would give lift to Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji to his house in the campus on my scooter. After coming out from the OPD specially in summers, the patients and public were seen enjoying sound and sweet sleep in cool

breeze, Dr. Vidya Sagar use to say ^^vLlh rs vUnj rM+dh jgs lh** (we were sitting and working in the oven type atmosphere). There was no provision of even water cooler, but he would again start his work in same the very next morning.

Incidentally and luckily, both my son-in-law and son are psychiatrists. My son-in-law Dr. Hitesh Khurana is Professor at Dr. Vidya Sagar Department of psychiatry Dr. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Medical College, Rohtak, while my son Dr. Manish Bathla has served as Professor and Head of the Department of Psychiatry at MM University of Medical Sciences & Research Mulana, Distt. Ambala (Haryana) for the 14 years and now working with me.

The list of good points of Dr. Vidya Sagar are endless. One of the few, I came to know during the collection of data for this book, that if he was ever given any gifts, he would value it and give the amount in donation and send the receipt to the concerned person. He would do the same if anybody ever paid for his travelling ticket also. I think this was an extraordinary quality which is very rare to find. I worked with him for 4 years & 7 months, observed him very closely & minutely. I Strongly wish his sincerity and devotion to psychiatry should not be buried under the sands of time.

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Work narrated in this book by him was approximately 60 years ago, Though the conditions have much improved and every medical college has psychiatry department and most of the district hospitals have a psychiatrist e.g. Haryana sanctioned the posts of the psychiatrist at Ambala, Karnal, Faridabad, Hisar & Gurugram long back 40 years ago. There are more than 200 psychiatrists in Haryana while there was none (zero) at the time of Dr. Vidya Sagar. Much has been done in community psychiatry due to the sincere efforts of Dr. Vidys Sagar, PGI Chandigarh, AIIMS Delhi, VIMHANS Banglore and others.

Taking into consideration the contribution of Dr. Vidya Sagar in the field of Psychiatry I, eagerly wish that any conference organized by the department of psychiatry in Haryana, Punjab & Chandigarh should be started by remembering & garlanding the portrait of Dr. Vidya Sagar ji. This is my great wish to write the book on late Dr. Vidya Sagar ji. I pray to God to empower me to fulfill this wish so that I can pay gratitude to my esteemed Guru.

Though I thought many times that this work should be done buy a person with greater skill than I have for this type of book but nobody came forward, though I offered all help including finances. Ultimately I hade to do at my own level as it is usually said ^^vki ugha efj;s] LoxZ ugha tkb;s**

By realising the importance of book for future psychiatrists, I ultimately decided to do it at any cost. Writing of this book is like pilgrimage to me.

Though only a few of you are fortunate to meet him or see him, but I hope you will enjoy his company through this book and that will be your spiritual guide in the subject.

I sincerely use to pray to God to give me courage and caliber to complete it. After the completion of this book I am felling as I have travelled all the FOUR DHAMS (eSapkjksa/kkedh;k=kdkvuqHkod:xka)

In the end I am solely responsible for various short comings, which are of course completely unintentionally and due to my low IQ comparatively.(fdlhHkhizdkjdhdeh,ao=qfVdsfy,eSaO;fDrxr{kekizkFkhZgw¡)

Dr. Jagdish Bathla

(Psychiatrist) M.B.B.S., F.M.H.S. (I.C.M.R.) Dc. P.M.F.I.S.C.D., H.C.M.S.-1 (Ex) Ex. Registrar Dr. Vidya Sagar Psychiatric Wing Med. College, Rohtak 5 / 75 to 12 / 78 Ex. Psychiatrist Civil Hospital, Karnal 12 / 78 to 5 / 91 0184-4021508 | 94661-86888

iv

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Dr. J.C.Bathla

This book is not absolutely my work, as I am not that much intelligent. This is result of hard work of many individuals mixed with my repeated thinking, writing & getting the work typed again & again till its final shape. (djr&djr vH;kl tM+efr gks, lqtku)

First of all thanks & gratitude to Late Dr. (Mrs) Suman Bathla who was just like my daughter. She started work on my single request

& collected material from all possible corners. (dgha dh b±V dgha dk jksM+k]

Hkkuqerh us dquck tksM+k) Unfortunately, she left this world on 8-8-2010 to join the family of GOD and must be waiting very eagerly from heaven to see its final shape. Thanks to Professor I. J. Bharti, Dr. Manish Bathla, Dr. (Mrs.) Shalu Bathla, Sh. Raman Ahuja and Sh. Raghav Gandhi for their enormous help.

Thanks to Davinder & Mayank Ji, Proprietors, “Vaishali Printers” and very sincere and hard work Mr. Saral Yadav who worked very hard and did not get tired even on demanding repeated copies of the same page. Tolerance of Mr. Saral Yadav and proprietor Vaishali Printers is highly appreciable. The interest shown by Late Mr. Kuldeep Ji (Elder brother of Mr. Davinder & father of Mayank) cannot be forgotten.

Highly grateful to Mr. Sunil Kataria proprietor, Triko Pharma, Rohtak, for sponsorship for bearing the cost of the book.

I shall be failing in my duties if I don’t mention the greatest contribution by Dr. Vidya Sagar’ family. VIMHANS Institution at Delhi which was started by The Late. Sh. J.N. Chaudhary (the eldest son in law) will keep reminding me of Dr. Vidya Sagar forever.

Love to my dear daughter Dr. (Mrs.) Reenu Khurana (Dentist), Dr. Hitesh Khurana (son-in-law), and regards to my wife Smt. Pushpa Bathla who encouraged me to continue the book even during the corona time. This has happened exactly the same way as an abandoned and discarded railway engine standing in the yard for years is repaired by an expert skilled technician and made to run on

the track (o”kksZ ls csdkj [kM+k [kVkjk batu dks fdlh xq.koku bathfu;j us ejEer dj ds rst xfr ls pyk fn;kA ) This has taken 14 years approximately

to complete this book.

Regards for good wishes and blessings of Dr. Subhash Anand Bhagat Ji. I am very proud of my grand son Master Milind, who kept me reminding by asking the progress of the book every morning after charan vandana, God bless him a bright career. Warm & sincere thanks to various dignitaries for writing their valuable opinions about the book.

v

Prof. I. J. Bharti

Smt. Pushpa Bathla

Late Sh. Kuldeep Ji

Dr. Hitesh Khurana

Sh. Raman Ahuja

Sh. Davinder

Dr. Manish Bathla

Sh. Raghav Gandhi

Master Mayank

th dh thoudFkk

Stalwarts Responsible for the compilation of this book

Thanks to all Grateful to all

/kU;okn

ਧਨਵਾਦ

Dr. Mrs. Shalu Bathla

Sh. Sunil Kataria

Mr. Saral Yadav

‘kqfØ;k

شکریہ

,gLkkuean

Dr. Subhash Anand

Vill. Bhainsi, Teh. Khatauli, Distt. Muzaffarnagar UP (88100-03430)

vi

FOREWORD

Dr. Rajiv Gupta

Director cum CEO

Writing about contributions of Dr. Vidya Sagar is a difficult task as his work was multidimensional. He worked with altruistic zeal and selflessly at the Medical College, Rohtak ever since its inception in 1966 after his transfer from Amritsar till he breathed his last. I never had the opportunity to see him and work with him but have heard mesmerizing stories from those who worked with him or had seen him working.

Much of my professional life has been moulded by his stories. When I joined Rohtak in 1990 as a consultant, I found his exemplary contribution to this department of Medical College Rohtak. Medical College Rohtak was known for him and his services in the field of mental health. His way of working and his lifestyle were astonishingly simple. He was way ahead in developing the model of service delivery which was simple, culturally sensitive, easily implementable and effective. I think there is a part of me that always wondered and thought whether it is fictional as in today’s work scenario, it is unimaginable.

Dr. Vidya Sagar was so much engrossed in providing services that he did not give priority to document or publish his experiments and work. This is a great loss to the Indian Psychiatry. He always challenged the western models and practised psychiatry in his novel style which has Indian values, family and Yoga etc., in the forefront.

I am glad for working in the department created by him and named after him for more than three decades now, and I had the

vii

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opportunity to head this wonderful department for more than fifteen years till now. We have been able to realize his dreams in making the department pioneer in the field of mental health as it was upgraded by the Government to the full-fledged Institute of Mental Health with State Institute of Mental Health and State Drug Dependence and treatment centre as its prominent wings and is a premier institute in providing comprehensive mental health care in addition to manpower development in the field of mental health.

He will always be our guiding force. His principles and dedication have always motivated and inspired us.

Dr J.C. Bathla, who had the longest association with Dr. Vidya Sagar, had the opportunity to work with this iconic personality for the longest period. He has done a brilliant job by writing this book and archiving his memoirs and work. To put things in another way, this book will serve as a source of stimulus and inspiration to those who are working in the field of mental health.

INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH PT. BHAGWAT DAYAL SHARMA

UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, ROHTAK

Dr. Rajiv Gupta

Director cum CEO

State Institute of Mental Health

Institute of Mental Health (Administration-cum Teaching Block)

viii

FROM WORTHY CHIEF MINISTER, HARYANA ix

euksgj yky

Manohar Lal

Message

eSa fo’o izfl1⁄4 euksjksx fo’ks”kK Lo- MkW- fo|k lkxj ds thou ,oa ÏR;ksa ij iqLrd izdkf’kr djus ds fy, MkW- ts-lh- cByk dks lk/kqokn nsrk g¡wA

vk’kk gS ;g iqLrd euksjksx ds lEcU/k esa Lo- MkW- fo|k lkxj ds fopkjksa] vuqHkoksa vkSj iz;Ruksa ls yksxksa dks voxr djokus ds lkFk&lkFk euksjksx ls tqM+h HkzkfUr;ksa dks nwj djus esa Hkh lgk;d fl1⁄4 gksxhA MkW- ts-lh- cByk us Lo- MkW- fo|k lkxj dks bl iqLrd ds :i esa lPph J1⁄4katfy nh gSA

eSa iqLrd ds lQy izdk’ku ds fy, viuh ‘kqHkdkeuk,¡ izsf”kr djrk gw¡A

euksgj yky

eq[; eU=h] gfj;k.kk]

p.Mhx<+A

CHIEF MINISTER, HARYANA CHANDIGARH

22-11-2019 Dated ……………………….

ix

th dh thoudFkk

Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma

UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, ROHTAK, (HARYANA)

NAAC Accrediated ‘A’ Grade University

[Established vide Haryana Act No. 26 of 2008 and recognised under section 12B of the U.G.C. Act, 1956]

Ph. : +91-1262-282812

Prof Anita Saxena

MD DM (Cardiology) FACC

VICE-CHANCELLOR

E-mail: vc@uhsr.ac.in Website: http://www.uhsr.ac.in

Message

D.O. No. UHSR/VC/ Date: 23-02-2023

I am pleased to know that Institute of Mental Health is releasing a book on its Foundation Day. This is a great occasion to commemorate this monumental work corresponding with the Silver jubilee Celebrations of the department completing 25 years of Postgraduate

course in Psychiatry. Collecting pearls of memories of the great psychiatrist Dr. Vidya Sagar, a colossal work done by Dr. Jagdish Bathla who was the first House Physician starting the department with Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji and still continuing his services in the field of mental health. This book will serve as a source of inspiration to all the mental health professionals.

The seeds sown by him have flourished and now the department is a fully established institute, contemporary with the developments in the filed of Mental Health.

The institute has beautiful ambience and gazebo huts have been added recently, for extension of out patient services which become essential seeing the difficulties faced by people due to COVID-19 pandemic.

The institute has completed 25 glorious years of postgraduate service and produced 63 MD, 3 DNB and 34 DPM students.

The institute has been awarded Centre of Excellence grant for manpower development and has tremendous contribution in the field of manpower development providing psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and psychiatric social workers.

This is a great tribute to Dr. Vidya Sagar and it is an honour of the University to release this book. I wish the Institute grand success on its Foundation Day and the Silver Jubille Celebrations.

(Anita Saxena)

x

th dh thoudFkk

Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma

UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, ROHTAK

NAAC Accredited ‘A’ Grade University [Established vide Haryana Act No. 26 of 2008 and recognized under Section 2 (f) & 12 (b) of the UGC Act, 1956]

Prof. O.P. KALRA

MD, DM, FAMS, FASN, FACP, FISN, FICP, FIACM Former Vice Chancellor D.O. No. UHSR/VC/ 24-12-2020

I am happy to learn that Dr. Jagdish Bathla has undertaken the noble task of writing biography of Dr. Vidya Sagar, an extremely dedicated psychiatrist, devoted teacher, professional leader and above all an excellent human being. I have not been fortunate to study under his guidance or work with him; however, the high standards of patient care and teaching in the field of mental health at Pt. B.D. Sharma University of Health Sciences would not have been possible without the strong foundation laid down by the visionary, Dr. Vidya Sagar

After his MRCPsych in 1951 from the Institute of Psychiatry, London, Dr. Vidya Sagar joined Mental Hospital Amritsar and later moved to Medical College, Rohtak, ever since its inception in 1964 and served here till his last breath. Dr. Vidya Sagar was like an angel to the people with mental health problems and he worked like a priest in the temple.

Dr. Vidya Sagar is known for his innovative approach towards social aspects of treatment of mental illnesses and he gave the concept of Community Psychiatry in India. While working as Medical Superintendent at Mental Hospital, Amritsar, he realized that it is difficult to work with a handful of trained mental health team. Involving families was the only practical way to deal with the scarcity of manpower and infrastructure. Dr. Vidya Sagar thought of involving families in the treatment of mentally ill because it gives a chance to the patient to stay with his/her family, hence creating an environment of de-institutionalization during indoor stay where family the can take care of its ill member; in addition, the family gets a chance to learn from the doctor’s behavior with patients about mental illness and treatment. He strongly felt that the families of mentally ill persons

Message

Dated ……………….

xi

should get involved in educating the community about mental illness so that stigma associated with it can be removed.

Dr. Vidya Sagar realized that just 20,000 hospital beds and 500 psychiatrists are not sufficient to provide care to 7 million psychiatric patients in a resource-constrained country like ours at that time. He devised his own ways to overcome the difficulties. He arranged surplus tents from the Army Headquarters, and put these around the Mental Hospital and housed the families of the patients into those tents till their discharge. With ‘tent approach’, coupled by involving family in day-to-day care of the patients, the prognosis of mentally ill patients drastically improved as reflected by the discharge rates that too in pre-antipsychotic era in the country.

When he joined as a Professor in the Department of Medicine at Medical College, Rohtak in 1966, he was already a popular public figure and philanthropist. Within a few years, he established an independent faculty to provide care to the mentally ill. He continued to work on his concept of involvement of the family and ‘tent approach’. Listening to the patients and helping them till late night were observed as his passions by those working with him.

He had a strong belief that the religion and culture play a great role in mental health treatment. He used to prastice religiously oriented psychotherapy and supported the role of yoga in mental health. As a President of the Indian Psychiatric Society in 1973, he also proposed that the Society should have a sub-committee on yoga promotion of mental well being and research.

He also expressed that mental health legislation of his time was not patient friendly. The Mental Health Act was already under consideration in the Parliament in 1970s. Dr. Vidya Sagar was of the view that the Mental Health Act should have minimum legal tangles. Some of his thoughts are now part of the Mental Healthcare Act 2017. He also proposed many innovations for the mental health program and policy which were quite advanced considering the time when these were proposed. He proposed that the government should take initiatives so that there should be qualified psychiatrists at each district headquarter and later at sub divisional level hospitals too.

For Dr. Vidya Sagar, the objectives of mental health promotion and education were the same. Both aim to promote man’s innate mental abilities and utilize these in constructive activities for one’s own good and that of others. He favoured special schools for educable

xii

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mentally backward children and need for setting child adolescent guidance clinics.

Seeing his passion in profession and selfless services, the Government of Haryana allowed him to continue work till he wished. He continued to work till he breathed his last on November 24, 1978. Even after his demise, his legacy for selfless service continued. The Indian Council of Medical Research has instituted an award in his name which is awarded to an eminent person annually for meritorious work in community mental health.

Because of strong foundations set by Dr. Vidya Sagar at Medical College, Rohtak, the Mental Hospital has shown exponential growth in all aspects of comprehensive mental healthcare and education in the field of Psychiatry and related areas. The department has been renamed as Dr. Vidya Sagar Department of Psychiatry. The department has expanded to include a 10 bedded State Drug De- addiction The treatment centre and 40 bedded State Institute of Mental Health. With special grant from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the Govt. of India under the Centre of Excellence Scheme, the department was upgraded to the Institute of Mental Health that now houses the Departments of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatric Social Work. The Institute also provides training for professional courses, viz, MD (Psychiatry), M.Phil (Clinical Psychology) and M. Phil (Psychiatric Social Work).

Indeed, Dr. Vidya Sagar was a saint and a pioneer in community psychiatry. His vision about the mental health was far ahead of his time. The world would always remember his contributions and services to the promotion of mental health. His concepts about the experience of mental illness and innovative approach to treatment are an example for the whole world to follow. The Institute of Mental Health and the Universiy of Health Sciences, Rohtak are worth following. The Institute of Mental Health and the University of Health Sciences, Rohtak will always be indebted to him for the strong legacy and patronage to its growth and development.

xiii

Prof. O.P. Kalra

PT. B.D. SHARMA

POST GRADUATE INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

ROHTAK-124001 (HARYANA) INDIA

Office : 0126-281307 | Fax : 01262-281308 E-mail: directorpgims@gmail.com

Dr. (Sr. Prof.) Rohtas K. Yadav

MD, PDCC, LLB, FIAMS, FICRI Director D.O. No. PA/DIR/2020/3337

Dated : 27.08.2020

Message

I am very glad to known that Dr. J.C. Bathla, Psychiatrist, Bathla Psychiatric Hospital, Karnal who was a student of PGIMS, Rohtak is writing a book on the life of Dr. Vidya Sagar and the work done by him in the field of Psychiatry. Dr. Vidya Sagar was a person of innumerable qualities and devoted to the people physically, mentally and economically weak. Writing a book on his life is a great work by Dr. J.C. Bathla.

This book will be very beneficial to the public at large. His devotion to duty can not be forgotten. Writing a book on such an iconic personality is a matter of pride.

I appreciate Dr. Bathla for writing a book on the life of Dr. Vidya Sagar, ICON of Psychiatry who served at Rohtak from 1964 to 1978. My best wishes to the team for writing the book in the remembrance of Late Dr. Vidya Sagar to pay homage to him.

Dr. J.C. Bathla

Bathla Psychiatric Hospital

Near Randhir Cinema, Hospital Chowk, Karnal-132001

Dr. Rohtas K.Yadav

Director 01262-283491 Residence: 12/6 J, Medical Campus, PGIMS, Rohtak

xiv

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OFFICE OF CIVIL SURGEON

KARNAL-132001

Ph. 0184-2267796, 2267569, E-mail: dhs.csknl@hry.nic.in

Dr. Yogesh Sharma

Message

I am very much pleased to know that Dr. J.C. Bathla (Senior most Psychiatrist in Haryana), is writing a book on the life of his Guru, Late Dr. Vidya Sagar, a great psychiatrist, who revolutionized the treatment of psychiatric patients by family involment. Dr. J.C. Bathla has already written many books for the awareness of mental illness.

Good point of these books are that all the books is available free of cost at Bathla Psychiatric Hospital Karnal.

I wish a great sucess and pray to God to give him more courage and enthusiasm to serve the psychiatric patients for many more years to come.

Once again congratulations for his noble and social cause.

Civil Surgeon, Karnal

Ref. No. 1630 Dated : 02-11-2021

To

Dr. Jagdish Chander Bathla Psychiatrist

Bathla Psychiatric Hospital Near Randhir CInema, Karnal

(Dr. Yogesh Sharma) Civil Surgeon, Karnal

xv

Different Dignitaries recall Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji with DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji in real sense was a:-

Dr. Rajiv Gupta

Rohtak 86890-33888

Dr. A. K. Vohra

London, UK

+44 7435645027

AN ICONE OF PSYCHIATRY AN ANGELIC BEING

(v}Hkqr O;fDrRo)

Dr. T.R Madaan LIVING GOD

Panipat (HR) 94160-30977

Dr. K. B. Kanwal ICON OF PSYCHIATRY

Director, Health Service, Haryana (Retd.) 98133-50347

Dr. Narinder Chawla OCEAN OF EDUCATION

London, U.K.+44 7919423006

Dr. Jagdish C Bathla

Bathla Psy. Hospital, Karnal 94661-86888

Lokeh izse ewfrZ

(iz/kku)] ekuo lsok la?k] djuky

80535-49730

Dr. Ramesh Arya

Gurugram 88263-65138

Dr. M. S. Lamba

Model Town, Karnal 98963-11938

Anonymous J & K

Gurugram 88263-65138

ESTEMED GURU

lsok o izse ds izrhd lsok Hkkoh

PRACTICAL GUIDE A SHANTI KI MURTI

FATHER OF PSYCHIATRY

xvi

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tUe f’k{kk ,oa

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nloha d{kk Mh-,-oh- Ldyw rFkk ,Q-,l-lh- (FSC) Mh-,-oh- dkyst ykgkSj ls dhA

blds i’pkr~ mUgas 1927 esa ykgkSj esa iatkc ;qfuoflZVh esa ,e-ch-ch-,l esa nkf[kyk feyk rFkk 1932 esa ,e-ch-ch-,l (M.B.B.S.) dh mikf/k izkIr dh rFkk ;qfuoflZVh esa izFke jgsA

Hkkjr ljdkj dh vksj ls Nk=o`fr feyus ij 1948 ls 1951 rd] mUgkuas s LondonInstituteofPsychiatryeasv/;;ufd;kvkjS ,e-vkj-lh-ih- (M.R.C.P.)dhfMxhz ikzIrdhA

MkWDVj dh mikf/k ls vyad`r gksus ds i’pkr~ bUgksaus Msjkxkt+h [kka esa viuk Dyhfud[kksyfy;kA/kuvftZrdjukdHkhHkhbudk/;;s ughajgkD;kfasd os fu/kuZ jkfs x;kas dks nokbZ nrs s Fks yfs du ilS s de olyw djrs FkAs ckY;dky ls gh budk laca/k ,slh foHkwfr;ksa ls gqvk Fkk ftlds dkj.k lsoko`fr ds fopkj muds eu esa iwjh rjg ls lek, gq, FksA

firkth us /kuksiktZu dks x`gLFk thou dk vfuok;Z fu;e ekurs gq, mUgsa jktdh; lsok (ukSdjh) djus dh lykg nhA rhu o”kZ ,d futh fpfdRlky; pykus ds i’pkr~ 1940 esa iatkc flfoy esfMdy lsok ds fy, pqus x,A ml le; vks-ihMh- (cfgjax foHkkx) esa jksfx;ksa dh la[;k 80 Fkh ysfdu MkWDVj lkgc dh esgur ls la[;k c<+dj 250 gks xbZA 1942 eas Hkkjrh; lus k eas MkDW Vj lkgc us dIS Vu ds :i eas dk;Z vkjEHk fd;k tgk¡ bUgass 900 # ekfld feyrs FkAs ftlesa ls 200 # ekfld ;s vius

f’k{kk % 1 1

1

1 ukSdjh %

1

1

th dh thoudFkk

2

firkth ds ikl Hkstrs FksA bl /kujkf’k ls og x+jhc cPpksa dks nw/k fiykrs FksA ‘ks”k ru[+okg esa ls dqN nokb;k¡ vius ikl ls [+kjhndj jksfx;ksa dk

+

bykt djuk izkajHk dj fn;kA QkSt ds dekaMsV duZy pUæ dks bl ckr dk

irk pyk rks mUgksaus MkWDVj lkgc dks ,sls dke djus ls euk dj fn;kA MkWDVj lkgc us rHkh fopkj cuk fy;k fd mUgksaus ;gka ugha jguk vkSj 1946 esa estj dh mikf/k ls vyaÏr gksdj ykSVsA

1 1946&47 esa MkWDVj lkgc us iatkc euksjksx gLirky] ykgkSj esa lgk;d v/kh{kd ds :i esa dk;Z fd;k vkSj ns’k&foHkktu ds ifj.kkeLo:i os Hkkjr vk x,A

1 1951&1966 rd iatkc euksjksx gLirky] ve`rlj esa esfMdy v/kh{kd vkSj iatkc esfMdy dkyst esa izksQ+lj ds :i esa dk;Z fd;kA

1 1966 esa iatkc foHkktu ds nkSjku jksgrd esfMdy dkyst esa euksjksx fo’ks”kK ds :i esa fu;qDr gq, vkSj 12 vDrwcj 1969 dks lsok fuo`r gksuk Fkk vkSj iwT; MkWDVj lkgc dh dÙkZO;ijk;.krk rFkk jksfx;ksa dh lsok&lqJq”kk dks ns[krs gq, mUgsa ikap o”kZ ds fy, iqu% dk;Z iznku fd;k x;k vkSj MkWDVj lkgc dh QkbZy ij ml le; ds gfj;k.kk ds eq[;ea=h pkS- calhyky us Lo;a fy[k fn;k ^^tc rd MkDVj lkgc pkgsa os bl gLirky esa dke dj ldrs gSaA** vr% bl iqufuZ;qfDr ds vk/kkj ij MkWDVj lkgc 12 vDrwcj 1974 dks LosPNk ls lsok fuo`r gks ldrs Fks ysfdu MkWDVj lkgc dks vfuf’pr dkyhu ds fy, nh xbZ vof/k ds fy, gfj;k.kkokfl;ksa ds fy, ;g lnk xoZ dh ckr jgsxhA vLoLFk

jgus ds dkj.k mUgksaus ljdkjh ukSdjh ls R;kxi= ns fn;kA

izsj.kk L=ksr %ckY;dky esa eu dPph feV~Vh ds leku gksrk gS vkSj bls fdlh Hkh vkdkj esa <kyk tk ldrk gSA ;fn ;g feV~Vh :i eu lgh dqEgkj ds gkFkksa esa vk tk, rks ckYdky esa feys laLdkjksa dk O;fDr ij vkthou izHkko jgrk gSA MkWDVj lkgc us vius ikfjokfjd vkSj ‘kSf{kd okrkoj.k ls cgqr dqN lh[kk vkSj vkthou mu f’k{kkvksa ij pyrs jgsA

1 MkW lkgc ds fuokl LFkku ij ^xk/a kh v/;;u or` * dh cBS das ikz ;% gkrs h jgrh FkhaA fopkjkas ds vknku&iznku dh J[a` kyk eas ,d fnu fo”k; j[kk& ^ejs s thou eas ijsz .kk ds L=krs * fo”k; ds lna HkZ eas Mk-W lkgc us vius fopkj j[kAs ^^ekrkth@nknh@cqvk@efj;e/kk=hdhlsok&Hkkouk]lPpkbZrFkk

/kkfeZdrk laLdkj ds :i esa lnk eq>s izsfjr djrh jgh gSA**

th dh thoudFkk

3

th dh thoudFkk

1 ^^lcls cM+k izHkko eq> ij vk;Z lekt dk gSA NksVh vk;q esa gh esjs pkpk nhoku /keZpUn th eq>s vk;Z lekt esa ys tkrs FksA ogka gesa la/;k rFkk gou ea= ;kn djok, tkrs FksA os dgrs Fks tks cPpk t+ckuh la/;k lquk,xk mls pkj isaflyas bZuke esa feysaxhA eSaus Hkh ,d fnu iwjh la/;k lqukdj pkj isaflyas bZuke ikbZA**

a

1 ^^Mh-,-oh- dkWyst] ykgkSj esa egkRek galjkt th vkSj fizafliy lkb±nkl th

rFkk vU; vkthou lnL;ksa ds lsokHkko dk eq> ij cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudk lknk thou] fu”dke lsok vkSj n`<+ fo’okl dk esjs thou ij cgqr izHkko iM+kA bUgha fnuksa egkRek th ‘kqf1⁄4 ds vkanksyu esa iw.kZr;k O;Lr Fks vkSj le;&le; ij vk;Z lekt vukjdyh ckt+kj] ykgkSj esa vius vfHk;ku dk o`rkar lqukrs FksA mudh bl egku~ lsok ls cgqr izsj.kk feyh vkSj eSus Hkh fu’p; fd;k fd eSa Hkh muds infpUgksa ij pyrs gq, fu”dke lsok djrk jgwaxkA**

1 ^^esjs pkpk nhoku j?kqukFk th tks ykgkSj esa gh jgrs Fks] lsokHkko muesa Hkh cgqr FkkA os izkr% 8 cts ls lka; 4 cts rd n¶+rj esa vkSj jkr ds 10 cts rd ?kj dke djrs FksA muds bl lsokHkko us esjs ân; ij vfeV Nki NksM+hA bUgksaus eq>s ,d vaxzst+ iknjh ls feyok;kA iknjh us eq>s dgk&^^MkWDVj yksx jksfx;ksa ls Q+hlsa ysdj cgqr iSlk tek dj ysrs gSaA fQj cM+h vk;q esa fdlh laLFkk dks nku dj nsrss gSaA rqe ,slk er djukA rqe fdlh jksxh

+

ls Qhl er ysukA bafM;k cgqr x+jhc ns’k gSA irk ugha yksx MkWDVj dh

Q+hl fdl rjg etcwjh esa nsrs gksaxs\ tc eSa MkWDVj cuk rks eq>s ml vaxzst+ +

iknjh dh ckr ;kn vkbZ fd irk ugha dksbZ Qhl dSls nsrk gksxkA vr% eSaus

+

fu’p;dj fy;k fd fdlh ls Qhl ugha ysuhA**

1 ^^eaSviusfirkthdhvkKkdkmYy?akudjukHkkjhikile>rkFkkvkjS mudh gj vkKk dk ikyu djrk FkkA mudh fpfV~B;ka cgqr gh f’k{kkizn gksrh Fkha vkSj eSa mudh f’k{kkvksa ij iwjk vey djrk FkkA NqfV~V;ksa esa eSa tc ?kj tkrk Fkk rks firkth crkrs fd muds vaxzsat+ izksQ+slj mudks dSls MkWDVjh i<+krs Fks vkSj mUgha dh f’k{kk,a os eq>s crkrs jgrs Fks ftlls fd eq>s jksfx;ksa dk Bhd ijh{k.k rFkk fpfdRlk esa ckgjh :fp dh uhao cu xbZA vius firkth dh lh[k dh euaS s dHkh Hkh vog~ ys uk ugha dhA os vk[a kkas ds MkDVj Fks vkjS xj+ hckas dh los k djrs FkAs mudh lsok&Hkkouk dk eq> ij lh/kk izHkko

4

iM+kA Q+kSth gLirky esa dke djrs gq, ,d fnu ,d lQ+kbZ deZpkjh ls dksbZ x+yrh gks xbZA eSaus mls Øks/k esa gjket+knk] mYyw dk iV~Bk dg

fn;kA ml teknkj us dgk ^^lkgc ge xjhc+ gSa] blfy, vki gesa tks dqN et+hZ dg nksA ;fn ge x+jhc u gksrs rks vki gesa dHkh xkyh u nsrsA** teknkj ds bu ‘kCnksa us esjs eu esa ,d LFkku cuk fy;k vkSj mlds ckn eSaus dHkh fdlh v/khu deZpkjh dks xkyh ugha nhA

^^balku viuh =qfV;ksa ls lh[krk gSA vr% bl izdkj dh f’k{kk eq>s esjh

viuh =qfV;ksa ls gh feyhA**

1 ^^Hkkjr ljdkj dh vksj ls Nk=o`fr feyus ij i<+us ds fy, baXySaM x;k rks

ml le; Jh ohñdsñ Ï”.kkeSuu Hkkjr ds mPpk;qDr FksA mUgksaus Hkkjrh; fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ,d oDrO; esa dgk fd rqe ;gka ls i<+dj cM+h&cM+h fMfxz;ka ys tkvksxs rks eq>s dksbZ [kq’kh ugha gksxhA eq>s rc [kq’kh gksxh tc rqe bl ns’k dk vkpkj fopkj] f’k”Vkpkj] O;ogkj] ns’k izse] jgu&lgu vkSj vius mís’; ds izfr fu”Bk dk Kku ;gka ls ysdj tkvksxs] rHkh ljdkj dk vki ij fd;k x;k [kpZ lQy gksxkA vr% eS bu ckrksa dks cgqr /;ku ls ns[krk jgk vkSj ;Fkk ‘kfDr vuqdj.k Hkh fd;kA** ^^lcls vf/kd izsj.kk eq>s feyh ekufld jksfx;ksa ls % eq>s vius jksfx;ksa ds thou ls irk pyk fd dbZ yksxksa us fnu&jkr l[+r ifjJ+e fd;kA mudk thou eq>ls yk[k xq.kk usd FkkA mu ij eqlhcrksa ds igkM+ VwVsA os dfBukbZ;ksa dks >syrs&>syrs pys x, vkSj tc mudh lgu&’khyrk dh lhek lekIr gks xbZ rks os ekufld jksxh cu x,A muds bl lcz rFkk lgu’khyrk ds thou ls eq>s cgqr f’k{kk feyh vkSj eSaus vius thou dks oSlk gh cukus dh dksf’k’k dhA eq>s irk py x;k fd lekt esa NksVs yksxksa esa fdruh lgu’khyrk gksrh gSA esjk ;g vuqHko gS fd bZ’oj us gj O;fDr dks dqN u dqN ,sls xq.k fn;s gSa tks nwljksa ds fy, izsj.kk L=ksr cu ldrs gSaA**

thou ds izsj.kk L=ksr MkW- fo|k lkxj ds vius ‘kCnksa esa %

ßesjs thou esa lcls vf/kd vfeV izHkko vk;Z lekt vkSj iŒ n;kuUn th dkiM+kAeSaviuspkpkthdslkFkvk;Z lektesatkrkFkktgkagesala/;k rFkk gou ;K fl[kk;s tkrs FksA eSaus /kkfeZdrk] lPpkbZ] dÙkZO; ikyu dh

th dh thoudFkk

5

mnkjrk %

1

1

izsj.kk vk;Z lekt ls izkIr dhAÞ ßMhŒ ,Œ ohŒ dkWyst] ykgkSj esa iwT; egkRek galjkt th ds lknk thou] fu”dke lsok vkSj fo’okl dk esjs thou ij cgqr xgjk izHkko iM+kA eSaus fu’p; fd;k fd buds ekxZ ijpyrsg,q fu”dkelos korz dkikyud:¡xkAÞßtceSaeSfMdydkyst ykgkSj dk fo|kFkhZ Fkk rks esjk ifjp; ,d vaxzst+ iknjh ls djk;k x;kA okÙkkZyki ds chp iknjh egksn; us eq>s crk;k fd Hkkjr ,d x+jhc ns’k gS u tkusfdruhdfBukbZ;ksalsyksxMkWDVjksadhQ+hlnsrsgSaAeSatcMkWDVjcuk rks eSaus fu’p; fd;k* fd eSa Hkh fdlh jksxh ls Qhl ugha ywaxk* rc ls bl ozzr dk ikyu djus esa yxk gw¡AÞ ß eSausa viusa iwT; firkth (LoŒ MkWŒ nhoku thouyky th) dh lh[k dh vogsyuk dHkh Hkh ugha dhA os ml le; vka[kksa ds MkWDVj Fks vkSj x+jhcksa dh lsok djrs FksA mudh lsok Hkkouk dk eq> ij lh/kk izHkko iM+kA esjh ekrk th dh lsok Hkkouk] lPpkbZ rFkk /kk£edrk laLdkj :i esa lnk eq>s izsfjr djrh jgrh gSaAÞ ßeSaus fu’p; fd;k Fkk fd lsok fuo`r gksus ij osn&’kkL= rFkk vU; /kk£ed xzUFkksa dk v/;;u d:¡xk ijUrq jksfx;ksa vkSj x+jhcksa dh c<+rh la[;k us eq>s x+jhc jksfx;ksa dh gh lsok ds vlyh /keZ dks viukus dh izsj.kk nh gS vkSj eSaus izHkq dh Ïik ls vius vkidks bl dk;Z esa gh yxk fn;k gSAÞ

MkW- lkgc cM+s gh mnkj ço`fÙk ds FksA gLirky esa txg u gksus ij ;k ,sls ejht+ ftudks chekjh FkksM+h gksrh Fkh] mUgsa vius ?kj ij j[k ysrs FksA Jh vk’kkuUn oekZ iz/kku th tc muds ?kj x, rks mUgksaus ns[kk fd ?kj dh gosyh esa 15&20 ejht+ pkjikb;ksa ij ysVs gq, FksA Mk-W lkgc dh /keiZ Ruh vius gkFkksa ls [kkuk f[kyk jgh FkhA MkW- lkgc ls iwNus ij mUgksaus crk;k fd bUgsa FkksM+h chekjh c<+us dk Mj gSA

mudh /keZiRuh Jherh dkS’kY;k nsoh cgqr lq’khy] e/kqjHkk”kh ,oa deZB L=h Fkh og MkW- fo|k lkxj th dks ?kj dh lc ft+Eesokfj;ksa ls eqDr j[krh FkhA ;gk¡ rd fd og ftu ejht+ksa dk jkr dks vius lkFk ykrs Fks mudk jgu&lgu vkSj Hkkstu vkfn dh O;oLFkk dq’kyrkiwoZd djrh FkhA nqHkkZX;o’k og dSalj ls xzLr gksus ds dkj.k 1975 esa mudk lkFk NksM+dj bl lalkj ls thou foJke dj xbZA

MkW- lkgc migkj Lo:i feyh jkf’k dks Hkh nku dj nsrs FksA Mk- lkgc dh mnkjrk dk ifjp; Jh ohj th dks 16 fnlEcj 1974 dks fy[ks muds ,d i= ls feyrkgAS ^^dyvkilcusesjsizfrvR;arLusgrFkklEekuizdVfd;kA mldsfy,vR;ra vkHkkjhgA¡w eaStkurkg¡wfdeaSbruslEekuds;kXs;ughagA¡w bldsvfrfjDrvkiustksijqLdkjfn;k]mldkHkh/kU;oknhgA¡w vius

th dh thoudFkk

6

?kj tkus ij Qhl ysrs Fks vkSj u gh vius fuokl LFkku ij] cfYd viuh

+

rjQ+ ls muds fcLrj vkSj nokbZ;k¡ dk izca/k djrs FksA muds ;s ‘kCn tks

+

mUgksaus vius ,d oDrO; esa dgs ^^eq>s dksbZ vkdj dgs fd Qhl ys yks vkSj

+

?kj pyksA eSa dHkh Qhl ds ykyp esa ugha tkrk (;|fi balkfu;r ds ukrs

dbZ ckj xaHkhj jksfx;ksa dks ns[kus dks tkuk iM+rk Fkk) fdlh lekt] Ldwy] dkWyst vFkok vU; laLFkkvksa esa ;fn eq>s cqyk;k tk, rks pyk tkrk gwa D;ksafd eSa de ls de le; esa T;knk ls T;knk yksxksa dh lsok dj ldwaA**

1 ftl izdkj panu ds isM+ ij lk¡i fyiVs jgrs gSa ysfdu fQj Hkh og viuh lqxa/k dks cjdjkj j[krk gS mlh izdkj MkW- lkgc dks dksbZ Hkh ykyp muds mnkj ân; dks ifjofrZr ugha dj ik;kA ,d lsB ds iq= dks MkW- lkgc us bykt ls fcYdqy Bhd djds uothou fn;kA lsB us dqN /ku jkf’k HksaV djuh pkgh rks MkW- lkgc us mUgsa badkj djrs gq, dqN irs nsrs gq, dgk fd ;fn rqe lPps fny ls nsuk gh pkgrs gks rks bu x+jhc cPpkssa dh Q+ hl] fdrkcksa ds fy, muds ek¡&cki dks 30 #i, izfrekl Hkst fn;k djks ;gh esjh lsok vkSj [kq’kh gksxhA

1 MkW- lkgc dh mnkjrk ds vl¡[; mnkgj.k fey tk,¡xsA dHkh Hkh fdlh Hkh ekSds ij mUgsa ys’kek= Hkh Øks/k vk;k gks] ,slk ukeqefdu gSA MkW- lkgc dh lgu’khyrk bl gn rd Fkh fd gj rjg ds jksxh dks os cgqr vPNh rjg ls laHkky ysrs FksA ,d ckj ,d jksxh yM+dh us MkW- lkgc ds eq¡g ij FkIiM+ yxk fn;kA yM+dh ds firk us mls xqLlk fd;k exj MkW- lkgc us dgk ^^bldks [kqyk NksM+ nksA tks dqN djrh gS djus nks] blh ls rks euaS s rQr+ h’k djuh gAS exj req us bls jkds fn;k rks e>q s dlS s irk yxxs k fd bldk ikxyiu fdl idz kj dk gS vkSj fdl gn rd gSA

1 blds vfrfjDr ,d ckj ,d flikgh jksxh dks gFkdM+h yxk, MkW- lkgc ds ikl ys x;kA jksxh ls ckrphr djus ij irk pyk fd flikgh us mls dqN Hkh [kkus dks ugha fn;k rks MkW- lkgc us flikgh dks iSls nsrs gq, dgk fd igys bls Hkkstu djokdj ykvks fQj bls ns[ksaxsA

1 ‘kkL= esa fy[kk gS fd lcls cM+k iki thokRek dks fuR; u ekuuk gS D;ksafd thokRek dks fuR; u ekuus ls iki c<+rs gSa] fdUrq fdlh ckr dk Kku rHkh iw.kZ gksrk gS tc mls eu] opu rFkk deZ ls ekuk tk,A J1⁄4s; MkW- lkgc okLro esa lHkh euq”;ksa esa thokRek dh fo|ekurk dks eu] opu rFkk deZ ls ekurs gq, ekufld jksfx;ksa dk mipkj djrs jgs gSaA

th dh thoudFkk

vki dks ;kXs ; u le>rs g,q euS s 20 : jkf’k nku QMa eas nh gAS cgrq vkxgz djds cl dk fdjk;k ns fn;k] ejs k eu ugh ekuk] blfy, euS s nku eas ns fn;kA**

1 Mk- lkgc dh mnkjrk bl ckr ls Hkh >ydrh gS fd os u rks fdlh jksxh ds +

7

1

1

th dh thoudFkk

1

1 dÙkZO; %

1

vius dRrZO; dk ikyu MkW- fo|klkxj us cpiu esa gh lh[k fy;k Fkk vkSj os ,d gh ?kVuk ls brus ltx gks x, fd vkthou dÙkZO; dk

ikyuk djrs jgsA tc os vkBoha d{kk esa Fks rks budh cqvkth dh ‘kknh FkhA cky&lyq HkeuHkh’kknheastkusdksepyx;kAyfsdufo|klkxjdsfirkus dgk&rEq gkjh M;~ Vw h gS i<+ks vkSj rHkh ls M~;wVh dh egRork MkW fo|klkxj ds eu esa cSB xbZA

mudh mnkjrk dk ,d vn~Hkqr mnkgj.k ;g gS fd jkr dks vkf[kjh ejhtka+s dks ns[kus ds i’pkr~ dbZ ejht+kas dks ikap ls nl :i,a ns fn;k djrs Fks vkSj dgrs Fks fd nsjh gksus ds dkj.k vkidks fjD’kk eagxh feysxhA

rhu o”kZ dh izkbZosV iszfDVl djus ds i’pkr~ MkW- lkgc us ,d gLirky esa ljdkjh ukSdjh izkjaHk dhA ijk;.krk vius dÙkOZ ; ds ifz r os brus ltx Fks fd

ikzr%6ctslsjkf=10&11ctsrdjkfsx;kasdhn[s kHkkyeasyxsjgrsFkAs mlle; cfgjax esa jksfx;ksa dh la[;k vkSlru 80 FkhA rhu ekl esa gh vLirky esa izfrfnu 250 jksxh vkus yxsA vius ekfld osru esa ls 100 #i, dh nokb;k¡ os mlh gLirky esa j[k nsrs FksA

,slk gh ,d ckj tc ljdkjh gLirky Q+kftYdk esa os vkWizs’ku esa O;Lr Fks] rHkh ,d yk’k iksLVekVZe ds fy, ykbZ xbZA iqfyl ds ml vQ+lj us dke dks igys dj nsus ds t+ksj ij Hkh os vius dÙkZO; ls foeq[k ugha gq, vkSj vkWizs’ku esa O;Lr jgsA fMIVh dfe’kuj dks fjiksVZ dh xbZA is’kh gksus ij

++

mUgksaus lkQ&lkQ ‘kCnksa esa dgk fn;k&tks ekSr ds eqag esa iM+k gS mls cpkuk

MkDVj dk dÙkZO; gSA** mUgksaus ml le; R;kxi= is’k dj fn;kA dksbZ Hkh ykyp ;k mPp inklhu vQljksa dk izHkko mUgsa muds ekxZ ls fMxk ugha ldkA

dÙkZO; ek= fuHkkuk gh muds O;ogkj esa ugha Fkk cfYd mldh iw.kZrk dk vglkl Hkh mUgsa [kq’kh nsrk Fkk ;kfu tc dksbZ jksxh muds bykt ls Bhd gks tkrk Fkk rks MkW- lkgc vR;ar [kq’kh dk vuqHko djrs FksA ,d ckj tc vius lhfu;jlkFkhdslkFkMk-WlkgcgLirkydkjkmMa ysjgsFksrksnksjkxsh,d pkjikbZ ij cBS s gla jgs FkAs mUgsa ns[kdj MkW- lkgc ds eq[k ij izlUurk dh ygj nkSM+ xbZA

vius dk;Z dks le; dh lhekvksa esa ck¡/kus dk iz;kl MkW- lkgc us dHkh Hkh ugha fd;kA os lqcg 8 cts ls nsj jkr 11&12 cts rd ejht+ksa dks dgkfu;ka lqukrs jgrs FksA dHkh&dHkh jkr ds 1&2 ct tkrs Fks D;ksafd dbZ ,sls xaHkhj jksxh gksrs Fks ftUgsa mlh fnu ns[kuk gksrk FkkA fdlh O;fDr us dgk&^^vki xehZ esa bruk dke u fd;k djsa] dgha gesa vkids fo”k; esa vU;Fkk lekpkj

lquus dks u feys] rks MkW- lkgc us tokc fn;k&^^dk;Z djrs gq, e`R;q gks rks vPNk gSA**

8

1

thou foJke% 24 uoEcj 1978 dks MkW- fo|klkxj lc dqN NksM+ Hkxoku ds pj.kksa esa yhu gks x,A ml le; og tEew (J&K) esa vius

nkekn MkW- jes’k vk;Z th ds ikl FksA

th dh thoudFkk

1

lknxh %

1

drZO; ijk;.krk dk ,d mnkgj.k ;g gS fd tc eSa jksgrd esa muds v/khu House Job djrk Fkk rks eSa mudks dke lekIr djus ij vius LdwVj ij muds ?kj NksM+dj vkrk FkkA ml oDr vks-ih-Mh- th&CykWd esa pyrh FkhA tc os jkr dks ckgj fudyrs [kqyh vkSj rkt+h gok esa ejht+ vkSj muds lja{kdcM+set+snkjuhandkvkuUnyrs sg,q n[s kdjdgkdjrsFks^^fdgerks dejs eas xehZ ds vUnj nq%[kh gks jgs Fks tSls fd ge HkV~Bh esa cSBs gksa** D;ksafd ml le; dwyj dk izac/k Hkh ugh Fkk vkSj og vxys fnu fQj mlh dejs esa dke djus ds fy, yx tkrs FksA

mUgkus s vius vuFkd i;z Rukas rFkk vius iHz kko }kjk eukjs kxs foHkkx ds fy, vyx 64 fcLrj dk okMZ cuok;k ftls okMZ ua- 13 dgrs gSaA twu 1972 esa euksjksx foHkkx ogk¡ LFkkukarj.k gks x;kA

^lknk thou] mPp fopkj] bl iafDr dks MkW- lkgc us lgh ek;uksa esa pfjrkFkZ fd;k gSA Lora=rk izkfIr ds ckn ljdkj dh vksj ls baXySaM tkus ls iwoZ dqN tkeijq h cdq lys t+Z fcjknjh us mudks fonkbZ nus s ds fy, ,d gkVs y eas O;oLFkk dhA mlesa MkW- lkgc us dgk&^^eq>s ns[k yks eSa tkeiqjh tk jgk gw¡ vkSj tkeiqjh ls gh okfil vkÅ¡xk** ykSVus ij tc mudk Lokxr fd;k x;k rks lpeqp muesa fdlh izdkj dh rcnhyh ugha vkbZ FkhA tSlh lknxh esa x, Fks oSls gh ykSVs FksA

MkW- lkgc dh lknxh ,d i= esa tks mUgksaus gSnjkckn ds Jh-ds

fo’oukFk dks fy[kk Fkk] muds vius ‘kCnksa esa C;ka gks tkrh gSA

^^eSa det+ksfj;ksa ls Hkjk gqvk ,d lk/kkj.k euq”; gw¡ tks fd vius lkeF;Z vuqlkj viuk Q+tZ fuHkkrk gw¡A yksxksa dh cM+h Ïik gS fd os eq>s vPNk le>rs gSa] ftlls vc Hkh ekufld jksfx;ksa dh lsok ds fy, eq>s ‘kfDr feyrh gSA

9

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FAMILY TREE OF DR. VIDYA SAGAR JI

DR. JIWAN LAL (Father)

Brother

Late Dr. Rattan Lal Dewan

Late Dr. Vidya Sagar

(Wife)

Late Smt. Kaushalya Devi

Brother

Late Dr. Puran Dewan

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Daughter (1). Mrs. Prem Chaudhry (Husband)

Late. Sh. J.N. Chaudhry Founder of VIMHANS

(Grand son)

Dr. Satender Nath Chaudhry (Current Vice Chairman) VIMHANS

(Wife)

Smt. Simrita Chaudhry

(Great grand daughter) Mrs. Sandhya

Daughter (2.)

Mrs. Santosh Arya (Husband)

Dr. Ramesh Arya (Pathologist)

Son

Late Dr. Satyavan Dewan (Wife)

Smt. Raj Dewan

Daughter(3.)

Dr. Mrs. Shanta Sabherwal (Husband)

Dr. Satinder Sabherwal

(Grand son 1)

Dr. Dinesh K. Arya Wife)

Dr. Mrs Mamta Arya

(Grand son 2)

Dr. Rakesh Arya (Wife)

Dr.Mrs. Meenakshi Arya

(Grand son 1) Dr. Asheesh Dewan (Wife)

Dr. Mrs. Ritu Dewan

(Grand son 2)

Dr. Puneet Dewan (Wife)

Dr. Mrs. Padmani Dewan

(Grand son)

Dr. Virender Sabharwal (Wife)

Dr. Mrs. Mahima Sabharwal

(Great Grand Daughter) Ms. Vedika (Grand Daughter) Dr. Mrs. Divya Malhotra (Husband)

Dr. Jitender Malhotra

th dh thoudFkk

MkW- fo|k lkxj th viuh /keZiRuh Jherh dkS’Y;k nsoh ds lkFk

MkW- fo|k lkxj th gou fØ;k esa O;Lr

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th dh thoudFkk

MkW- fo|k lkxj th vius ekrk&firk o vU; ifjokj tu ds lkFk

MkW- fo|k lkxj th ,oa ifjokj

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MkW- fo|k lkxj th tulk/kkj.k dks lacksf/kRk djrs g,

MkW- fo|k lkxj th ,oa foegkul ds fuZekrk vius cM+s nkekn Jh ts-,u- pkS/kjh ds lkFk

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13

Lo- MkW- fo|klkxj th ds ckjs esa ,d cgqr cM+h xyr /kkj.kk

dbZ yksxks rFkk dqN MkWDVjksa dks dgrs gq, lquk x;k fd MkW- fo|k lkxj dsoy M.B.B.S ikl FksA muds ikl euksjksx dh dksbZ fo’ks”k fMxzh ugha

FkhA ;g iw.kZR; vlR; gS] mUgsa iatkc ljdkj us MRCP dh i<+kbZ ds fy, baXkyS.M Hkstk Fkk tgka ij mUgksus 1948&1951 ds le; es London Institute of Psychiatry ls lQyrkiwoZd MRCP fMxzh izkIr dhA

A VERY BIG MISCONCEPTION IN RESPECT OF DR. VIDYA SAGAR

A few people including doctors were observed talking that respected Doctor Vidya Sagar was only MBBS. He had no special degree of Psychiatry. This is absolutely wrong. Punjab Govt. sent him to London for MRCP degree which he passed successfully during the period of 1948-1951 from

London Institute of Psychiatry.

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Hkkx&2

MkW- fo|k lkxj th

dk euksjksx lkfgR; esa ;ksxnku

Mental Health

Dr. Vidya Sagar’s contribution to Mental Health

Literature

Mental Health

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1

ORATION-I CHALLENGE OF OUR TIMES

Presidential Address Delivered At The Silver Jubilee Annual Conference Of The Indian Psychiatric Society, Chandigarh, 17- 21 December 1972

“I am deeply grateful to the fellows of the Indian Psychiatric Society for the honour they have bestowed on me, by electing me the President of this august body for the year 1973, in-spite of my numerous limitations, of which I am far more fully aware than anyone else. All the same, I shall try to do my humble bit for the cause of psychiatry in India with the guidance and help of the talented members of the Executive Committee of the Society. I am doubly honoured by the fact that I am being initiated into this high office in the capital of the state, which has been the field of my activities from 1944 onwards.

Manifesting the ardent wishes of the leaders of the country to see every citizen prosperous and happily housed in modern, airy and well-lighted buildings, surrounded by small gardens. The Life Institute of Paris, which has the objective of studying urban environment and its influence on family, social and professional life, in awarding a big prize to Chandigarh last month,

“Chandigarh is a city conceived to serve the needs and the special character of population. Realized with modest means it is beautiful and useful to man”. This noble city was designed by a great French Architect, Le Corbusier, who gave it the symbol of Open Hand, indicating, in his own words, open for receiving, open for giving, and still more; blessing for peace and prosperity. “It symbolized the great designer, intelligence, ethic and conscience, which, India, through its ancient civilization, has to offer her people and to others.”

To the medical man, Chandigarh is particularly dear for the great Institute of Medical Education and Research, whose benevolent hospitality we are,and would be, enjoying during the days of this Conference. It is monument to the vision, initiative, vigour and versatile wisdom of Padam Bhushan Dr. Tulsi Dass Jee and to the progressive dynamic and towering personality of a former Chief Minister of Punjab, Sardar Partap Singh Kairon. During its short life,

this Institute has risen to the eminence of a Mecca for the suffering

Dr. Vidya Sagar

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people of Punjab, Himachal, Northern Rajasthan and Kashmir is a lighthouse of knowledge for us all.

In this age of technology, man has built computers, which excel the Mathematical efficiency of the human brain, a hundred times: has been able to kill pathogenic organisms selectively with chemo- therapeutic substances and antibiotics: is set on the path of solving the riddle of a living cell; has built faster-than-the speed-of-sound aeroplanes and space-ships, that have enabled him to set foot on the planet Moon; has built great dams across the rivers and utilized the great energy of the mass of water for the benefit of man; has split the atom and utilized it for generating power for lighting the homes, running the industry, and for building a great arsenal of destructive power, as a deterrant to any would-be-aggressor; has constructed magnificent cool places in deserts, providing them with water distilled from the sea; and has designed and activated a movement for international peace and amity through the United Nations Organization – but has not learnt to live peacefully within himself and with his environment as is reflected in the rising incidences of physical and psychological diseases of mental stress and strain, and by the enormous use of tranquilizers, sedatives and narcotics (alcohol, opium, cannabis indica and their derivatives), culminating in the emergence of a vast community of “hippies’. The rising generation is revolting against their elders in the home, in the Universities, and In public life, and is getting increasingly inclined towards bodily pleasures, made pressure salesmanship. In addition, the dreadful forebodings of Ecologists against the increasing pollution of environment, as a result of waste products of industries; and of demographers against over-population, are all threats to the mental health of men. This sorry state of affairs of man, made a farsighted participant in a W.H.O Seminar, held In 1962, say that “the world may have to face an epidemic of mental illness if the existing social ills with mental and emotional causes like delinquency, alcoholism and drug addiction continue”. The call for social justice and for welfare state, is being neutralized partly by fall in the standards of political thinking and of the administration in democratic countries, and of the suppression of freedom of expression, and of suspicions about those who dare to differ, in totalitarian administration. In spite of enormous advances in literacy and to the level of education, man’s attitude to life is getting more shortsighted, and the peace loving majority is being bullied and held to ransom by the aggressive, selfish, unscrupulous and bullying

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minority in organized groups. This recalls to my mind, prophetic words of Brock Chisholm, the first Director-General of the W.H.O, written 31 years ago : “The destructive potentialities of man have become so great that his inferiorities, anxieties, fears, hates, aggressive pressures, fanaticism, and even his increasing devotion and loyalties, which are among the common symptoms of physical, mental or social ill health, may now constitute a serious threat to the continued existence of large number of people, who previously were far beyond his reach”.

This state of the people and their environment is a challenge to psychiatrists of the world, who deal with the problems of unsease of mind, and of interpersonal human relations. Their intimate knowledge of the causation of weaknesses and of strength in the character- structure (Personality) of men and women, equips them for giving good guidance in all types of human endeavour. This role of the psychiatrist must have influenced late Dr. Burlingham of the U.S.A to name his hospital as Institute of the Living, Is not making man happy in his life the ultimate goal of mental health, education, religion industrialization, and of civilization? Let us play our role in these fields by equipping ourselves for it in the true spirit of our science. Dr. S. Radhakrishan, eminent philosopher, thinker, humanist and the past President of the Indian Republic, postulated that spirituality, combined with technology, is the answer to the present day problems of mankind. The same is the view of another great thinker – Rishi Vinoba Bhave, disciple of the Father of the Nation – Mahatma Gandhi. Spirituality, to my mind, is nothing but service above self, i.e., service done without any personal material gain. The Indian sages taught that spirituality is practised by reducing one’s needs to the minimum and then giving the rest of one’s energies to the service of mankind. It does not mean that we have not to make the use of the benefits of modern technology. We must make use of them for our legitimate needs, keeping within our means, and remembering that we have to give much more to society, than we have taken from it.

Coming to our professional problems, we face the challenge of a vast number of the mentally ill, a great proportion of whom are very poor, corresponding to the poverty of our country. Most of us are working in the state Institutions that are inadequately staffed and equipped. According to Prof. Dubey’s sample survey of the mentally ill in and around Agra, there are 14 cases of florid mental illness per thousand of the population, i.e., 7 million mentally ill need care and

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treatment for whom we have hardly 500 psychiatrists, and 20,000 beds in Mental Hospitals and psychiatric institutions, which give us the figure of 1 psychiatrist for 14,000 patients. They can never be accommodated in the institutions. Hence, the emphasis on community Psychiatry has been introduced in the last decade. It is no use comparing ourselves with the advanced and developed countries and copying their lead, as is the general trend of the planners of psychiatric services. We must devise a method suiting our circumstances.

The common man only recognizes an insane patient to be a mental case. We can, therefore, reach him effectively by treating the insane at a little or no cost and inconvenience to him. For this, the closed doors of the Mental Hospitals should be opened to the out patients and arrangements be made to accommodate the patients and their families in tents within or outside the walls of the hospitals, as has been done at Mental Hospital, Amritsar, since 1952. The psychiatric units in teaching and General Hospitals may work in the out-patient buildings after ordinary working hours, so that the states are not burdened by demand for extra buildings. The manageable ones, who need in-patient care, may be admitted in general medical wards, as has been done at Bombay, Ceylon and other places, and the very disturbed ones have to be looked after in a separate side room and sedated effectively with the appropriate psycho-corrective drugs, now available to us.

Another absolutely essential requirment is that the insane patient must be attended to on the day he is brought by the distressed relatives, because no one else can give him the necessary treatment, as an average doctor is not trained to understand and manage the disturbed psychiatric patients. The patient lives with the members of his family, in the company of other members, and is fed and looked after by them. The state has not to incur any extra expenditure on this extended service. A visiting American psychiatric social worker, on seeing this system, remarked that in the U.S.A. they take the mental patient to the hospital: for the duration of his treatment, except for periodic visits by his family, and then spend weeks doing social-case work for bringing about good understanding between the recovered patient and his family. It was also seen by me that the patients admitted to the Mental Hospital harboured a grievance against their consorts, for leaving them amongst the lunatics, and imputed motives to them, but they did not mind living with their families in the hospital areas for weeks together.

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Thirdly, the members of the family of the patient learnt from the doctor’s behavior with the patient, the correct approach to the patient and his illness, and got informed about their ward’s illness as he/she invariably accompanied the patient at the time of consultation with the doctor, except when the doctor had to talk something very private and personal with the patient. The relatives also attended with the convalescent patients, informative talks by the doctors about the elementary dynamics of the mental illness of a particular patient and on the ways of healthy living for maintaining good mental health.

The psychiatrist should enthuse and encourage some of the patients and their guardians to organize a Mental Health Society in the spirit of Clifford W. Beers of the U.S.A, and make the community- mental-health conscious by speaking to them in clubs, Community Halls, at religious congregations, in schools and colleges, on the principles of mental health, proper care and bringing up of children and on the problems of adolescence and of married life. The psychiatrist thus forms a nucleus of mental health activities in the community. But however ardent and dedicated he/she may be, he cannot make up for the enormous shortage of numbers. For this the Governments of the State and the center need to take some effective measures. There should be qualified psychiatrists at the District Headquarter hospital and later at the Sub-Divisional hospital.

THE MENTAL HEALTH ACT : The Indian Lunacy Act of 1912 needs to be replaced by a comprehensive Mental Health Act, which should reflect modern psychiatric thinking. The draft of the Act already prepared by the Government of India falls far short of the Mental Health needs of the country. The new Act should do away with the necessity of getting orders from the courts, for the admission of a psychiatric patient to a Mental Hospital except for those patients who refuse to be taken to hospital. A board of three doctors of the hospital should have the authority to transfer a patient from this hospital to a Home for long-stay patients, with the consent of the guardian of the patient, or hand over the patient to him or her, after getting signed a statement, that he/she would look after the patient and prevent him from doing harm to himself or to others. All psychiatric institutions should have paying and non-paying wards so that the courts have not to be approached for assessing the liability for maintenance charges. The Mental Health Services are of varied types, e.g. Mental Hospitals, Psychiatric units in General Hospitals, Homes for the long-stay patients, special hospitals for the treatment of criminal lunatics, for

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narcotic lunatics, for narcotic addicts, psychopathic personalities and for the mentally deficient children. In addition, special schools have to be set up in collaboration with the Education Department for the educable mentally backward children. Child guidance, adolescent guidance and marriage counseling units have to be set up. All this is a gigantic task, which can only be taken up by Mental Health Services Grants Commission, which should be provided for in the new Mental Health Act.

It is, however, re-emphasized that the basic doctors working at the Primary Health Centers and in general practice have to be sufficiently informed in psychiatry, as he is, in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, so as to be able to diagnose psychiatric illnesses and treat most of them himself (which he can), and refer others to the psychiatrists at the Referral and headquarter Hospital. For this, the All India Medical Council has to be convinced and persuaded to provide far better education in psychiatry to the Medical undergraduates, as recommended by the Saha Committee of the Indian Psychiatric Society. The council should also provide for 3 months’ compulsory Registrarship in a psychiatric unit for all the post – graduates in Medicine and for one month for post-graduates in Surgery, during their training period.

PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES FOR EX-MILITARY PERSONNEL : The Government and the people of India have shown gradually increasing concern for the welfare of the families of Armed Forces, and for the rehabilitation of the disabled soldiers, but the services provided are far lower than they deserve, because they are the ones, who die or get disabled – fighting, so that their countrymen may live in freedom and be protected from internal disorders. The Army authorities must plan for an organization like the Veterans Administration of the U.S.A have beds reserved for the retired Armed Forces Personnel in Psychiatric Units, as is being done by the Employees State Insurance Corporation, and the Procedure of admission for them should be modified to the extent that the letter of the Commanding officer of the nearest Military Hospital or even production of a discharge Certificate by the family of the patient, should be sufficient authority for the said patient’s admission to a psychiatric institution.

EDUCATION AND MENTAL HEALTH : The objectives of education and of Mental Health are the, viz., promotion of man’s innate mental abilities and utilizing these in constructive activities for

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one’s own good and that of others (since all employment opportunities constitute direct or indirect service of others). The employee must keep learning from his own experience and that of others and should be able to reason out correctly, and should give the benefit of his knowledge to the best of his abilities to others. But education in this country has become more and more examination-oriented, instead of work and living oriented, and, for this reason, it does not leave an impression on the character of the young scholar. The candidates understanding of a subject should be tested by asking practical application of his knowledge to man’s life and work. The courses in general science in school should contain chapters on humanity, fellowship of man, emotional integration with all sections of society and with world community, population dynamics, environmental science, healthy family life, and loyalty to one’s duty, etc. A man educated in this way is likely to be mentally healthy.

RELIGION AND PSYCHIATRY : Most psychiatrists, like many men and women of high education, have an allergy to dislike religion. But religion is as old as human society and an important part of its culture, and constitute a part of man’s subconsciousness. The essential concept of all religions is the same, viz., Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man. In course of time, these got mixed up with myths and parables, which were meant to give certain lessons in story forms, but people started believing them as true, making religious ideas to be ludicrous. Secondly, the ancient religious writings are in a language which is no longer in common use, and, therefore, translations and commentaries by different scholars have differ a great deal, and some have brought disrepute to those texts. Men of understanding have, however, separated the grain from the chaff, and nourished themselves with them. These men of religion are remembered over hundreds of years because they postulated a way of life that comforted successive generations of men in their journey of life.

Since most mental illnesses arise from emotional stress of anxiety of death or of illness of self or of dear ones, want of necessities or loss of our possessions and or of prestige in society, teachings or eminent men of religion can be quoted to such patients to support or inspire their ego, just as a student of science quotes the work of eminent scientists to support his viewpoint. I have, therefore, used these concepts in supportive psychotherapy of patients, and have found it beneficial to many. Moreover, we are taught in psychotherapy, to my mind; corresponds to the Behaviourist or Pavlovian School in

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which attempt is made to train the individual, to give the desired mental ease-giving-response to an urge or craving, by inculcating a desirable idea, in place of mental reward or punishment.

All religions teach us to eschew pleasures of senses for achieving peace of mind. “The Gita” gives this as the pivotal point for the stability of mind. Physiology teaches us that sensory nerve- endings get used to a certain stimulus after some repetitions, and then a stronger stimulus is required for evoking the same response. This is also seen in our daily lives in relation to all the senses. If we make sensory gratification as the chief source of our happiness, then we shall have to go on increasing the stimulus progressively and there will be no end to it. Most of our time would be spent on personal gratification. and there would be less time left for doing good to others without expecting any returns, as required for combining spirituality with technology, as per the advice of Dr. Radhakrishan. The practical demonstration of the effects of sensory gratification is being seen in the alcohol, tranquilizers and narcotics, and increase in the incidence of mental illnesses.

“The Gita”, which is the esence of Hindu religious text- “Vedas” and “Shastras” – clearly says that indulgence in bodily pleasures leads to lust, anger, greed, attachment and pride, which are enemies of peace of mind. The same book also teaches man to do his duties to the best of one’s abilities to the family, friends and fortune.

To my mind, these are the basic truths of life, which shall always stand the test of time, and we ignore them to our own discomfiture. In a poor country like India, an austere way of life by the Psychiatrist enables him to identify himself with the masses quicker and vice versa, and allows him more time for serving them. This builds up rapport with the patients easily, and a positive therapeutic climate, in which the doctor’s assurances and guidance are accepted by the patients, relatively quickly.

YOGA AND MENTAL DISEASES : Professor Vahia of Bombay has been the pioneer in this country in the use of Yogic concepts for the treatment of some neurotic mental illnesses and had set up a physiological laboratory for the measurement of effects of Yogic therapy. Such reports have also come from The American workers, and they are so much impressed by it that they I have suggested its possible use in the treatment of patients who want to give up smoking and drug habits. This should stimulate us to study our

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ancient cultural heritage, including Yoga, and make them understandable and useful concepts and practices of this science available to mankind. It is suggested that a Sub-Committee of this Society be convened under Prof. Vahia for this purpose.

TRAINING GENERAL PRACTITIONERS IN PSYCHIATRY : We recognize the general Practitioners as the backbone of Mental Health Services, being the first to reach the patient, and the one who looks after him, after discharge from a psychiatric ward. He needs to be informed adequately on the subject, because of his relatively poor education in the subject during his undergraduate medical training. He cannot attend repeated refresher course held at a Psychiatric Center. I dare suggest to all the psychiatrists to write clinical papers on the subject for the benefit of the General Practitioners, and have those published in the Provincial Medical Journals, or in the Journal of the Indian Medical Association. This august body may also consider constituting a sub-committee, which would invite articles from the talented members of the society for the general practitioners and have those published in medical journals and later in a book form. The psychiatrists should become members of the local Medical Association and be available to them for lectures on psychiatric subjects. Psychiatrists are also requested to start contributing short articles true daily or weekly papers on day-to-day psychiatric problems of the common man to make people aware of the role of emotions in the causation of various types of mental dysfunctions in children, adolescents, adults, the elderly and the old.

SILVER JUBILEE OF THE SOCIETY : The Indian Psychiatric Society is now completing 25 years of its existence. It owes its inception to Brig. T.A. Munro, who was adviser in Psychiatry to the Indian Army in 1945-47. He convened an inaugural meeting of the society at Delhi on 7-1-1947. It was attended by Dr. Dhunjbhoy, Rosie, Davis, Kenton, Lloyds-Still, Masani, Govindaswamy, Shah and Lal of that distinguished group, Major Davis, who has completely identified himself with India, is amidst us, and we salute him (with cheers). He has taken a keen interest in the growth of this society, and has always guided with his mature wisdom. We all wish him a happy, healthy and long life amidst the members of his family.

The society has grown in its membership and in its stature by virtue of the distinguished work of some of its members, which has

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made them well-known beyond their country as well. Under their guidance, this society will earn a more glorious name in the years to come.

It is our duty not only to add luster to its name by working energetically, in the spirit of science, but also to increase the membership. Everyone working in a psychiatric unit should be persuaded to become a member or Associate Member. It is customary to make a new Resolution on all the auspicious days that we celebrate, and on this Silver Jubilee Celebration. Let us pledge to keep abreast of times, do our utmost in relieving the sufferings of the mentally ill, and propagate the mental health concept as our response to the challenge of the vast number of patients and of many problem of living that confront man.

On behalf of the I.P.S, I extend a very cordial welcome to worthy President of the A.P.A. and other eminent psychiatrists to this Conference. We are immensely gratified and honoured by their presence.

Before resuming my seat, I deem it as my duty and privilege to express the heartfelt thanks to all the fellows and members of the Society who have come over here from far or near, to the President and members of the Reception Committee, and particularly to the Organizing Secretary Prof. N.N.Wig, his colleagues and his students, who have worked hard to make this session a success, and have extended generous hospitality to us. I am also deeply grateful to Prof. P.N. Chhutani, the Director of this great Institute, for allowing us to hold this Conference on the premises of the Institute. We are also deeply obliged to worthy Vice-Chancellor of the Punjab University and to the Government of Punjab and Haryana, for allowing us the use of the University guest house, and M.L.A, hostel for the delegates. We are very grateful to those families, who have very generously extended their hospitality to some of our distinguished guests from abroad. To those philanthropists who have contributed generously to the reception committee fund and have extended hospitality to the delegation of this Conference, I express my sincere obligation.

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2

ORATION-II

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(Address to the Rotary Club on the presentation of gold medal) (July 1962)

I am honoured by your bestowing this medal on me. The credit for this is to my grandparents (who looked after me in infancy) when my mother had passed away. In early boyhood, an Arya Samaji worked in my native town and took charge of my care from the first class to the final year of M.B.B.S. My father, a very talented medical man, took personal charge of my education and upbringing through his long weekly letters, and his personal coaching during vacations.

Just before joining the medical college, an English Missionary’s advice to concentrate on serving patients, without consideration of payments set an indelible ideal before me. The patriotic fervor generated by the ideal and actions of Gandhi Ji, C.R. Dass, Motilal Nehru, Lala Lajpat Rai, Mahatma Hans Raj, and eminent members of the D.A.V. College Society infused the spirit of service and an attitude of humility in me.

The high sense of devotion to science seen in the life of my revered teacher of the Postgraduate school in England taught me an attitude of analyzing and reasoning a problem. The science of Psychiatry, which may be better called science of living, gave me insight into my own mind, and that of my patients, and generated in me a new enthusiasm for life, and for fellow human beings. The response of my recovering patients, their relatives, and of the listeners to my talks on mental health stimulated me to keep on thinking and working in the service of this science. My greatest satisfaction & in life has been that I practised what I learnt and preached.

However, the greatest support in my way of life has been from my wife who has never made any demands on me for personal comfort, riches, and attention, but has devotedly joined me in my way of life, and willingly worked hard not only for our near and dear ones, but for the numerous patients who stayed with us.

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The mentally ill have been the neglected members of society although most of them have been thinking, feeling and sensitive type of persons. The medical services available for them are very limited, in India in general and Haryana in particular.

Although the psychiatric patients constitute a good proportion, yet there is no provision for psychiatrists in upgraded hospitals & what to speak of district and referral hospitals. Moreover, there is an urgent need of a mental Hospital cum asylum in Haryana so that the chronic, incurable and the disturbed patients can be segregated, as the insane are not only a bad influence in the home, and in the civilized community, but may be also dangerous to society and to themselves. They need to be protected from their own anger and hostility.

WHAT LIFE MEANS TO ME…?

Life to me is an opportunity for developing my innate abilities, and gain knowledge of self and of the environment, as taught by The learned researchers and thinkers and to make use of it for keeping myself happy through constructive activities and thoughts as has been aptly stated in the old age“Man lives to learn and learns to live”.

The Vedas, which are recognized as the oldest written work by mankind, have named man as “KRITU”, i.e. one who performs actions for his own good and that of others & because men can only live by selling his service to fellow men, the price being received either in the form of return services or in kind, or as money. The next most important thing to learn is “how to conduct oneself in relation to others,” as receiving and giving of services is greatly influenced by one’s conduct in both spheres, the correct conduct being that which gives happiness to the receiver and to the giver. This is, in essence, the science of Ethics or of Morals.

Life or living is like a business organization in which there are inputs and outputs. The process of development or of evolution

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requires, that there be far more output than input. Man’s body and mind are built through the input of food and thoughts. The output is the form of processed ideas and services, which must be far more than the input; otherwise man’s own growth and that of the society would be stunted, leading ultimately to decay.

When man gives far more than he receives, that is spiritualism. Materialism is that ideology by which the inputs for personal bodily build up and pleasure are greater than what one gives to others. For the healing growth of society, spiritualism has to be integrated with materialism. The inventor or the discoverer who gives away his findings for the benefit of the human society, with little or no personal gain is as much spiritualist as a saint, who teaches people a way of living a calm, contented and happy life.

An individual’s life is, therefore, not his own, but that individuals debt to human race. What a person eats, reads or learns is the result of labour of the entire human race, and, therefore, he carries an immense load of debt immensely isolated to the human race which he is duty bound to pay back to the present day society, in the humility of a debtor, partly through courteous speech and behavior, partly through his services, and thought well of bringing up the progeny.

Man’s life is undoubtedly beset with difficulties, sufferings and pains, some due to his own conscious mistakes, some due to ignorance, some due to. wickedness of fellow men, the animals and microbes, and some due to the mighty forces of nature; but he is so much fortified with the armament of intelligence that he mostly protects himself, but in extreme cases, he goes down fighting relatively calm state of mind. Ancient Indian thought exhorted man to emulate the lotus flower, which keeps standing out of the pool of dirty water in which it has its roots as a repayment of debt of the human race.

What one gets from the society in general and parents, in

particular, is best repaid through services to one’s progeny, who are

the inheritors of human legacy, by bringing them up in a way, that they

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become healthy, well educated and well behaved individuals, imbibed with the desire to work efficiently, and to respect the rights of others, in the spirit of the saying: “Do unto others, as you wish to be done by”. Our obligation to the parents requires that we must be considerate to their ideas and feelings and to serve them affectionately when they are weak and/or lonely. We redeem our obligation to the society, in general, by doing work (for which we are paid) honestly, diligently and earnestly in accordance with the requirements of the situation. In addition, we must seek an opportunity to do a good turn to the needs of persons (not necessarily the poor ones), through voluntary social service, in any capacity particularly when our duties towards our dependents are finished. The Indian sages ordained that the 3rd and 4th quarter of one’s life span, maybe100 years, be spent in voluntary social service.

One owes a great deal to one’s partner in life for comfort. That debt is redeemed by living together with mutual respect and regard for the feeling of each other so as to march through life in unison like the two wheels of a chariot. Having known, that the good earth is getting overburdened with the demands of growing population, we owe it to the posterity, to achieve zero population growth through aiming at two offspring only for each couple.

Relationship with God : The complicated system of forces in the atom (as discovered by the scientists) and the immense cosmos, and living protoplasm, of which man is the highest evolved creature, suggest that there must be a creator, whose Genius had made nature as a welfare system, as brought out by the sciences of biology and ecology. The sages have, therefore, taught us to remember His grace all the time. After learning from the experiences of others, we do our best and leave the result of all our efforts to Him, believing firmly that He would do, what is good for us in the long run. This will save us from misgiving and fear, about the future, and to bear all difficulties with

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fortitude, with the understanding that these must be for our good. In fact, there is always something to learn from all successes and failures. The religion, therefore, considers life of a human being as an opportunity to realize oneself as a soul that is akin to God, and can merge with Him through selfless genuine bond.

Anothercorollaryofthisabidingfaithintheexistenceof Godis that being children of one God. We must all live as brothers and sisters. The Indian philosophy also postulates the existence of a soul in man and in living beings like the invisible electric current that starts an electrical machine. When the current is switched on, this soul migrates to another body after death, carrying some attributes of the experiences of previous life. It gets emancipated by acts of selfless service to other beings, leading to a more advanced level of life in the next birth. With this hypothesis, the fear of death is greatly reduced and one feels an incentive for doing good acts, which not only benefit us here by giving us some peace of mind but promise a reward of better status in the next birth. The advanced life according to the Indian philosophy is that which is predominantly selfless. Reduction in the pursuit of bodily pleasures to the level of minimum necessity is considered to be an absolute necessity for the higher level of selfless living. Secondly, I should do my duty well, feeling secure in the benevolence of Providence, and thus save myself from anxiety about the future.

TO SUMMARIZE, life means to me an opportunity of development of one’s abilities, through learning from the experiences of others and using that knowledge for the service of others, good part of which should be selfless.

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3 ORATION-III

Address to the Lions Club on the presentation of Medal of Honor

Dr. Vidya Sagar

It was a pleasant surprise for me to receive your worthy Secretary’s letter four days ago, inviting me to address your august Association on the causes and cures of mental illness. Society has usually linked mental doctors with mental patients and have made themtheobjectofmuchsarcasm.I,therefore,feltitagreathonour to be called upon to speak to an audience of the intellectuals and leaders of society, that are the members of this club. But I did hesitate a bit for a while because I had little opportunity for mixing with eminent people. However, my eyes caught your noble and glorious motto, “Service above Self”. He profits most who serves best and l beamed with joy, because I felt within me an identity of ideals and of the goal. At the same time, a recent remark of our great leader – Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, flashed across my mind that in Rotary, people discuss a large variety of issues. I felt strengthened, emboldened to reply promptly accepting the invitation thinking that it was as much my duty to build up sympathetic public opinion in the cause of mental patient as that of treating them. It is only during and after the Second World War that mental diseases have come to attract greater attention of the profession, the society and the state for the following reasons:

(i) The incidence of mental illnesses in the armies of the democracies (U.S.A., U.K. & India) was relatively high and nearly 1/3rd of all discharges from the armed forces on medical grounds were for reasons of mental illness, whereas, in the Russian armies. the incidence of mental illness was extremely low, partly for the reason, that the Russian soldier had no worry of his family, because he knew that they would be well looked after by the State, partly for the fact, that he was so thoroughly indoctrinated from childhood onwards in dying for the defence of the state as his first duty, that he had no difficulty in rising above self. This must have influenced the great democracies of U.K. and U.S.A. towards taking a big stride towards organizing a welfare state, along socialistic lines in U.K. and the bounteous New Deal policy of Presidents Roosevelt and Truman.

(ii) There have been spectacular advances in the treatment of insanity from 1929 to 1940, and of minor mental illnesses, the neuroses, during the War time, because the stresses to which civilians of all ages were exposed during Air raids, provided opportunities of more intensive study of the human factors.

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(iii)In the mid thirties, an enterprising journalist in America managed to get admitted to a mental hospital in America. He w a s s o shocked by the primitive, almost inhuman way in which insane patients were kept that he wrote a series of articles in the press, which pricked the conscience of the generous people of that vigorous democracy, and the public started demanding clean up of the mental hospitals, and humane treatment of the insane, the legislators took up the cue and a remarkable change in the mental hospitals came up. Later, the story of the mental hospitals was published in a book which carried the title of snake pit and a film version of it was subsequently made.

This awakening had world wide influence, as had been so well expressed by Theodore Parker: “Mankind never loses any good thing, physical, intellectual or moral, till it finds a better and then the loss is a gain. No step backward is the rule of human history. What is gained by one man is inverted in all men and is a permanent investment for all time.”

I think that the Punjab Mental Hospital, Amritsar, founded in 1948, isnotasnakepit.butafairlydecenthostelbuilt onverysimplelines, in consonance with our cultural heritage and our financial limitation. The utilitarian principles and not the architectural grandeur have been the guiding principles of its planners.

The modern thought in mental hospital practice is faithfully translated in action, within the limitations of the education, training and availability of the staff, and in one respect it is abreast of times, namely in the matter of allowing closer contact of relatives with the patients.

We allow interviews from 8,00 A.M. to 6 P.M. without restrictions and the visitors are allowed to go into the wards any time, and see how the patients live.

The opening para of the report of this hospital for 1953, published by the controller of printing and stationery, Punjab, sums up the pride and the outlook of the workers of the Mental Hospital as follows: It must not be understood that the duty of the state and of the society towards mental patients and mental health problems finishes with a well – organised mental hospital. On the other hand, we are just on the fringe of the problems and my grouse is that neither the state nor the society is doing enough for the mentally ill. Time will not allow the presentation of even bare outlines of a plan for the mental health service of the state. At this stage, I do want to express my

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disappointment at the inadequate attention given to the provision of mental health services by the organised medical profession and by the government at a time, when competent survey committees in advanced countries have stated that the illnesses of 30% of patients attending the office of a general practitioner are predominantly due to psychological cause.

It, therefore, augurs well for the state that the Rotary has started taking interest in the cause of mental health. I am a humble worker in that cause, thank you heartily for it, on my own behalf and on behalf of the vast numbers of mental patients and their guardians who are not able to get proper treatment and care for want of adequate mental health services in the state.

It is a fact that the incidence of mental illnesses is increasing all over the world, because in spite of all the gains and comforts provided by the advancement of science, the stress felt by an average human being is greater than even before which is due to the fact that the achievements of science have increased our needs and demands, which we cannot satisfy because of our competitive existence nor have we learnt to be contented with what we have be it little or much.

Our education has emphasized more on our knowledge of material things, the language, the flights and achievements of man, the greatness of the universe and the various groups of people that inhabit this planet but least about ourselves, about the genesis of our particular ways of thought, feelings and behaviors. Our great Prime Minister has put it very tersely when he said, “In the modern civilization, the pace of living becomes so fast that it overtakes thinking”. Although there is nothing faster than thought yet organized, adaptive constructive thought in relation to actual situations of life in a very slow process of deliberate education and practice.

We say that mental illness in vast majority of cases is nothing but an inappropriate way of dealing with the difficulties of life, and that the difference between the normal and abnormal mind is one of quantity and not of quality. We have not learnt how to ease the mental tension arising from lack of satisfaction of our increasing varieties of needs, wishes and desires in the context of longer and more lasting happiness and of harmonious relationship with the environment. Mental health being is nothing else than a feeling of well-being, good efficiency in work and harmonious adjustment with environment, a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.

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There are 3 levels of working of the mind, which act and interact on one another simultaneously:

(i) Thebiologicalmind.

(ii) Theegoorrealitytestingintelligence. (iii) The conscience or superego.

The object of all three levels is the same, namely, achievement in the struggle for existence through adaptation-internal and external. Although the object is the same, yet the three tiers of the mind are very often in conflict with one another except in the earliest stages of infancy, when biological mind is dominating and the ego and super ego have not yet developed.‘Ignorance is bliss” because of no conflicts, the biological needs cannot be satisfied immediately because of limitations of one’s capacities in relation to the environments, and by the restrictions of super ego, which contain the experiences of thousands of generations of human beings. These conflicts have to be eased through healthier bringing up in childhood when our basic ways of responding to life situations are formed and by the proper use of the weapon of intelligence, a part of which becomes the mediator between the three. When we fail to achieve adaptation or compromise within ourselves and with the environments, the result is called mental disturbance, which is shown partly in our bodies and partly in our thoughts and behaviors, because mind is not only a part of the body, but is the highest controlling and guiding factor.

Other factors complicate the causation of mental disturbance.

(i) Constitutional : nature, nurture, the brick and mortar and beams.

(ii) Psychological : plaster and internal decoration and set up, which becomes the vital part of the building.

(iii) Physical : physical well-being of the nerve cells about which we know so little except that those are remarkably fortified. It is the constitution which mainly determines, whether a man will break into this or that pattern of disordered activity, to be called mental disease.

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Treatment tobeginwith:

(i) Byfaith.

(ii) Bymedicinalagents.

(iii) By torture (when people become proud of their intelligence and are intolerant to those who do not believe with them).

(iv) Scientific understanding & treatment.

The modern treatment

(i) Lovethepatientandtreathimasahumanbeing(Mentalpeace).

(ii) Maintainphysicalhealth.

(iii) Re-orientation of his thought by psychological and physical methods.

(iv) Supportive measures. (v) Occupational therapy. (vi) Diversion therapy.

Another important element of the modern treatment is the prevention of mental illnesses. 1908-Clifford Beers,-a law student wrote the book “A mind that found himself”, and then devoted himself to the improvement of the conditions of mental hospitals and initiated the mental hygiene movements.

(i) Psychiatricaspectsofpregnancyandchildbirth. (ii) Childguidance-clinic-delinquency.

(iii) Youth guidance Vocational guidance.

(iv) Marriage counselling Parental guidance.

(v) Psychiatric aspects of crime.

(vi) Industrial psychology.

(vii)Human relations groups.

(viii) Out patient psychiatric clinics.

(ix) Homes for mentally deficient.

(x) Juvenile offenders psychopaths.

(xi) Homes for the aged and the chronic incurable. (xii)Social medicine. Study of narcotic drugs.

‘We have only a small mental hospital, which is predominantly an asylum. No other mental health service at all.

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4 ROLE OF FAMILY IN PSYCHIATRY

Dr. Vidya Sagar

The Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, who have been the leaders in India in Neurosurgery, Cardiothoracic surgery, Haemodialysis and in reconstructive surgery of the lepers, have also been pioneers in the treatment of the mentally ill. It is, therefore, very appropriate for them to have chosen the theme of ‘Family in Psychiatry’ for the Southern Regional Conference of the IndIan Psychiatric Society. I have been associated with this type of work in the Mental Hospital at Amritsar and later at the Medical College Hospital, Rohtak, and present my observations on the subject.

The then prevailing practice of keeping the inmates of a mental hospital rigidly separated from their kith and kin, and allowing merely a short interview once in a fortnight at the gate of the hospital, appeared to me to be at variance with the teaching of dynamic psychiatry. Moreover, no outsider could go into a mental hospital, with the result that strange conjectures and rumors like the ones given below were afloat :

(i) Insane are kept chained and are given ruthless corporal punishment for misbehavior and are ducked in ice-cold water pits.

(ii) Patientsonceadmittedtomentalhospitalareneverreleased.

(iii) The patients inside the hospital harbor grievances against their near and dear ones. It was, therefore, considered imperative that the families of patients be associated closely with them.

a) Families were provided facilities to stay inside the walled hospital as a measure of protection against the escape of their wards and get treatment as out-patients.

b) Guardiansofrefractorypatientswereencouragedtogettheir wards admitted as voluntary boarders, whom they could get discharged any time they liked.

c) The relatives of freshly ill patients were advised to stay on in the town and to visit their wards daily, at all hours of the day

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time and for as long as they liked to talk and stay with them. The relatives of those patients who flared up on seeing them were taken to the patient by the doctor, who would gently assure the patient of their good intentions. Later the guardians were allowed to see their patient near the wards, under the supervision of the attendant. In some cases, female relatives of women patients and male relatives of men patients were allowed to stay in wards with their patients as long as the liked.

d) Educationoftheconvalescentpatients,andtheguardiansof the patients, on the roll of environmental factors in the genesis of mental illness, was undertaken in meetings, held thrice a week, based on a case history either given by the patient himself or on written-case history. Measures for the prevention of relapses in the individual cases and mental health principles were explained.

e) Theroleofreligiousthoughtsandreligiouspractices prevalent amongst the people of the area, in getting some peace of mind, was explained.

f) The family, mother, father or spouse who accompanies the patient to the doctor, learn the patient’s feelings as he/ she unburden them before the doctor, gives objective information and watches the doctor’s attitude, listens to his point of view and his interest and instructions regarding treatment This in itself is far more instructive and educative than the interviews with the psychiatric social workers. In the general hospital setting each patient admitted to the psychiatric ward was allowed to have one attendant at a time, so that the patient does not feel himself to be isolated. The attendant looks after his intake of food and personal cleanliness and takes him out for a walk. They read to each other the newspaper items and discuss these or their work or other family matters. In this way, the patients brighten up soon and start taking interest in the environments quicker. It is my clinical impression that patients who are attended to by their own dear ones get well quicker than those who are not attended.

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The guardians of some patients feel very nervous and apprehensive when they are separated from their wards and for their own ease of mind, withdraw the patients from the hospital even against the interests of the patients.

Psycho-dynamics of family care All human beings regress to a. variable degree in situations of emotional stress. Disease, which is best defined as DIS-EASE (want or stoppage of the ease of mind), is a situation of emotional stress the degree of which varies according to the degree of the handicap (disability) on one’s efficiency. Man regresses in disease and hence his demand for being nursed by the family or the family surrogate – the nurse. Freud postulated that schizophrenics regress to infancy and, therefore, they are the ones who need the family most. Even if an early schizophrenic denounces his family, he feels insecure in their absence and yearns for them as soon as he gets some clarity of mind. The strength of the family bonds is tested in the crucible of emotional stress and the tender care given by one’s life partners in illness strengthen the family bonds. It is the mentally distressed person who needs the support of the family most, and ironically he is the one who is sent up for treatment in a closed institution in a Mental Hospital the parent may become angry and fearful of the misbehaviour of a mentally ill person, even though the seeds of it were sown by his own neglect and inconsiderate behaviour during the childhood of the patient. Hostility is created in the minds of the patients and of the members of their family, which has to be softened by the patient work of the psychiatric social worker and the therapist over weeks and months. In some cases, the break may be unbridgeable for various reasons. Again, when the patient comes home, any slight change in his conduct may frighten the family and prompt them to send the patient back to the mental hospital. Patient may react to this, with overt or suppressed hostility and the latter may be shown in further angularities of behaviour, leading to a relapse. Just as love begets love, hostility begets hostility. Hostility tolerated by the family paves the way for better understanding, and consequent ease of mind of the distressed. It is not to be a mute tolerance, but mixed with affectionate gestures and sincere explanations and acknowledgment of one’s shortcomings. Objections to the family care program and their answers.

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The stress and strain on the members of the family of the mentally disturbed patient, within the limited accommodation and economic resources of the family are great, there can be a strong tendency and temptation to relegate this duty to the state or the social agencies, like the health insurance. But the number of the mentally ill seeking treatment has increased to such an extent that even the rich countries find it impossible to house them all, and community psychiatry has been their catch word during the sixties and seventies. This alone can bring home to the people the much required mentally health consciousness. The main objection is the loss of working time and neglect of business (farm, shop , factory or home) and the necessity of housing so many relatives near a psychiatric unit for a short period. Secondly, mentally ill patients are a bad influence in the home and may possibly harm other members of the family.

The answer to both the objections is that there are degrees of mental illness as in medical and surgical illness. The milder illnesses can be treated in the family for a minimum period, where contact with the patient be maintained as far as possible, and facilities for patients’ relatives be provided in planning for any hospital. A patient convalescing in a hospital in India would cost the state Rs. 200/- a month, while the same period spent at home would cost nothing to the state and being the family closer.

So far as the under developed country like India is concerned, where the hospital services are relatively meager and the nursing facilities are insufficient even in a teaching hospital and the paying wards, the patients are mostly nursed by their own families rather than by the nurses. Everyone who brings his ward to the hospital comes with the clear understanding that he will have to stay on for the care of his patient. They, therefore, do not feel their presence as an economic burden or physical hardship. As one who has worked on these lines for nearly 20 years in towns of 1 to 4 lacs population, I have not known the low income group feeling sore, provided they can be assured of their wards being given the necessary treatment promptly.

The role of general practitioners in the family care programme The general practitioner, including the medical officer in charge of the primary health centre or the civil dispensary, is the

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backbone of the health services. But the misfortune is that he has not learned to handle the mentally ill because of the relatively poor training in Psychiatry during his undergraduate training. This has not been realized by the learned members of the All India Medical Council, and the Deans of the Medical Faculties of the Universities in India.

Community Psychiatry in India. the limitations of finances of the States would not allow us to think and plan in terms of Community psychiatry as conceived by the developed Countries. If the State can have a well-staffed mental hospital, a well-staffed Psychiatric department in each Medical College and Home for the chronic mental patients during the next 20 years and each psychiatrist takes in the quadruple role of the humanitarian ( Phillip Pinel), mental health reformer and propagandist (Clifford W. Beers)of an accepting parent and an up-to-date psychiatrist, that would be something to rejoice at.

In developing countries where masses are illiterate and mass communication media – the news papers and the radio – give so little space for information about daily emotional problems, the people would be influenced immensely by the quadruple – role psychiatrist, and would promptly shed off their superstitions and wrong information, as I have seen myself. Moreover, these simple people get so much confidence in the bonafides of the doctors of the psychiatric unit that they run up to them even after the appearance of the signs of notable aberration in the behaviour of their ward.

Family Psychiatry

is a

Professional & Patriotic duty

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5

FAMILY INVOLVEMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL

Dr. Vidya Sagar

Introduction : The human family is the primary social unit where the mother has the pivotal role of one who feeds and nourishes. While the father provides and protects, the mother also imparts to the infant, between the age of 6 month to 3 years, the wisdom of the ancestors in the form of do’s and don’ts of living, which ultimately constitutes man’s conscience. This enables him to live a socially responsible life. In addition. The family provides, through the progeny, biological integration and immortality. The grown – progeny, are likely to be a support for the parents at some stage. Thus, the family solidarity is the key note of the civilized society.

The family bonds are vary strong in agricultural and families of petty traders as they remain rooted to the place of their birth by their work and property. But some adolescents and young adults move away from home to the centres of learning and in search of avenues of work so that the bond of attachment to the members of the parental family get rather tenuous. All the same, the family constitutes a fort, where one can retreat in the crisis of life, such as illness, accidents, losses and death, and can be sure of receiving help and comfort.

With the advancement of knowledge, human society has evolved the institution of hospitals, where professional nurses give sympathetic care and motherly attention. But even then, the patients have always welcomed and in fact, look forward to visits and gifts (flowers in western countries, fruits and eatables in India), from their near and dear ones. However, in underdeveloped countries, the hospitals have not yet reached the desired level of nursing care for various reasons. This is particularly marked in the psychiatric units.

Until 1946. the psychiatric services in India were limited to Mental Hospitals only, where there 15,000 beds for a population of 400 millions, whereas the health planning and survey committee of the government of India, estimated the requirement at that time, as 3 million beds. Most mental hospitals did not have even one trained psychiatrist on their staff. After World War II, about a hundred psychiatrists, released from Army Service, got posted in various mental hospitals and some of them were later sent abroad for training, under the postwar reconstruction scheme. They started out-patient clinics at some mental hospitals. The medical colleges in India began opening departments of psychiatry in the mid fifties, Many of which are still ill staffed.

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Most of the mentally ill in India are being kept in their homes, getting treatment from indigenous practitioners who used the herb rauwolfia serpentina in vogue, for centuries, for the treatment of insanities, and by exorcists, mystics and priests at some temples and places of pilgrimage. The admission to mental hospital is a prolonged and involved legal affair, for which one has to go to the courts, where it takes 15 days to a month to get the reception order of admission. The police intervene only in cases of dangerous and wandering lunatics, not under proper care and control or those being cruelly treated. The people therefore, got their wards admitted to mental hospital, when the patient showed, dangerous homicidal tendencies or when they become fed up by the long continued disorderly behaviour of the patient, which disrupted the family over a period of months.

Moreover, Mental Hospitals, being closed, institutions did not have good reputation of humane treatment of patients. It was rumoured (of course, wrongly), that patients were kept chained or were beaten, or were given dips in cold water tanks or were starved; and they were never discharged for the rest of their lives.

In these circumstances, the writer started treating the mentally ill in 1948, in the outpatient department of the Medical College Hospital, Amritsar, which was later shifted to a newly organized mental hospital, Amritsar. This work was greatly extended in 1951, and that by 1955, there was a camp hospital of about 150 families, living in tents, within the perimeter walls of the Punjab Mental Hospital, Amritsar. This appeared to be the only way of offering mental health services to the people, on their terms, and at no additional cost to the government. Indirectly, this programme cleared away the prejudice of the people about the mental hospital and their superstitions about the causation of mental illness. The annual admission to the said mental hospital was 600, whereas 800 patients were treated per year in the out- patient camp hospital where consultant service was provided for 12- 15 hours daily through voluntary service of senior doctors.

The introduction of psycho-corrective drugs. Beginning with chlorpromazine in 1952, and Rauwolfia Serpentina in 1954, and later of other tranquilizars, anxiolytic substances and anti-depressants, opened a new vista for the treatment of the mentally ill, early in their illnesses, and gave a great fillip to their project of participation of the family in the treatment of the mentally ill. The same method of extension of Mental Health Services have been continued at the Psychiatric Department of Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak by keeping the outpatient department open for 15 hours a day.

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Family involvement in the treatment of the mentally ill

Prof. G.M. Carstairs, formerly Professor of Psychiatry, at the University of Edinburgh, expressed his authoritative views on the subject : “On the purely practical level, The Indian psychiatry can actually profit from the fad, that neither in Mental Hospitals, nor in Nursing, Social Work or Clinical Psychology services have attained a very high level of proficiency. This very deficiency has the advantage that patient’s relatives can play a continuing role in their nursing and after – care. Some of the best psychiatric care in the country is given, where patient relatives are encouraged to live in or near the hospital itself to attend to the patient every need, and by joining the therapeutic team, to share in the exchange of information, teaching and practical expertise, without which no treatment can be fully effective. If we are candid, however, we have to recognize that there are still too few psychiatric hospitals, or even out-patient clinics, in which full use is made of the potential of other family members, to contribute to the patient’s care. We should not rest content, until in very branch of psychiatry, as already in child psychiatry, this deficiency in our practice is made good.” Kohlmeye and Fernandas, who published the first study in India on Family approach in the treatment of mental disorders, expressed the following views :

“In India, the traditional joint family system has provided material and emotional support to mental patients, throughout the ages, and is continuing to do so, although there have been signs of decrease of strength in the family system” “Any method to solve the mental health problems of this country has to take into account the various aspects of this family system and to utilize them in the treatment of patients”. “Keeping mental patients at home, often necessitates considerable expense in effort and time by relatives. This is possible because there are usually one or several family members either unemployed or able to take time from their routine work, in order to help the relative who need constant supervision and care” Psycho – dynamics of the family of those with mental illness.

(i) The bringing up of children builds strong bonds of attachment between the children and the parents which lead to a certain degree of fixation, more particularly in less advanced societies, because the children are taught to obey and depend upon their elders; whereas in educationally advanced societies, they are trained to reason and think for themselves. In periods of emotional crises, the reaction of man is to regress to his earlier fixation level of dependency on parents

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or parent-surrogates-doctors, nurses and friends. Moreover, the family being well-known to the patient, generates a feeling of security in his mind, so that the patient is quite informal in opening up his mind and expressing his needs; the environments are familiar and dependable; and he can ask for the type of food that he likes, and to which he has been used to since childhood. The parents, on their part, not only accept him, inspite of his short-comings, but give him affectionate care.

(ii) Manisbroughtupinahumanfamilyandhastosetupafamily in due course of time. Hence, individual adjustment with the family, throughout life is the foundation of mental health. This is reflected in his adjustment with the world, which is a bigger family. It is, therefore, obvious that to deprive, a mentally ill person, of the support of his family at the time of an emotional crisis, when he needs it most, can be as traumatic psychologically, as weaning a child forcibly from his mother. The harm done will take considerable time to heal and would leave scars that might become painful in any future situation of emotional stress.

(iii) The anxiety of the parents, particularly of the mother, when she thinks, that she has left her dear one in the hands of others, who may not give the patient, the affection and care that he surely needs, and begins to feel guilty.

(iv) The parents, at times, feel guilty for their overt and covert hostility towards the patient, which made them get him admitted to hospital. They compensate for it, by showing extraconcern and attention for him.

Role of the family in the care of the mentally ill.

(i) Provide the patient with food that he likes and needs, and give him medicines at the proper time.

(ii) Givethepatientfriendlyinformalcompanyandmotherlycare, in respect of change of clothing, making the bed, and helping him in his bath and toilet needs.

(iii) The family observes the patient, and reports to the doctor about his ideas, feelings and actions, and keeps reminding the patient what the doctor had said about his illness, food, medicines, activities, etc.

(iv) Thefamilyprotectsthepatientfromdoingharmtohimselforto other since they give more constant personal attention than nurses can possibly give.

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Family involvement in the treatment of the mentally ill

(v) Thefamilyasoccupationaltherapists:Theyareinstructedto keep the patient occupied in conversation, reading story books, playing cards or taking him out, and encouraging him to mix with others. The girls are persuaded to occupy themselves in household work, knitting, sewing and washing. The men are encouraged to play with children, read the daily newspaper and books to the ladies in the home and to learn cooking.

(vi) The company and devotion of the family does not leave any ground for the building up of suspicions or grievances against the parents of the spouse. And those that have been built up already get cleared. On the other hand, when patients are separated from the families (by admission in mental hospital) their disturbed reasoning conjures up suspicions, grievances and delusions relating to their near and dear ones.

(vii) When a member of the family accompanies a patient to the treatment room (ECT or Pentothal interview), he or she feels greatly reassured.

(viii)Patients do not feel the stigma or mental hospital treatment, if one or more members of the family stay with them.

(ix) The members of the family tolerate all the hostility emanating from the patient, while others may take a relatively harsh attitude. Affection and tolerance thus exhibited pays dividends later in the form of stronger faith in the goodness of their dear ones.

(x) Thefamiliesofthepatients,ontheirreturnhome,havebeen instrumental in educating their family doctor, by showing him the outpatient chits and notes written thereon, with the results that the doctors learnt to handle psychiatric cases better and advise the guardians of other patients, to proceed to the psychiatric unit, early in the illness.

Advantages of the family-care programme.

(i) Patients are brought to the psychiatric unit very early in the illness and get well relatively quickly. (This is the clinical impression of the writer, who has treated patients in the wards of the mental hospital and also admit their families, in the out- patients’ camp hospital, and in the psychiatric ward of a general hospital.)

(ii) Mothers in India (in all strata of society), are absolutely

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unwilling to leave their child or a young adolescent unmarried girl alone, in a hospital, or even at relatives’. They would keep on postponing the treatment for months to avoid this while the illness keeps on getting firmly established.

(iii) Elderly people feel lost if they are not being looked after by their spouse or their dear ones.

(iv) The poor people and the villagers who are not well informed about conditions in modern psychiatric institutions, are used to staying with their wards in referral and district general hospitals, are completely unwilling to leave their wards alone, nor are the patients themselves willing to stay alone.

(v) Thereisapernicioussocialpracticeofrelativelyrecentorigin,

in Indian society, that girls who have had mental illness are not accepted for engagement, and if they get psychosis shortly after marriages, they are sent back to their parental house, Treatment at an outpatient psychiatric clinic, far away form the home district, offers the distressed parents, the only chance of getting their daughter treated in relative secrecy.

(vi) Being close to the mentally ill in a psychiatric unit, is an education in it self, as one comes to know, that emotional pressures are responsible for illness. One, therefore, learns imperceptibly from the plight of others. To behave calmly in the home and at work, for one’s own good, and that of others, with whom they have psychosocial contacts Naraynan, Ember and Reddy concluded their paper on ‘Review of treatment in family,’ with the following lines: “Our experience of treating patients in the family ward has been very gratifying. Treatment of patients in the family unit prevents the separation of the patient from his family, during therapy prevents chronicity, lessens the length of stay of patients in the hospital and also helps in lessening the stigma attached to mental illness. The total family situation could be understood better which helps in instituting effective and long lasting therapy. The problems of rehabilitation and re-adjustment with family and community is facilitated. This is one of the most effective ways of spreading the knowledge of mental health in the community, at large. Kohlmeyer and Fernandes (5) recorded the following benefits to the patients: “If is very helpful to the patients, to be surrounded by familiar persons, thus avoiding the frightening aspects of sudden separation anxiety. When the patient is

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Family involvement in the treatment of the mentally ill

ready for discharge, again an abrupt change in his relationship to his environment is avoided, and the same persons are around him through the period of recovery and rehabilitation in his home”. Hirsch (7) quoting Wing & Brown stated that ‘longer a patient was in hospital, the less he or she wanted to leave the crucial period being about 1-2 year’. “The schizophrenia patients tend to lose the relevance of their social roles and these must be released before patients leave the hospital. They also lose self-respect and confidence as the hospital staff restrict the patients’ personal liberty and take over broad areas of their decision making”. The complications often resulting from excessive stimulation are avoided, when the patient remains in the family.

The preparation of the family for the care of mentally ill

(i) During the course of the initial contact of the patient with his doctor, for his examination, the relatives who are accompanying the patient, learn to accept him in spite of his oddities and shortcomings and stop shouting at him or threatening him. They are also told (in privacy) not to speak lies to the patient, nor try to give medicines to the patient in food or drink, or cheat him in any way, otherwise, he would stop confiding in them and may refuse to take food.

(ii) Under the age old influence of the indigenous system of medicine, our people are particular about the diet for the patient and they must not smoke. From time immemorial, almonds have been considered good for the brain. They are told to use more milk and milk products, and eggs (if they desire non-vegetarian) together with a small quantity of fresh vegetables or fruits is all that is required. They are also told to eat less, smoking is not forbidden, but they are advised to smoke less, and to give it up at an early date, being very harmful in the long run. They are also cautioned against the use of alcohol and other narcotics, during treatment and afterwards.

(iii) In this plan of treatment, meetings are held thrice weekly for the convalescent patients and the relatives, (who can be spared from the care of their ward and house hold duties). The genesis of mental illness (most often a reaction of the mind to the obstruction to the satisfaction of real and fancied wishes), is explained in a simple manner as a case history and

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principles of prevention of mental illnesses are also placed before them. (This will help the prevention of relapses). This information makes the family a better informed one for nursing the patient, and for improving themselves and their dependents. Since they are in distress, their minds are attuned to listening to any advice on the subject of mental health, and acting on that. In these talks, popular fallacies about the causation of mental illness through loss of semen or of overwork or due to influence of ghosts, or of magic or wrath of gods, or of souls of the deceased relatives, are corrected by reasoning and day-to-day examples from every day life, and from the results of treatment. They are also told about the essence of religion, namely fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man. It is emphasized on them, that their wards would learn more from their example than from the doctor’s instructions.

Physical arrangements for family participation. Neither the Mental Hospital, Amritsar nor the psychiatric ward of the Medical College Hospital, Rohtak where family care of patients programme has been practiced on a mass scale were planned for the large out- patient clientele. Physical arrangement for the accommodation of families, cooking arrangements and for toileting have been quite inadequate, but the majority of the families, used to relatively low standards of living, adjusted themselves with grace. These families whether living in tents or in barracks, or in the big waiting hall of out- patient department, or in public rest houses, become a community who help one another in various ways, particularly in persuading or cajoling a refractory patient into a somewhat co-operative disposition with the members of the family. At times, they help in physically controlling an aggressive and violent patient. They are impressed by the 10-15 hours work put in by the senior doctors everyday, and by the spectacular benefits of treatment of the disturbed psychotic patients. This builds up an optimistic therapeutic milieu (environment), which permeates the minds of the families and the patients. The turn-over in the inpatients ward of the Medical College Hospital has been comparatively quick as patients were kept there till they settle down to a manageable behaviour, which is achieved in a week or so, in a majority of cases. Then they were asked to continue treatment in the out-patient clinic. Consultation in the out-patient clinic, which has been kept open for 15 hours daily, could not be given by appointments for the following reasons.

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Family involvement in the treatment of the mentally ill

(i) Want of the secretarial staff

(ii) Illiteracyamongstthepeople

(iii) Prevailing practice in all the hospitals in India, is that patients attend without appointments. Freud postulated that psychiatric treatment would not be effective, unless people paid for it, so that they feel impelled to get some benefit for the money spent. Here, patients paid for the doctors’ services in the time spent in awaiting their turn. Mr. J.E. Bell. Associate Regional Health Director, Mental Health Region IX of National Institute of Mental Health, Maryland, U.S.A., who studied this programme, on the spot of Amritsar, in 1965 summarized his impression in the following paragraphs in his comprehensive monograph on ‘family in the Hospital. “The camp programme is unusually economical, in the facility itself in the provision of patient care, and in the utilization of manpower. Particularly in the last, there is a clear demonstration of how family members may assume functions, that would require, otherwise, the hiring of the staff.”

2. The inclusion of the family has promoted the normality of the hospital community, has held the patients up to the acceptable standards of behaviour, and allowed them to engage in a wide spectrum of activities in the hospital and in the community.

3. The anxiety levels among patients and their families has been reduced, not only by participation, but by the increase in the depth of understanding of the patient about his treatment. Even the terror of Electro-convulsive therapy, to both the patient and relative is ameliorated, and may be more therapeutic because it engaged the family and the patient – a thought that I wasn’t

prepared to accept at the beginning”.

The limitations of the family-care programme of the mentally ill.

The programme outlined in the preceding pages, is practicable with agricultural or petty business families, living on a joint family pattern or having strong bonds relationship; and in relatively small towns of population of 10,000 or so having a few public rest houses or inns in the neighbourhood of a Mental Hospital or psychiatric ward of a General Hospital.

(i) Nuclear families living away from relatives and having other members of the family can not participate in this kind of programme.

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(ii) A poor family of daily wage earners, who can not feed the patient and themselves for a fortnight or a month, for which they have to stay as outpatients have per force to keep away from this facility.

(iii) A very disturbed and aggressive psychotic patient and those who are hostile to their families have to be in a hospital, till they have become manageable by the family.

(iv) Hypomanics and drug addicts, who are not amenable to family persuasion, cannot avail of this form of form therapy.

These limitations can, however, be easily surmounted if the state administration makes suitable amendments in the rules, by which such patients are transferred to Mental Hospital at Slate expense on the authority of two certificates signed by qualified psychiatrist or Gazetted Medical Officers, for a period of sixty days. In the event of longer stay of the patient, the mental hospital authorities may get it regularized (in accordance with the law), without bothering the family. Similarly, the problem of decision on liability for maintenance charges, can be done away with if the Mental hospitals have a system of paying and non-paying beds, as in General Hospital in the state. The treatment of the psychotic patient is not to be taken as a family problem, but a problem of the welfare of the society, particularly in the sphere of law and order, because such a person has a very bad and threatening influence, for the young ones in the community and in the neighborhood, and may harm himself or others.

Difficulties encountered in running this family care programme.

(i) The following types of patients can not be cared for in the outpatients camp of a mental hospital and pose a dilemma for the medical superintendent of the hospital because the guardians of the patients can both believe that the doctors have no authority to admit any such patient in the inpatients ward of the hospital to be looked after by the Government staff

a) Poor elderly single parent or spouse, who has brought their psychotic patient to the ward.

b) Depressed and other such patients, who have come alone for treatment.

(ii) A very ill or undernourished person such as a recently delivered woman, who may be having fever toxaemia or dehydration.

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(iii) Those who have no money to feed themselves or their ward, or to purchase medicines that are not available in the hospital.

(iv) In the general hospital psychiatric ward there is the problem of limited accommodation so that all deserving patients can not be taken in.

(v) Some disturbed patients can not be controlled by the family, and there is not adequate staff available in the psychiatric ward for taking charge of such patients, or for helping the distressed family.

(vi) Some patients escape the vigilance of the lone attendant, and wander off. The is particularly disturbing in the case if a woman or an elderly person or a weak confused patient.

(vii) Some patients are left under the care of a grandmother or a grandfather, or one who is keeping indifferent health. In the event of their getting ill, they and their ward have to be looked after.

(viii)In the absence of special arrangement for the care of the newborn or suckling babies of women patients, some such babies die in the ward, as their guardians use very unhygienic methods of feeling these infants.

(ix) Some patients who are very restless and have only one attendant have to be restrained, which is a very repugnant situation in apsychiatric ward.

(x) Some chronic mental patients are brought to the hospital. Their acute symptoms subside somewhat, but they do not recover completely, while the relatives want them to be kept in the ward till their recovery. which is not possible.

(xi) Some patients and their relatives prefer amenities like blankets, bed sheet or pillows to be provided.

(xii) Some relatives of patients get their pockets cut, and some have their housed hold effects stolen.

(xiii)Some violent patients have over-power their attendants and try to assault them. Some have tried to molest lady attendants of other patients.

(xiv)Some destructive patients, who are not under proper care and control of their weak escorts, have damaged windows, doors and lavatory seats and cisterns.

(xv)Some patients have got badly hurt, by escaping through ventilators, and jumping 30 feet down or have tried to slip down the compartments of sanitary pipes, by opening the

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windows of these compartments. These are all serious difficulties, some of which can be obviated by discussing with building engineers and administrators or hospitals, who do not build the hospital by establishment tables, but by actual needs. However, most of the patients here have been very indulgent, and have tolerated the difficulties quietly and with resignation.

Role of general practitioners in the family care programme.The general practitioner has a very essential role in the early diagnosis of mental illnesses, treating them scientifically, at their own clinic, and referring them to the psychiatric units, when needed, also continuing the treatment after discharge from the hospital. The psycho- pharmaceutical drugs introduced during the last 20 years, have brought the treatment of psychiatric illnesses within the reach of general practitioners who are, however, lagging behind in professional knowledge of the subject, since the emphasis on the subject, during their undergraduate training is inadequate. Measures need to be taken to make up their deficiencies.

Evaluation of the family-care programme. Evaluation of this programme, in respect of the period of recovery, extent of recovery, relapses, adjustment in the family and at work, after recovery from the illness, and cost to the patient’s family and the effect of the presence of an acute and chronic patient of mental illness on the other members of the family, are all problems of research, which have not been tackled by the writer, on account of the pressure of patients requiring treatment. The research institute, may take up this work, But the fact, that research-oriented advanced countries have all moved towards community psychiatry, based at mental health centres, with Day Hospitals, Night hospitals, hostels and foster home placements of manageable patients, amply prove the long term worth of the family care programme. of the mentally ill.

Involvement of the family with mentally subnormal children

There are no state hospitals for the mentally subnormal children, and there are very few child guidance clinics in the country. The brunt of the care, training and occupation of the mentally subnormal children falls on the parents, particularly the mother, who may occasionally be helped by maternal or paternal grand parents. The mother is told that the child is endowed with less than normal intelligence from birth, and that it can not be increased by any medicine. She has to accept the child as a trust of nature and of society, who is to be brought up by greater concentration on simple

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activities in the home in her company, in place of studies in ordinary school. The child (whether boy or girl) has to be affectionately persuaded to join the mother in sweeping the home, washing the floor and the utensils, washing clothes, keeping them at their proper places, washing vegetables and later learning cooking. The child helps or joins mother in other house-hold chores and simple errands for her. He is to be rewarded frequently for his good work and punished (by withdrawal of privileges) in case of neglect or badly done work. The father, when free engages the child indoor and outdoor games and other activities. Both the parents teach the child names and uses of various objects and numbers in a play centered method. When the child’s concentration is built up in this way, then the patients may take up teaching him reading, writing and simple arithmetic in a play-way method. They have to be told that if the child does not learn to occupy itself in simple activities by the age 12, he shall never be able to concentrate and learn. The parents are also informed that the presence of mentally subnormal child in the home, is not a misfortune, but has a bright side too namely :

(i) The patients need to stop ignoring them and allowing them to become a nuisance in the home. Habits built up in subnormal children are extremely difficult to change, because of their limited intelligence. This parental control of temper, will have beneficial effect on themselves and their other children.

(ii) Parents must spare some time to play with their child (as other children reject him). This would be an excellent relaxation for them, with consequent relief from psychosomatic illnesses.

(iii) After accepting this child, the parents mind will be attuned to bear with good grace, ay misfortune that might befall them.

(iv) As per religious teaching, helping or serving a handicapped person, is a pious act, which will be rewarded in this life and here after (as taught in Hindu and Sikh scriptures).

Family involvement in the management of behaviour problem children. In the absence of child guidance clinics and special homes for such children in this country, the responsibility of looking after and correcting them lies on the parents (aided, of course, by the psychiatrists) Parents are explained the following principles of management of such children:

(i) The first step is parents’ unqualified acceptance and giving

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them their loving company, in the spirit of an aphorism adapted from Shakespeare, viz. “with all thy faults. I love thee, my child!”

(ii) Thechildisnottobecomparedadverselywithotherchildren, in his/her hearing, nor is he to be put to shame for his wrong acts. He is to be explained, in private, and within his intelligence the consequences of his actions on himself, his parents and others.

(iii) The parents are instructed to intervene in the child’s aggressive or destructive actions, without threatening him or punishing him or chiding him but to calm him/her down and then talk to them, in privacy; as to what had irritated them and made them think, as to how that irritation could be eased, without belligerent destructive or otherwise undesirable conduct.

(iv) Such children have to be persuaded to play vigorous games for giving vent to their aggressive propensities, and at the same time to learn to play the rules of the game and cultivate team spirit.

Family care of geriatric patients. It is cultural tradition in India, that the aged parents have been looked after affectionately and loyally by their sons, daughters, daughter-in-law, and the grand children. In illness, all the relatives call on him, to his great satisfaction. His ego is supported, and he feels a sense of worthiness. But, with the breakup of the joint family the bonds with the elderly people are getting tenous. particularly amongst the lower middle class. Due to economic stress, and limitation of accommodation in the home. The writer has, however, been impressed by the fact, that the elderly persons, who come with symptoms of confusion, insomnia, restlessness and depression, respond relatively quickly to treatment in psychiatric ward, when attended upon affectionately by their own kith and kin. On entering convalescence, they prefer to be in their own home with their grandchildren and close to their field or work. Their greatest need is living and respectful attention by their progeny and good nourishing diet.

Need for rethinking about hospital design in underdeveloped countries: Leaving a few top research hospital in the country the severe financial limitations of the states, and relatively low allotment of states income for medical and health services, for widely spread poor

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Family involvement in the treatment of the mentally ill

agrarian and working class population would never allow adequate nursing and ancillary personnel for hospitals in this country and therefore, help of the families would always be needed for feeding and nursing the sick. The hospitals will have to consider them as voluntary workers and give them the necessary instructions, which will be of use to them later in the homes. This will be far more effective than education on nursing given in school or through home visits by nurses. They, however, have to be suitably accommodated and housed and provided facilities for hygienic living. Some state governments are already building public rest houses, in association with their big hospitals. But these should be recognized as an essential ancillary wing of a hospital. There should be a few family care rooms for the seriously ill and disturbed patients in each general ward. For the psychiatric ward, the accommodation should be in the form of family care rooms, in which apart from patient’s room there should be a room for the attendants, a kitchen and a bathroom.

Concluding remarks:

(i) The need of patient’s particularly the children, obstetric patients and most of the mentally ill to be closed to the family is a biological necessity, which keeps the mind of the patient at ease and maintains the family integrated, as expressed very appropriately by Bell (3) in the following lines : “Family solidarity is a central social value in our culture, but our mental hospitals have been organized and operated on the assumption, that removal from the family individual treatment are the best ways to improve the ultimate functioning of patients in their families. Hospitalization seems to have inadvertently promoted the isolation of patients from their relatives which in itself may be anti-therapeutic classically the doors of the hospital close behind the patient and against the family. To open again when the treatment is done, in the hope that the family will rush in to claim its own. Every social worker can testify, however, that in too many cases, unless the patient is released within a few weeks after admission, the family must be urged to take him back. Its (family’s) circle has closed, and must be breached, if the patients is to re-assimilated. This is true especially with certain classes of patient, such as the

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aged, but it is by no means determined by any single variable such as age, sex and distance from home.”

(ii) Psychiatry in advanced countries has evolved from Humane treatment of Insane in Mental Hospitals to individual psychotherapy of psycho-neurotics; physical methods of treatment including occupation therapy and group-therapy; family group-therapy; multifamily group therapy and community psychiatry. The corresponding channel of evolution in underdeveloped countries has to be from mental hospitals; to outpatient departments of mental hospitals. General hospitals to family-care wards, associate with mental hospital, medical college hospitals, district Headquarter hospitals and referral hospitals. The latter will take on though in a smaller way, the functions of mental health centres by the missionary zeal and hard work of the pioneer psychiatrists posted there. The mental hospitals would always be needed, hut admissions to it will have to be made easier, as suggested already.

References

(i) Carstairs, G. M: Family care, an under-utilized asset (1973) The Family in Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Veelore, (A.P.) India.

(ii) Bell, J.E: Family in the Hospital. Pp-31-48.

(iii) U.S. Govt. Printing office, Washington, D.C. Dopp. 23-24.

(iv) Narayanan. H.S., EMBAR, P and Reddy G.N.N. (1972). Review of

treatment in Family Ward. bid. J. Psychiatry. 14:2, 123-126.

(v) Kohimeyer, W.A. & Fernandes, X: Psychiatric in India; Family

approach in the treatment of Mental Disorder, Am. J. Psychiatry

119 : 1033,-4963

(vi) Vidya Sagar, Involvement of Family in Mental Health Care (1974),

Kerala. Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. II, No:1, PP 39-43.

(vii) HIRSCH. S.R. The management of Schizophrenia out hospital-

Research findings and underlying principles: Indian J. Psychiatry. 1974. Vol. 16 No.: PP 145-158..

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6

REHABILITATION OF MENTALLY ILL IN THE SOCIETY

REHABILITATION OF MENTALLY ILL:

Dr. Vidya Sagar

Recent advances in the treatment of mental illnesses have changed the outlook of society towards them. Until a few years agis, it was believed that mental illness is a permanent disability and there is no hope for the patient to return to his family and work. It was considered sheer waste of money trying to restore them to health. Mental illness is still considered a social stigma on the family and information is still kept a secret.

The change in social outlook started recently only after World War II when a need arose to rehabilitate men who had been psychiatric casualties, to the status of contributing members of the society. Now it had become part and parcel of socio medical programme. By nature, human being Function in a group throughout their lives and people learn. change and mature as a result of interpersonal and social relationship and experience. Mental illness is frequently the result of wrong way of dealing with the difficulties of life resulting from poor social adjustment. Previously no interest used to be taken to change the attitude of the patients or help them in their social adjustment. At that time, there was overwhelming fear from mentally ill patients and custodial care was the main treatment. Patients used to be separated from the community in the name of security; they used to be stripped off their clothes, glasses, shoes and belts with the apprehension that they might use these articles aggressively against them or others. A gradual reduction in the use of such measures of restraint and seclusion has been replaced by greater attention to their inter- personal relationship and making them to play an active role in creative and constructive activities.

Common man still believes that mentally ill person is insensitive due to illness. On the contrary, he is a supersensitive person. He withdraws into a world of his own when surroundings are not comfortable or congenial. Now a days, steps are taken to improve the surroundings. The color, and decor of the hospital are changed to look more home-like. Patients are given opportunity to eat together, play and take part in recreations and occupational activities in the hospital.

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The problem is entirely different when a patient after long period of stay in a mental hospital is discharged. When such a patient comes out into the world, which he has forgotten, and more often he had also been forgotten by the world. During his long stay in the hospital, many changes have occurred in his previous surroundings. New buildings have cropped up and his old familiar land marks have disappeared. New industries requiring new skills have been established. The patient requires guidance into this new and unfamiliar world and need to be taught how to live in it. He finds speed of life bewildering. The work skill with which he once earned his living, he finds now very limited field for that skill or none at all. He will not only need teaching and guidance but considerable support during his initial bewilderment In addition, he finds his family disintegrated and he has been forgotten by his friends and work mates. He stands all alone, looking at the society for help and security, which if denied or delayed, with a tendency to run back for shelter in a mental hospital. Society can render help to meet his basic needs :

(i) Some place to live.

(ii) Some work to do.

(iii) Some one to care.

(i) SOME PLACE TO LIVE : Most of the families show great interest and have an extremely positive and helpful attitude toward their patients. Others are ready to share their burden of earning for their relative provided strain is kept within boundary. Family is not only a supportive situation providing supervision for the patient but it also helps in developing self-confidence and capacity for self direction so that he can take on some responsibilities in the community and eventually may make a satisfying adjustment with society. He gets satisfaction of belonging to a family. Patients, who have no parents or deprived of certain aspects of life essential for this mental health, may benefitfromFosterhome, dayhospitalandnighthospital.

(ii) SOME WORK TO DO : Sigmund Freud once said “work”has a greater effect than any other technique of living, in the direction of binding the individual more closely to the reality. In his work at least, a person in surely attached to a part of reality i.e. human community”.

Attitude of the community toward mentally ill patient varies from place to place. It is safe to say that there is a great deal of reluctance on the part of employers to accept discharged patients as employees.

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The problem requires persistent, intelligent and long term community education, some patients who are able and willing to work but are not stable enough to with stand pressures and completion of usual jobs, may be benefitted in sheltered work shop where there is more understanding and acceptance of him as an individual. One does not provide mere occupation to pass but a medium through which he can be educated that time in money.

Many patients prefer manual work even when they were previously students, clerks of professional people. No hard and fast rules of vocational guidance can be given, as much depends on original personality and in how much of it is still preserved. Work should have an obvious end of financial reward for them.

(iii) SOMEONE TO CARE : When patients are discharged, some may find no single person in community to whom he can turn for emotional support and acceptance. Here religious institutions may come forward to offer emotional support guidance and acceptance of emotionally disturbed persons. The Government may open certain hostels where such patients can stay and even mange their own affairs. They may go to pay amount for their stay in a hostel. In Israel, certain villages have been set up by the Government where such patients stay together and work in the fields and lead a quiet life, away from stresses and competition of urban life.

Majority of mentally ill patients are shy and do not feet at ease in social situations and prefer to spend spare time in solitary activity. For them in the U.S.A., social clubs are encouraged. These social clubs are composed of recovered mentally ill patients who in their spare time meet at a place and indulge in indoor and outdoor games. Such social groups meet their emotional and social needs and they feel comfortable and accepted by the group.

SUMMARY : Rehabilitation of the mentally ill is an important socio- medical problem. Recent advances in treatment are helpful in their social recovery. The social institutions should come forward for their help so that they can become active members of the society again.

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7 MENTAL HEALTH IN ADMINISTRATION

Dr. Vidya Sagar

We the people of India, on the memorable day of 26th January 1950, have given ourselves a democratic constitution for our administration. At present, we, the members of the relatively young Indian psychiatric society, have been called upon to discuss the mental health aspects of our administration. We do this in a spirit of introspection, rather than of malevolence, as we are well aware of the extra-ordinary difficulties of those who constitute this administration.

Looking in historical perspective, one can say, that since the dawn of human society, men of high intelligence, vigour, initiative, and organizing abilities have been activated for the public interest into developing a form of administration, that should make for the good of the largest number, learning from the experience of their forebears ancestors. In the present scientific era The study of human psychology as an objective science dates back to about a hundred years. It was first introduced in administration in the German army during World War I for the assignment of officers to different branches of armed services and picked up with great avidity and enthusiasm by the Americans and subsequently by others. It was then introduced in the selection of officers for civil services. Since then all aspects of administration have been studied according to the methods of science. So, the study of administration is now a science, like for instance library science. It is in this spirit that the speaker wishes to present to this assembly of students of human behaviour, the problem of mental health in administration.

We start by recalling the definition of Health and Mental Health. Health has been defined in the constitution of World Health organization, as ‘physical’, mental and social well-being. This has been summarized by a distinguished former Health Minister of India Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur, as “a state of peace in oneself”. Mental Health has been defined by the Expert Committee on Mental Health of World Health Organization, as a state’ in which an individual’s potentially conflicting instinctive drives, find harmonious expression in the lull realization of his potentialities, in a way that he forms harmonious relations with others, and participates, contributes constructively to changes in his social and physical environment’. In other words, Mental Health is experienced through full development of one’s innate abilities, and achieving dynamic and constructive & adjustment in one’s mind and with the environment.

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Administration is a many-tiered system of serving the people by some from amongst themselves, for the greatest good of the greatest number. Even the members of the administrative service work under another and are required to give their best & in cooperation with fellow members of the service, for the welfare of the society. The administration has hundreds of the branches and sub-branches which are independent in some ways and interdependent in others. The members of the services work under the fear of adverse comments of their seniors, of the law-enforcing authorities, and of the members of the public, particularly the influential ones amongst them. They have also to seek the cooperation of their juniors. Each one has also to contend with his own self, his abilities, interests, attitudes, ambitions, ideals, conscience, physical capacities, and the demands of the family. It is well known to every psychiatrist that some sincere and honest public servants have broken down mentally under unscrupulous officers or when exigencies of service have clashed with their loyalties to their own interests or those of their families. The public servant’s ego has, therefore, to face another superego, in the form of rules of business of his office, and of direct behests of his officer: and another id, in the form of imperative demands of duty to the people. In a dynamic situation, conflicts are bound to occur as times with eruptions, storms, and stresses. These are withstood by most members of the administration, with only a mild effect on their mental health. Cases of frank mental breakdown are relatively few. But covert mental ill health is manifested in psychosomatic illness, great avidity for going to the cinema, increasing use of drinks, and easily with regard to sex morals, Others star taking greater interest in religion and “yoga” in middle age.

Since every member of the administration is a part of the Government of the state, he wields a certain authority which, if misused, would be emotional trauma to the aggrieved person, anxiety, disappointment or frustration to other members of the service and of the public, who are affected directly or indirectly by this act. Through power the administrator can exercise patronage or do a favour, either in exchange for a similar benefit; or in consideration of money or other forms of material gratification. The moral strength or stability of the administration and the community is thus weakened. At the present time, the administration has an all pervading influence on the lives of the people, as they control law and order, finance, education, information, trade, industry, food supply and public sanitation. However, freedom of expression, an independent judiciary, and a

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system of Government responsible to the legislature, elected by adult franchise, which are the highlights of our administrative system, exercise salubrious checks, and which give a common man a sense of enjoying a fair degree of security.

The administration gets its character from the men on the top. Their patterns of conduct are copied by the lower rungs, being taken as an example. Hence, the character of the nation is determined mainly by the character of the top people, which does not mean the President or Prime Minister alone, but the Ministers, Legislators, Secretaries, heads of departments, and heads of office. Dr. Shrimali, an eminent educationist, psychologist and administrator, speaking on indiscipline amongst the young people, said, that it was the result of the betrayal of the youth by their elders. Psychiatrists say that the problem in children is the reflection of the art of parent hood. This applies equally to the larger family of the society, where the administrator is the parent substitute.

The Father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi, an incarnation of our ancient glorious heritage, taught us, that the means must be as truthful as the ends. But his successors, in their scramble for power, did not attach the same importance to means as to ends, as is evident from strategies adopted by them to catch votes.

Factors Generating Emotional Tension In The Members of The Administration :

(i) Service in the letter and spirit of the law of the land, and of rules framed there under, is not palatable to many in and outside the service, in the same way as Truth is very often bitter to the unsatisfied ones, particularly when immediate satisfaction of one individual is considered, instead of the long term benefit in the context of equal rights and opportunities for every member of the society. Once a wrong has been done, then a few more wrongs have to be added to cover it, and soon a clique of wrong doers is formed for mutual help and protection. In spite of this accession of strength, certain anxieties are created on account of one’s own superego, and of fear of the law. These again have to be submerged in various forms of bodily pleasures. This allurement of greater material gratifications attracts others to this form of unfair practice. This has its repercussions on the public, who have to relax their ideology, for satisfying their needs, through pandering to the weakness of men in authority.

(ii)It is not often appreciated by the members of the top echelons of the administration, that letters of demi-official, unofficial or private type, written for certain favours, set the ball of favouritism,

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nepotism and bribery rolling amongst the lower ranks of services, with the emotional repercussions described already.

(iii) Inefficiency, subordination and negligence of duty has to be ignored by the senior officer for fear of retaliation through organized unions, supported by legislators. This imposes an emotional strain on the services, particularly the seniors, by being forced to acquiesce with lack of co-operation from the juniors.

(iv) The juniors on the other hand, feel emotionally tense and have their initiative blunted when they cannot express themselves or their view points and are not given adequate consideration or their good work is not appreciated. It lessens their interest in the work and narrows down their mental horizon.

(v) Preaching socialism and letting capitalism thrive unchecked, as the latter feeds the party machine, and maintaining very wide disparity between the top members of the administration and the lowest employees, keeps the fire of jealousy kindled with consequent presentation of a growing charter of demands by workers’ unions, supported by threats of open flouting of the laws. At first; the demands are rejected outright; and when direct destructive action is resorted to the demands are conceded substantially with or without the sanction of the judges or Tribunals. This lowers respect for authority and even for law and engenders a sense of irresponsibility in the employees, which, in turn, weakens the bonds of locality to the society.

(vi) Making and unmaking of the rules to suit the convenience of influential members of the administration, or enacting laws for favouring the party in power, or for favouring a certain group of the population at the expense of the others, lessens the confidence of the junior members of the administration or of the people in the bonfires of the administration, producing anxiety of insecurity.

(vii)The disparity of emoluments amid other conditions of service in the private sector, as compared with the public sector (Govt. services),is marked enough to attract persons of high intelligence and initiative to the private sector. In the lower levels of administration, the terms of Government service are more attractive. There is, therefore, constant turmoil in either sector to gain the advantage available in the other.

(viii) A new form of administrative service constituted by the politicians and members of legislatures has arisen in democracies, in which a prominent qualification is the ability to muster the largest

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number of voters through any means the name and fame of the leader, the party programme, the number of paid and voluntary workers, promises of favours to the voters and their constituencies and in some cases secret cash awards, food and drinks. The personal worth of the candidate is a secondary consideration even when these services are not paid regularly, almost all of them had the good fortune of improving their financial conditions and positions, though the method that is not easily intelligible to the common man. No wonder for most of them, politics has become a lucrative profession and a career which enables them to occupy the highest seat of authority and power, without any notable qualification for the job entrusted to them. Some of the members of this cadre of top administrators are the gems of the ‘purest ray ‘serene’ but most are not of the necessary calibre.

“A chain is as strong as its weakest link”, this is a truism which applies to the chain formed by the members of the administration. To my mind, the weakest link of the chain is at the top rungs. During the course of my service in Punjab, I have formed the impression that most permanent members of the administration follow the routine, good bad or indifferent. Some work hard and honestly in their own seats, but do not interfere with others, for fear of creating trouble for themselves; but they get their originality and vigour blunted. A few specialize in beating their own drums and go ahead rapidly through favours, recommendations and platitudes. An occasional idealist who dares to move in his own way and clashes with the majority by lowing up the skeletons in their cup-boards, does not get encouragement from any quarter. He is opposed from many sides and this leads to mental tension, mental breakdown. When a very good worker asks for a transfer or claims his right for promotion, he may be told that he is too good at that seat to be moved anywhere else.

The mental health of the people whom the administration serves, is a direct reflection of the state of mental unease, uncertainty, security, favouritism and strife prevalent in the administration, as expressed forcefully in the following words of Brook Chisholm, the first Director General of World Health Organization…“His interiorities, anxieties, fears, hates, aggressive pressures, fanatacism and even his unreasoning devotion and loyalities, which are among the common symptoms of physical, mental or social ill health, may now constitute a serious threat to the continued existence of large number of people’. The emotionally disturbed members of the services show their reactions in psychosomatic illness, reduced efficiency, and

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irritable dominating temperament. The masters (public) crave for sympathetic consideration of their petitions, by their servants (members of the administration), who work in wooden rigidity, without adequate human considerations. The working of permit and licence system, introduced ostensibly for equitable distribution, has been a handy instrument of patronage, which had helped to create an open black-market, resulting in the annoyance of the unfavoured ones and lowering of the confidence of the people in the fair play of the administration. The delays of the law courts are too well known. The papersrequiring detailedstudyareputasideintheofficestillpushed through personal approach. These delays cause the people chagrin and uneasiness, compelling them to adopt unfair means to get their difficulties solved. A white collared man does not want to go to a hospital unless armed with a personal letter to the doctor or to some employee of the hospital, as otherwise he may not get due attention. The proverbial red-tape rigid formality of official routine has been made further intricate with the coming of the democratic system, in order to secure sound supervision, as adequate responsibility is not exercised by the persons concerned at the initial stages. I have seen more than a dozen initials on the margin of a draft note in the Government Secretariat files, showing that the file passed through twelve senior officers, none of whom considered it necessary to change the original draft. The people, in consequence, harbour feelings of anxiety, frustration, dis-appointment and resentment towards the administrative services. The disturbed minds of people sometimes put their demands forcefully and unreasonably to the point of making a nuisance of themselves to compel the authorities to attend to them. But generally, the people take the dominance of the administration in a stoic manner.

Suggestions for the Improvement of Mental Health in Administration: The wrong patterns of conduct of the administration and the people have become so fixed during the last 18 years, that any attempt changing them is beset with numerous awe-inspirig difficulties. All the same, a few tentative suggestions are submitted for your consideration:

(i) The means adopted to achieve the noble ends must be noble and above board.

(ii) The high officers of the administration must set an example

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of high integrity, by eschewing the system of personal recommendations and the exchange of favours.

(iii) Our education needs to be given a mental health orientation, through emphasizing the lessons learnt by the achievement of men, and the steps taken to reach the stage. The humanities, that portray the life of man in different situations at various periods of history, have likewise to be taught, in the context of our own times, to build health patterns of thought and conduct.

(iv) The promotions should be by merit, and not by seniority alone, assessed on periodic check up of work and on the results of performance in examinations for various stages of responsibilities.

(v) Incentives be provided in the form of rewards and appreciation for good work, integrity and original thinking, which should be encouraged by providing facilities for study and research.

(vi) There must be meetings of the members of administration in small groups, under their immediate officers, for reviewing the work done, with a view to its further improvement, in respect of services given to the people and the public. The members of the administration need to be reminded, through prominently written notices, that it is the duty of every member of the unit to be polite, courteous and helpful to the people.

(vii) The annual report of activities of the department, its budget, its achievements and failures and plans for the fixture are to be provided to each sub-office, for their information, so that they see their department, as a whole. This will enable them to understand their own needs, in the context of the whole department so that they do not harbour resentment in the event of rejection of their legitimate demands.

(viii) The unions or associations of employees should be persuaded to take on themselves the duties of enforcing in the disciplined conduct amongst their members and of punishing the erring ones. In concluding this paper, I beg to make it clear ones again that the shortcomings of the administration, described by me in the preceding pages, are the observations of a student of human behaviour for consideration of this gathering of scientists and not a destructive criticism.

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8

BEYOND THE FOUR WALLS OF A MENTAL HOSPITAL

Dr. Vidya Sagar

One of the greatest privileges of giving a Presidential oration is that one can express one’s views, without being immediately challenged, however controversial thy may be, and therefore, one has to exercise extreme caution in the choice of the topic.

At this juncture, and by your leave, I would like to digress a little and explain why I chose the topic for today’s address. In this beautiful home town of mine, noted for its educational institutions, scenic beauty and its paradise for pensioners. I was the first qualified psychiatrist not to get attached to a mental hospital, a rare feat at that time, for the superintendent of the mental hospitals, also catered to the needs of the population and the teaching institutions. This, I believe, is still the case in most places in India except a few big towns and cities. I shall never forget his look of astonishment, nay consternation, when I told my boss that I had no intention of joining the service, and, wanted to practice psychiatry “beyond the four walls of the mental hospital”. He smiled indulgently and blessed my future undertaking, but I could see that he thought I too was “a little that way affected”.

Since then, not only have I practised psychological medicine in the capacity of a consultant, but I have been associated with teaching programmes for medical students and nurses. I have taken part in programmes for orienting school teachers and parents to the psychological problems of their charges. I have been closely associated with several remand homes and certified schools in the district of Rohtak and have taken active interest in the training programmes of social workers and probation officers, and, in all humility, I can say that these experiences have given me the opportunity to watch the practice of psychiatry leave the four walls of the Mental Hospital and take wing into the midst of our community, and I am happy to see that the result though slow is more than gratifying, but there is scope for further widening, for even today many medical as well as lay people believe that psychological medicine can only be practised in Mental Hospitals.

This by no mean is said to belittle the work done by Mental Hospital superintendents and their staff. There has been a life of dedication towards the tough task of maintaining some semblance of

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humanity in their approach to this problem. On the contrary, it has been the dedicated work of the old time superintendents and their staff that made possible the conversion of the over – crowded snake – pits; from mere walled in lunatic asylums for the custodial care of the inmates, into the open door mental hospitals dispensing humans treatment to the patients. This was the first and most essential step which later snowballed into bringing the practice of psychological medicine to psychiatry units in general hospitals and teaching institutions. Initially these efforts were met with ridicule and opposition, and work, particularly field of research, was not substantial. This was also remedied when a few enlightened universities introduced the teaching of normal psychology and psychological medicine at the undergraduate level, and, as a natural course of events started post graduate courses at par with the other disciplines in medicine.

What then is the role of a psychiatrist outside the Mental Hospital? He should be a therapist and cure and rehabilitate his patient back as a useful member of his community; he should be a teacher and teach psychiatry not only to Postgraduates, but also train the undergraduates, the general practitioners, and responsible community leaders in how to recognize and handle patients with psychological disturbances; he should be a student and enrich the field of psychiatry by further study and research. He should be a liaison officer in a general hospital and integrate the discipline of psychiatry with others by treating the psychological problems of medical, surgical and gynecological cases; Finally, he should be a public health man and train his community members in the preventive aspects of psychiatry. Ladies and Gentlemen, I am not looking for a superhuman psychiatrist. With organized planning, concerted efforts, help for powers – that – be, and our own sincere hard work, it is possible and many of our worthy colleagues have achieved this and much more. But I feel, we could, and should, do much better particularly in our teaching institutions.

As we all know, teaching hospitals are prestigious and privileged institutions in the medical world, for at these institutions the standard of work, both by way of teaching material and patient care, is of a high standard, and where are plenty of avenues for research. Have we utilized these facilities to the maximum? In Rohtak, as in most other teaching hospitals all over India, we have a psychiatry centre, the number of beds made available to us in general hospitals is woefully low, and we can only treat acute cases, who can be

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discharged after some treatment. Our department in this hospital, which caters to the needs of practically the whole of the Haryana state, can accommodate only 50 indoor cases. In view of the few number of beds, all we can do is to admit the patient over a very short period, and as soon as he shows some improvement, discharge him in the hope that he will continue the medication in his own village and return for periodic checks. The duration of these therapies is so long, the distances are so great, and the traveling facilities so expensive and inconvenient, that more often than not we see the patient again only when he shows further deterioration. This hampers the patient’s chances of full recovery and rehabilitation, and he finally turns into a chronic case. This also prevents the doctors, undergraduate students and postgraduate trainees from getting a proper perspective about the social, economic and emotional problems of the mentally sick and their family members which form a large part of the community where the future physician and psychiatrist will practice. This is not the ideal way to practice psychiatry outside a Mental Hospital, particularly in a teaching hospital. I, therefore, advocate the upgrading of the psychiatry centers in all teaching hospitals with sufficient number of indoor beds and better outdoor facilities including adequate supplies of psychoactive drugs.

As my practice of psychiatry extended further away from the Mental Hospital. I became increasingly aware of social factors that cause mental disease, and I realized that it is not enough to make morbidity surveys and wise diagnostic pronouncement. What is more desirable is not to rule out the social factors responsible for causing mental disease. The Indian societies are rapidly changing – culturally socially, and economically, and, the psychological repercussions accompanying these changes are spectacular. To mention two examples, when the Jhopadpatti dwellers are shifted to better housing facilities with proper sanitation, no doubt there is drop in the incidence of physical disease, but their raised standard of living brings with it a host of other emotional problems, while juvenile delinquency, crime, alcoholism and drug addiction persist. This does not mean that their condition should not be improved : it means we have to be prepared to educate these persons and give them facilities of mental patient social groups is that with improved economic conditions, the spirit of competitions creeps in, leading to stress. Their stress is very frequently translated into emotional and psychosomatic disorders, which are now on the increase and require the help of psychiatrists. The psychiatrist, whose role in the community is quite important,

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should be able to successfully blend his knowledge of clinical psychiatry, public health and social sciences to help his community to tackle such problems of mental health and disease.

We have to make the public increasingly aware of the problems of mental health through various agencies and media. In this, one has to seek the help of family physicians, who should take more responsibility for the primary prevention of mental diseases and giving first-aid psychiatry to his patients. This means that the psychiatrist has to play the role of educating the general practitioners. This in turn means educating our undergraduate better the importance of proper undergraduate training cannot be stressed enough. At present, the training we give is woefully inadequate and ill- attended because we have been unable to arouse enough student response. Though on paper every medical School gives a scheduled number of lectures in normal psychology and psychological medicine, and also expects the students to put in a fortnight’s clinical work, not being an examination subject there is scant interest on the part of the students to attend either the lectures or the clinics. This leads to two unhealthy results. Firsts, our future doctors go out to practice in the community completely as ignorant about psychiatry as the community members themselves, and, secondly, when it comes to choosing the subject for specialization the students of mine, who initially wanted to take psychiatry, but changed their minds because there was not enough scope. One very good student told me ‘I don’t think even the psychiatrists know enough about their specialty, so how can we do any research? When you are not talking, you are shocking!!’ A most unflattering image of psychiatrists and psychiatry. If this is the image carried by our students, how can we motivate them to specialize in our subject and what response can we expect from the public?

The cause of this unflattering image, I think, should be placed squarely on the shoulders of both Government and the psychiatrist. The former for not giving due recognition to the need of organizing proper well – equipped Mental Health centers all over the country in general hospitals, teaching institutions, cottage hospitals and primary health centers, and, the late for not being able to motivate the interest in medical students, general practitioners, social workers, social agencies and medical educationists to give psychiatry the place it is due in community health care and training programmes. A psychiatrist working in the psychiatry unit of a teaching hospital can and should be

able to integrate psychiatry with the other specialties and be able to

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convince his colleagues and students that mental illness, if treated early, can be cured. Every medical undergraduate should see a sufficient number of patients with psychological problems, getting cured, with the medical, surgical and gynecological cases. This will teach him to integrate the psyche and the soma view psychological disorders in their correct perspective from his undergraduate years. The efforts put in so far in this direction are obviously inadequate.

We should also put in more effort to get a higher standard of training for our future colleagues. I would advocate training in community based mental health services in teaching institutions outside the mental hospital, again not with the idea of deprecating the excellent quality of teaching material and teachers in mental hospitals, but to give the future psychiatrist a broad based perspective of mental heath and disease within the community. At this juncture, I do not wish to delve into the details of the controversial topic of whether or not trainees in psychological medicine should be screened for their fitness to specialize in psychiatry, and the desirability of making them also undergo analysis. However, the influence of the psychiatrist’s personality on the patient is so marked, and a wrong type of personality can do so such untold harm to his patient is so marked, and a wrong type of personality can do so such untold harm to his patient, that I am tempted. After all it is not the M.D. or the D.P.M. that matters so much as the quality of the training, the right type of personality is given for the important task of handling the human mind. And if we are to stress adequately the importance of preventive mental health, then here I would digress a little and plead for many more well trained child psychiatrists and psychiatrically oriented pediatricians.

Society is becoming increasingly aware of the responsibility of a whole group towards the needs of an individual, and the individual’s responsibility to conduct himself and behave in a way beneficial to the whole group. Thus, though the suffering of a mental patient is subjective, or the antisocial action of a juvenile delinquent can only affect a few people, the entire social group becomes aware of their burden. To protect society as a whole and simultaneously ensure each individual a chance of happiness and security, the concept of community psychiatry which is already bait, has to be nurtured, and we psychiatrists will have to take interest in taking psychiatry further out into the community, even in rural areas, where these facilities do not exit today.

Last month, at this very institution, an epoch – making scheme

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of offering consultant services to the rural population was inaugurated under the joint auspices of the Indian Medical Association, Haryana State. Under this scheme, a physician, a surgeon, a pediatrician and a Gynecologist will visit three taluka places situated within 40 miles of Rohtak, every 15 days. This is a demand for psychiatric consultation. Friends, I move that we should act fast now to remove such a misconception. Every other week, if not every week I have to be reminded to restrict my admissions to the scheduled quota of 15 beds allotted for indoor treatment, but, if 10 patients coming from rural areas outside Rohtak require admission for therapy at each out- patient day, and there are 3 such days per week, what am I to do? And though everyone agrees that out-patient care for such cases is impossible, no one seems to have a practical solution forthcoming. I am sure many of you must be facing this same situation daily. Is this not positive proof that psychiatric consultation is required by the rural population as much as it is required by the urban one? To my mind, a visiting psychiatrist on the panel of visiting consultants would have been a good solution.

To be able to put the concept of community psychiatric services into practice, the psychiatrist has to work in collaboration with several departments. The psychiatrist should be a member of for example, the public health team, to be able to disseminate information and knowledge about the new trends in psychiatry and the concept of mental health and hygiene so that the community members become more receptive to the preventive measures suggested against mental disease. In collaboration with social agencies and workers, he can arrange group discussions, seminars and talks with the help as audio visual methods. This kind of team work can trade community psychiatry right into the midst of the rural communities. If these programmes are to be successful, however, one has to study the attitudes and interests of small groups of community members and lead discussions or conduct seminars on those aspects. This not only arouses audience participation, but also prevents hostility and rejection. To quote one example I was invited by the branch of Indian Medical Association at a small talukas town to give a talk at their Association meeting, a marathon task for one whose mother tongue is not Hindi. But I knew that the burning question is that population was that of the second generation of the rich farmers were turning into wasters, and dissipating their money buying flashy cameras, slow horses, fast cars and faster women, and indulging in alcohol and drugs which created stress, anxiety and consequently mental

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disorder in many of them. I decided to lead a group discussion on that topic, and thought my language was most broken and liberally laced with English phrases, the audience was very responsive. Even the shy ladies began to narrate their problems and ask questions. I, therefore, envisage not just group discussions, but also training programmes for small key groups in the community such as general practitioners, parents, teachers, members of the police force and religious heads, who can understand the psychodynamics of behavior and how it can affect the emotional well-being of the community. In this fashion, the psychiatrist can share the responsibility of reducing mental disease in the group, and help those members that require his professional skill. In this field, I can humbly state that my work with the parent-teacher association in various schools in Rohtak and my discussions with groups of Catholic priests. Ladies Clubs, etc., have given me a lot of confidence in the fact that if we educate the parents and teachers, and encourage religious heads to understand the psychodynamic of human nature, 70% of the work of community mental hygiene can be shared with them. A similar model has been tried in our University on a smaller scale; whenever a panel of doctor on our University students’ Health Service Scheme becomes aware of some problem as result of psychological disturbance or emotional stress. The student is referred for psychiatric consultation and help. The students can get help early, and their future emotional good health can be ensured. With student indiscipline, delinquency, drug addiction and aggressive behaviour on the increase, there is so much one can and should do through the medium of the University Students’ Health Service Scheme, but due to various factors main among them being lack of psychiatric orientation, it remains undone.

Our country is woefully lacking in the most important aspect of mental health viz., dealing with the mental health of growing children within the community. There are only 61 child guidance centers in India, 17 of them in North India. Each community should have several mental health centers, comprising child guidance clinics, adolescent and marriage counseling centers catering to the needs of the generations of growing children.

Marriage counseling centers where the parents can be given marital and genetic counseling help the parents to create a better environment for the future generations, and by adequate counseling can also relieve the anxiety and tension among the newly weds and expectant mothers, at the child guidance school counseling and

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adolescent centers. The emotional problems of the preschool and school children and the university students can be solved, their problematic and antisocial behavior can be corrected, and with the help of a team of experts their energies can be diverted into more useful and creative channels.

For early detection and treatment of emotional problems of maladjusted children, each pediatric department in a general hospital and every correctional institution for children should have a Child Guidance Clinic with its team of social workers, psychologists and psychiatrists. It is very essential to train the proper personnel to man these clinics. Easier said than done, but, when we calculate our gains in terms of physically and mentally healthy children, the future wealth of our nation, it is time and money well spent. Even in the rural areas, child guidance clinics should be made available at least at the Primary Health centers of taluka towns.

Another grossly neglected aspect of child welfare programme is the care of the mentally handicapped children. There is a misconception among most parents, teachers and even pediatricians that only mentally subnormal children are treated in child guidance clinics. Here again the psychiatrist should take the lead in correcting this wrong notion and encouraging non-medical people to start special institutions with attached guidance clinics. Here again the psychiatrist should take the lead in correcting this wrong notion and encouraging non-medical people to start special institution with attached sheltered workshops, where under specialized supervision by qualified workers the mentally handicapped children can be taught to live in dignity and become useful members of society within their own capacity.

If we are going to succeed in taking the realms of psychiatry into the smallest community, we shall have to get away more and more from the mental hospital and carry it right up to the doorstep of the patients by providing psychiatric centers in general hospitals, cottage hospitals private nursing homes, and outpatient departments. At present, these services are available in most of the large cities, but the majority of our population is rural and I, for one would like to see psychiatric services being made available to them. My concept of this service would be the establishment of psychiatric centers in rural areas with a definite catchment area. Such centers would have the threefold purpose of treating psychological disorders, improving mental health through preventive measures and, educating the doctors, nurses and social workers in the community to accept that problems of mental health are a part of their responsibility.

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At these community-based centers, emphasis should be more on the care of the patient in the day care unit, or, as an out-patient. Fortunately for us, this is still possible for with a few exceptions, the relatives of our patients, particularly from the rural areas. are still more than willing to shoulder the responsibility of caring for their wards in their midst. This is very good from the point of view of rehabilitating our patients who can maintain their social contact and return to their normal life immediately. Those of us who have worked in the mental hospital as well as in the community are aware of two things. Firstly, there are many patients within the mental hospitals who could, with a little extra help from the family and community members, stay outside either with their family members or in special homes where several of them can club together as a family working at their own pace and within their own capacity in sheltered workshops under the supervision of a lay person. Social agencies like the Lions and Rotarians could render excellent service by setting up such centers. What a relief this would be for our overcrowded, under – staffed mental hospitals! Secondly, many of the patients’ symptoms are a result of the conditions under which he stays in the mental hospitals e.g., a schizophrenic patient who is treated in the home, with the help of his relatives, does not deteriorate as rapidly as similar case treated in a large impersonal ward of a mental hospital.

Generally speaking, and again I am speaking from my knowledge of my association with the postgraduate students, we do not equip our future psychiatrists with sufficient knowledge about working as consultants in social agencies, child guidance clinics, marriage counseling centers, schools, and public health innovators. They should be coached in social psychiatry to be able to make themselves into complete all rounder capable of not only diagnosing, curing and preventing mental disorders, but taking on the responsibility of social psychiatry which includes marriage counseling, child guidance, adolescent and industrial counseling and even counseling of criminals. A psychiatrist does not stop at being a physician who specializes in treating patients having emotional problems, psychoses and neuroses. He should also take on the role of community psychiatrist, a sociologist and a public health man.

To create interest among good students to take on such a role, the under graduate should have an opportunity of instructions, both infra and extra-morally on a representative sample of what in fact psychiatric practice constitutes. They should also be exposed to the

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community psychiatry centers, where apart from seeing hospitalized patients; they can get to know about community mental health. This can be easily achieved by assigning a whole family to a student. This would make him aware of the impact, of the mental disease upon the other family members, problems of family interaction, socio-cultural factors and the importance of organized medical, psychiatric, social welfare, educational and correctional agencies problems of mental health. By doing this in collaboration with the departments of medicines, psychiatry, public health and social services, the medical undergraduate gets a broad based knowledge about community psychiatry, which can be used relevantly by him when he becomes a family physician in his own rights, and also encourages some good students to specialize in psychiatry.

Friends, the primary responsibility of our Indian Psychiatric society should be the maintenance of the standards of professional practice, the upgrading of postgraduate education, and the accredation of hospitals and training prograrmmes. It should take increasing interest in encouraging young bold enterprising colleagues to foster research mindedness so that the existing clinical work does not stagnate, and scientific research can be upgraded. Our society should take the incentive in the matters of public and professional interest concerning psychological medicine, particularly in the fields of undergraduate training progammes, social psychiatry, community based mental health programmes, the future of mental hospitals and institutions for the mentally handicapped, the problems of psycho geriatrics, and the most neglected problem of rehabilitating our recovered patients with the help of social agencies. Our society should also ensure that proper education, consultation services and paramedical care is made available at the community level by the powers-that-be. And I plead that to achieve higher goals, more perseverance and greater effort has to be put in by each member of our society, who should be dedicated to the cause of spreading psychiatry further and further beyond the four walls of the mental hospital.

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9 SEX AND INSANITY

Dr. Vidya Sagar

Sex refers to the quality of bring male and female, and insanity is a mental disorders, in which the afflicted person acts against the social or legal demands of the society. But insanity constitues a very small proportion of mental illnesses associated with sex function, personality, distinctive responsibilities and risk of men and women. The ideas that follow relate to sex and mental illness.

Being a gent or lady is not a cause for mental illness but it is the feelings associated with sex organs, sex functions, childhood bringing up, individual work responsibilities, personal health, economic, do- mestic and social stress and strains, which play the chief role in the causation of mental disorders, apart from the comparatively little known factors of genes and chromosomes inherited from the parents.

Man’s most important urge is maximum survival with happiness and the next is reproduction. The latter has far greater role in the genesis of mental illness than the former, because the civilized society has clamped a strict prohibition on talking freely and comparing-notes about sex, while we can talk freely and exchange ideas about survival with happiness.

The pleasure derived from sex function is not located in the genital organs alone, but is associated with that of touch, sight, hearing and smell. Sigmund Freud, the father of modern Psychiatry (Science of diseases of the mind) gave sex pleasure wider meaning of sense-organ pleasure. The special feature of sense organ derived pleasure is that it is experienced, as long as the sensory nerve- endings are in touch with the pleasure object. Secondly the said sensory endings get used to a certain intensity of excitation and therefore, need a stronger stimulus, for the same or increasing by the age of 5-6 years, without generating a mental injury, because persistence of this, would lead to a personality structure, that is predisposed to mental illness and neurotic character in adoleecene and early adult age.

The adult type of sex attraction, and an urge for mating start appearing in adolescence (13-15 years age.) and become quite strong in 3-5 years time. Those brought up in puritanical facilies (as most Indian homes are), begin to harbour feelings of guilt that to

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anxiety hysterical, obsessional, Depressive or Schizophrenic type of reaction. Likewise, sex deams and night emissions in boys and menstrual abnormalities, coupled with leucorheal discharge in young girls, create fear of various types, create fear of various types, which af

fects adversely, their mood and performance, and may lead to frank mental disease. These are further aggravated by inadequate and often wrong information. whispered by well meaning persons, or in religious sermons, or through fear provoking advertisements in magazines and sex-counselling books.

There is so much of culture repression about sex in the indian culture that an Indian girl or woman dare not express appreciation of a gent’s talents, as it is taken as a sin. Likewise, induced abortions, under medical advice or pressure of consort, has landed some women in Depression, as they have considered it murder of God- given baby/ For the same reason medical undergraduates are not given any lectures and demonstration of sex problems, and sex diseases.

For this reason, even qualified doctors do not treat these conditions on scientific lines. About 99% of sex problems of men and 60-70% of sex problems of women, originate in anxiety, fear and sadness, which require correct diagnosis, followed by correct information and guidance.

The mating act in animals is a reflex-cum-internal secretion gland phenomenon, but man needs to learn it. Lack of this knowledge leads to fear of impotence and blame of sterility on the woman.

The Unani and Ayurvedic systems of treatment, which have been practised in this country for longer than the allopathic, are responsible for creating inordinate fear relating to sex functions and propagating myths about the same, a few examples of which are as below:

(i) Anywhitematterinurineisconsideredleakageofsemen, that leads to bodily weakness, importance, sterility, reduced intelligence and shortage of life. The actual fact is, that semen is never passed in urine, but is in discharged after the creation of penis.

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(ii) Theleucorhealdischargeofwomenisconsideredtobetheloss of their semen or that the salts of the bones are being eliminated in urine. When it goes to the brain, it causes insanity. Thus If young boys or girls suffer from mental illness, they should be married quickly. If this were so, married people would not get mental illness. This is wrong, as there is more mental illness among the married than among the un-married.

(v) Night emissions in youngmen and masturbation leads to impotence, lessening of intellectual abilities, and causes tuberculosis of the lungs. All these are absolutely wrong. It is, however, not good to use masturbation as a pleasurable pastime as very frequent masturbation may lead to exhaustion or sperm producing ability of the testacles, and presenile type of impotence.

(vi) Antagonists of vasectomy operation (Sterilisation in men) started propagating that when the channel for expulsion of semen is closed, the semen would go up into the brain (corresponding to women’s blood going to the brain when menses do not occur) and causes insanity. There is not the llightest truth in it.

(vii) Breast feeding should not be given to her new born infant

by a mother, who had lost 1 or 2 children in infancy or early childhood. This is wrong too.

Specialsocialproblemsofthe Indian women that lead to abnormal mental stress and later to mental illness.

(A) When a girl has been married with dowry unequally to the expectation of the bride-groom’s family, she is often treated harshly, painful words are used for her parents, and she is threatened to be sent back to her parents.

(B)Most the Indian wives are not treated as partners but as servants and subjected to physical punishment for their real or imagined short comings.

(C) In spite of the fact, that an Indian woman is for more rigid in her morals than gents. Yet their husbands become very suspicious of their

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fidelity if they see them laughing or smiling even with their relatives. Likewise, when a husband gets weak in sex acts, then he starts suspecting that his wife would build up illicit intimacy with some one else and treats her very harshly for imagined infidelity.

(D)The working wives are expected to give the dues to their husbands or their in laws, and to do cooking, washing, sweeping cleaning utensils and looking after the children, because the husbands think it below their dignity to do kitchen or cleaning work.

(E)The Hindu widows have been subjected to immense harshness, and are looked down upon for having been inauspicious for their consorts. Hence, a Hindu woman thinks it a good fortune, if she predeceases her husband. Re-marriage of Hindu widows has not been accepted by the society and she has to work as a slave in the husband’s home for the rest of her life.

(F) Till recent times, divorce was not allowed to the Indian woman even if she was treated cruelly. Her parents, brothers and sisters might help her, but she was not expected to come back to parental home.

(G)After the break-up of the joint families, the elderly women, particularly widows live at the mercy of their daughters-in-law and the sons and have to keep working till they are unable to work. All such harsh treatment may lead to mental illness days, month or years later.

(H)The period of delivery is the period of great physical and mental stress (though the mental stress is much less than before the advent of Sulpha drugs and Antibiotics) and some individuals do get mental illness shortly afterwards. In some, the toxaemias of pregnancy and other complications, are equally trying and of pregnancy and other complications are equally trying and threatening.

(I) Frequentdeliveries,workatthefarm(inthecaseoffarmers) and economic stress are also important factors in the causation of mental illness. These special problems of women make them more prone to mental illness than men.

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10 RELIGION AND MENTAL HEALTH

Dr. Vidya Sagar

Sir Radhakrishan writing in his book. ‘Religion and Culture’, quotes the following from Albert Einstein’s book, ‘The World As You See It’. Precisely, this has been the argument of Vedas and Upanishads regarding the existence of God, and his hundreds of attributes, such as Omniscience, Omnipotence Benevolence, Mercifulness, Justice, Truth, Immortality, etc. Sir Radhakrishnan observes in his above referred book; ‘Scientists are men dedicated, set apart. They have renounced the life of action. Their life as the pursuit of truth is service of God, who is truth: satya svarupa satya narayana lR; Lo:i lR; ukjk;.kkA

Erasmus delivered the great dictum, ‘Where you encounter Truth, look upon it as Christianity. The spirit of science leads to the refinement of religion. Religion is not magic as witchcraft, quackery or superstition. It is not to be confused with outdated dogmas, incredible superstitions, which are hindrances and barriers, which spoil the simplicity of spiritual life. Intellectual authority should be treated with respect and not merely inherited authority. Besides science requires us to adopt an empirical attitude. Experience is not limited to the data of perception or introspection. It embraces paranormal phenomena and spiritual states. All religions are rooted in experience

N.B.

(i). The sentence ‘They have renounced the life of action, read with the preceding sentence, means to my mind, as that they have renounced the life of selfish action as is the practice of all ordinary human beings.

(ii).The dictionary meaning of empirical is based on experiment and observation & based entirely on practical experience.

The essence of all religions may be summarized in the sentence: Fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man. The great thinkers of the Vedas, Upanishads form of the Great Soul (Parmatman – or God) is immortal and gets re-incarnated after death in another living being and is dependent on his actions during the span of earlier life / lives. Relating to this law of soul corresponds in the material world.

Newton’s 3rd law of motion says that to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, With regard to soul, I give below a paragraph from Dr. Radhakrishanan’s previously referred work, who has in turn quoted, ‘Tattriya Upanishads’ for it.

There has been a steady ascent from the inorganic to the organic, from the organic to the sentient, from the sentient to the

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rational life. The rational life has to grow into the spiritual which is far above the purely rational as the rational is above the purely sentient.

Of all the living species, man alone has the power of communication through words and to reason that the good of the society is superior to that of the individual, and for that everyone must try to give more than he takes in. This is the so called divine spark in man, which means that man is capable of doing good to others without expecting any returns, in a small way. Divine (God) as compared to those who have been doing it over the ages in a big way.

Physiology has taught us that the mind, one of the specialized functions of the Central Nervous System, influenced all bodily activity through the nervous system. But it does not explain such phenomena as extra sensory perception. Telepathy, Clairvoyance and such francs phenomena in which he never learnt or heard in his tub time. This has been considered by Theology as due to soul power which is born in some and is cultivated in others through rigorous self-discipline, which goes under the term of “Yoga”.

This Law of ‘Karma’ actions, as taught in the Indian theology, leads to a way of life in which the genuine believer, reduces one’s self- interest to the minimum required for one’s dependents and oneself and utilizes rest of his abilities in the cause of other living beings, particularly fellow men, for the sake of collecting credit for the life hereafter. Whereas the nonbelievers in this would consider enjoyment of bodily pleasures as the goal of their lives, which would give greater edge to selfishness as distinguished from altruism. Religion has, therefore been defined by Dr. Radhakrishnan, as a system of thought, for devotion to a cause which will give our fragile and fugitive existence significance and value… It is an intrinsic element of human nature. He further says,

“The question is what kind of religion? Is it a religion of love and brotherhood or of power and hate? Secular ideologies are to worship wealth and comfort clan or nation. The question is, therefore, not, religious system is capable of responding creative to every fresh challenge, whether it comes by way of outer events or of ideas, it is healthy and progressive.”

The religion perverted by ill narrow dogmas and rituals and appreciation of God’s munificence (as in songs of prayers). Ending with supplication for supplying our needs was meant originally to focus the attention of common man on the essential principles described above, but most have considered the ritual as religion, and not concentrated on essence. This has been tersely put by Sri Aurobindo Ghose, who was one of the great figures of the Indian Renaissance as below:

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“The religion of today consists in repeating the name of God every now and then in praying Him in the presence of everybody and showing to people how religious one is; I do not want it. If the divine is there, then there must be a way of experiencing His existence by realizing His presence. However hard the path, I have taken the resolution to follow it”.

The aim of religious thought is to achieve peace of mind through faith in omniscient, just and benevolent God, on whom we can depend for our betterment in the future, provided we do our duty of learning from others. Working hard, and giving our best with only a limited consideration of reward of earning where withal for ourselves and for our dependent carrying on with the life’s journey, as members of human fraternity without regard for caste, creed and country.

We will not consider in this short paper. The distortions due to misunderstanding of this basic concept of religion in different religious ideologies.

Mental health has been defined by Margaret Mead, an eminent sociologist cum anthropologist, as below:

“The word mental health has become a household word in less then a quarter of century. They have come to stand for a great variety of human aspirations for the effort to restore to full and healthy functioning of those who are mentally ill; for the effort to set up conditions in town, city and country throughout the world which will help prevent mental illness; for the active permit of human aspiration towards the brotherhood of man and a peaceful world, for both the cooperation of all the human sciences in an effort to improve the all wound functioning of human beings, and for that state of a human beings where he can be said to be functioning with his full capabilities mentally and physically”.

Brown writing on mental health in comprehensive Textbook of psychiatry (Williams and Wikins’s, Baltimore) gives the following three definitions:

(i). Ewalt & Farnsworth’s definitions : As we see it, the individuals who have basic confidence in themselves and others, a sense of competence and a feeling that the whole human situation is meaningful as worthwhile have a great deal more resistance to emotional decompensations than do those who have attitudes and feelings causing insecurity.

(ii). Karl Menninger’s definition : As the adjustment of human

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beings to the world and to each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness. Not just efficiency or just contentment or the grace of obeying the rule of the game cheerfully, it is all of these together, socially consideratebehaviour,andahappydisposition”.

(iii). Oinberg’s definition :

The ability to hold a job, have a family to keep out of trouble with the law and enjoy the usual opportunities for pleasure.

Defination given by the expert committees of the W.H.O. on mental health.

Mental health is characterized by a sense of well being, good efficiency in work, according to one’s education and experience and of adjustment within and with environment, that result from an atmosphere of acceptance, encouragement, of good example of parents and teachers and of education in infancy and childhood and utilization of these in constructive activities for one’s own god and that of the group in which one works and lives. Mental health in the Bhagvad Gita is named as state of ‘Sthit Pragya’ ^fLFkr izKk* is defined

in couplets 64-65 as translated by Dr. S.Radhakrishanan is gives below:

“But a man of disciplined mind who moves among the objects of sense with the senses under control and free from attachment and aversion, he attains purity of spirit, there is produced in for him an end of all sorrow! The intelligence of such a man of pure spirit is soon established in the peace of the self”

“The ‘Sthit Pragya’ has no selfish aims or personal hopes. He is not disturbed by touches of outward things. He accepts what happens without attachment or repulsion. He covets nothing, is jealous of none. He has no desires and makes no demand… The Gita teaches us to renounce all selfish desire and work making no demand… offered with true devotion”.

This aspect of Mental Health has not been touched by The modern psychiatry, but it appears to me to be very forceful because sense organs get blunted by use and progressively need stronger stimulus to achieve a stimulating degree of pleasure, so that more and more time, effort and cost is needed for achieving a crest of pleasure, which will raise the mind above boredom and then we shall not have enough time for making others happy which is the only lasting and perpetuating source of happiness.

The use of alcohol, narcotics, overtones on sex pleasures,

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culminating in hippie cult is the result of pursuit of bodily pleasures. On the other extreme life of renunciation would not be the two extremes. Namely, limiting of capacities, remembering to minimum necessities within one’s earning capacities, remembering always, that maturity of mind consists in giving for more than taken in.

Role of religious teaching in maintaining Mental Health

(i) Man’s greatest anxiety or worries are related to the future, which we have no means to predict correctly. But these get eased immensely by cultivating faith in the fact that God who has blessed us with the bounties of nature, even before we were born and has provided for the vast array of lowly creatures, plants and who is just – All knowing and All powerful would provide for us, provided we go on making use of our intelligence, enriching it by learning from others, and doing our best without keeping our eye on the desired result, and leaving it to His Benign will.

The guilt over the part mistakes is greatly eased when we think of it in terms of His will and that we have to learn from the past and not to feel ashamed of knowing that to err is human.

(ii) When we think of all human beings as brothers, being the progeny of the same Almighty father we take care to be considerate to other, and avoid hurting their feelings except in situation of self- defence.

(iii) In prayer, while we praise God for all His blessings, we must recall to our mind our shortcomings and wrong actions, taking Him as witness and resolve to desist from the repetition of the same. This becomes a sort of confession before their priest (as is done by Catholics) or mental catharsis before a Psychoanalyst. This has however, been wrongly praising God placed our needs before Him and requesting Him to fulfill the same.

(iv) The young science of ecology has brought home to us the interdependence of man and other living forms-friendly bacteria, plants, birds and animals, and to our environment of the modern technology balance.

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11 RELIGION, MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHIATRY Dr. Vidya Sagar

The Essence of Religion

The dictionary meaning of religion is “belief in recognition of or an awakened sense of a higher unseen controlling power, with the emotion and morality connected therewith this power is believed to be eternal, all-knowing, all-pervading, all-powerful benevolent, just kind and merciful and that it provides all living beings with necessities for sustainance through Nature”. It teaches that the human beings, the wisest of His creation, should learn to recognize His presence, and mould their lives in His creation, should learn to recognize His presence, and mould their lives in his own design of doing good to others without exacting any return, after fulfilling their own necessities. The luxuries need to be avoided: as otherwise, man shall be farther from that ideal. In addition, the ancient Indian (Aryan) cuiture, also believed in the presence of a soul in all living beings, which was immortal and took birth through another body (reincarnation phenomenon), according to certain laws of nature. This belief provides for man a semblance security and justice in the universe even though his path in the present is beset with possibilities of threatened danger at every moment and sets before him the ideal of service before self; as exemplied in God’s own actions.

According to religious love, God is the spring or fountain head of all human ethics material and spiritual. The spiritual refers to those actions in which one does not get any material gain, however this essence of religion, got vitiated, when some men propagating the ideas of extolling God’s kindnesses and virtues. and then supplicating Him for providing the devout persons with their Demands, without these working for them.

This made the critics say that religion was opiate of mankind. The prayer was really meant to remind the devout that God had provided him with so many bounties without his asking and without even knowing about them and therefore, he (man) must never feel lost or insecure, and continue striving to learn and to give his best, for his own good and for the good of the human society. This attitude of thinking of man will go a long way in making man’s life happy and worth living for.

Sir Radhakrishanan, in his book, ‘Religion and Culture’ has given the following quotation from Albert Einstein’s book ‘The world as I see it’:

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“The scientists’ religious feeling taken in the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of the natural law, whcih reveals an intelligence of such superiority that compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly significant reflection. This feeling is the guiding principle of his life and work, in so far as he succeeds in keeping himself’ from the shackles of selfish desire. It is beyond question closely akin to that which has possessed the religious geniuses of all ages?’

Sir Radhakrishanan, himself observes in the above referred book:

Scientists are men dedicated, set apart they have recommended the life of action their life as the pursuit of time is a series of God, which is truth… The spirit of science leads to the refinement of religion. Religion is not magic as witchcraft, quackery or superstition. It is not to be confused with outdated dogmas. Incredible superstitions, which are hindrances and barriers which spoil the simplicity of spiritual life…Besides, science requires us to adopt an empirical attitude. Experience is not limited to the data of perception or introspection. It embraces paranormal phenomena and spiritual tales. All religions are rooted in experience”.

Mental Health has been defined in the constitution of the World Health Organization as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The expert committee as mental health of the W.H.O., defined mental health as below:

“The capacity is an individual to form harmonious relations with others, and to participate in or contribute constructively to changes of his social and physical environment. It implies also an ability to achieve a harmonious and balanced satisfaction of his any potentially conflicting instinctive drives and a personality has developed in a way, which enables these drives to find harmonious expressions in the full realizations of his potentialities”.

Margaret, eminent anthropologist and sociologist writing in the Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Franklin wath inc, U.S.A.) has defined Mental Health as below:

“The word mental health has become household word in less than a quarter of century. They have come to stand for a great variety of human aspiration for the effort to restore to full and healthy

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functioning of those who are mentally ill for the effort to set up conditions in town, city and country throughout the world which will help prevent mental illness: for the active pursuit of human aspirations towards the brotherhood of man and a peaceful world for both the cooperation of all the human science in an effort to improve the all round functioning of human beings: and for that of human mind where he can be said to be functioning with his full capabilities, mental and physicall.

It will be evident that the aim of religion and of mental health is the same, viz., to achieve a level of optimum functioning of human abilities so that he may give his best for his own good and that of the society. Science achieves that by the old power of reasoning, leavened by emotional bonds with the therapist, while religion does it by the concept of umbrella like protection of a Bounteous God, and emotional bonds with the preceptor-‘guru’.

The Indian cultural thought puts immense emphasis on reducing the pleasures of senses to the minimum for achieving a stable mind”Sthist Pragya” but the scientific thought is silent on this point, with the result that the scientifically advanced and prosperous countries of the west, with their far higher level of living have not been able reduce Mental Illness, drug dependence, alcoholism and marital maladjustment.

Psychiatry:

It is a science of diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. A state of mind in which a person does not feel well and up ease in himself and for with environments, and is not giving optimum performance, commensurate with one’s training and experience. In vast majority of patients, mental illness is caused by the wrong way of dealing with difficulties (blocking of one’s wishes) the right way being that which gives long lasting happiness to the individual and good adjustment with environment. Apart from analytic methods psychometry for which relatively few psychiatrists are familiar with and which can only be used for equally small number of patients, those require patients of much when average intelligence of economic resources, and a certain familiarity with these methods. But supportive psychotherapy is applicable to about some percent of the mentally ill. The world famous Indian treatise – The Bhagvad Gita is nothing but a chronicle of supportive psychotherapy of Arjuna by Lord Krishna in a situation of Acute Neurosis. The Gita gives us correct way of living which are as true as at the time, they were

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expressed and for all time to come. The Gita takes away fear of death by pronouncing the soul to be immortal, and that one has to do one’s duty with all his might regardless of the result and that attachment be to only rather than to forms, places or its reward and that attachment be to only rather than forms, places or its reward and that should not be tied down to one’s near and dear ones. It also takes away man’s guilt bysayingthatGodmakesmantodocertainactionsasareinHis divine scheme as will for the good of men, which he may or may not be able to appreciate at that time, but though are always for the good of man.

The following extracts from Priddle’s book, Integration of religion and Psychiatry bears out the above ideas:

“To avoid any misunderstanding that science might offer to religion, some organizations have officially gone on record as supporting it. From the fourth international congress on mental health meeting in Mrxico in 1951, a statement was released pointing out the vital role of religion is the history of all people and stressing the importance of collaboration between the Clergy and the Psychotherapist.”

The report says in bare; “Religion can contribute to the mental health of an individual by providing security, self respect goodwill, unselfishness and companionship with God and it provides a philosophy of the real meaning of life. In conclusion , the group believes that true religion and the Psychology are mutually enriching and have nothing to fear from each other.”

CARL JUNG believes that religion is an integral factor in emotional adjustment. He taught that an intellectually and emotionally satisfying religion is essential to effective therapy.

GORDON ALLPORT of Harvard University finds no conflict between service and religion and comes to establish conclusion that religion is superior to psychotherapy in dealing with emotional problem.

“Actually there is much more common between religion and psychiatry that is ordinarily concluded despite conflict and misunderstanding that can be no fundamental incompatibility between true psychiatry and true religion. Both deal with the same object-the psyche or soul. Both are concerned with the study of nature of man, the purpose of his existence”.

The fulfillment of his destiny. A reason for the apparent conflict lies in the difference in the approach that each of the profession takes towards these age old problems.

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MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMME WITHIN LIMITED RESOURCES

Dr. Vidya Sagar

This is an outline of Mental Health programme carried out by the author during his work as Medical Superintendent of Mental Hospital, Amritsar for 15 year and at Medical College, Rohtak for 5 years.

i. Treatment of mentally ill.

ii. Prevention of mental illness, and propagation of ideas on positive mental health. The aim of the Psychiatrist should be to let the practicing doctors and people generally know about the effectiveness of scientific treatment of mental illness (particularly insanities) by making treatment easily available to all who seek it, and to try making a Mental Hospital like an ordinary hospital, within the limitations of the law. The vast number of illiterate people cannot believed that an institution named as should not be able to take in a very ill patient The realization of the above aim was attempted in the following manner.

iii. By winning the confidence of the members of the Visitors Committee of the Mental Hospital through giving up the right of private practice voluntarily, and working 14-17 hours daily in the hospital., the intending Voluntary Boarders were saved the botheration of going to houses of members of the Visitors Committee for getting the approval.

iv. The forms and certificates required for admission on petition were written by the doctors without any charge.

v. The convalescent and better-behaved non-criminal patients were discharged on parole at any time of the day, on the application of the day, on the application of their relatives in anticipation of the sanction by the members of the Visitors Committee.

vi. The government was persuaded to extend the period of parole to one year so that the guardian of the patient had not to bring him every 2 months and get him admitted, and then have him discharged next day on parole to keep the patient’s seat in the event of relapse of illness.

vii. Thepopularbeliefthatmentalpatientswereharshlytreated

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was combated by letting the relatives and friends of patients visitthem,inthewardsduringthedaythe timehoursforas longas theyliked,andwereallowedtostayinvthewardsif they so liked

viii. It was enjoined on all the relatives to visit the patients frequently, and to get them discharged on parole as soon as they were manageable and continue the treatment in the out patients camp of the hospital, or as out patient if they had some accommodation in the city.

:- Admission to Medical College Hospital Open Ward 25 beds Only.

Psychically ill neurotics and psychotics such as those having

vomiting, mono-or paraplegia (hysterical type), fever pains, intractable insomnia, marked under nutrition, puerperal sepsis, those who refused feeds and medicines and the very disturbed ones (but not violent patients) were admitted in the open ward under the care of their guardians who looked after them all the 2.4 bows.

On getting relived of their physical illness, and on having become manageable, they were discharged with the advice to continue the treatment in the out patients section.

:- Out patients Block (or Camp) within Mental Hospital Area

A Mental Hospital serves almost the entire state and is located outside the city and most of its clientele are from outstations. It is extremely difficult for such patients to find suitable accommodation in the city. Similarly, taking an “insane” patient to the mental hospital would be quite costly. They were, therefore, allowed to stay in the tents in the walled area of the hospital, under the care of their guardians. These tents ware provided partly by the Government and partly by the philanthropists. In this way about 6-8 thousand patients were treated, and at a very small cost to the Government.

This was an open Psychiatric Hospital within the Closed Mental Hospital

:- Outpatient Department

To begin with, the outpatients department was run during off working hours but as the attendance increased, the locally trained doctors and qualified doctors were posted in addition, and the department was

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kept open for 12-18 hours daily, till the last patient had been attended to. Later services of the psychologists and psychiatric social workers were made available to the out patients on their appointment to the Mental Hospital. Various types of treatments including drugs, E.C.T. (un-modified and modified), Narcosuggestion and supportive psychotherapy were given.

Mass inspirational psychotherapy for convalescent in-patients, out patients and their relatives living at the camps was given. Relatives living at the Mental Hospital in the form of lecture based on the clinical history of the patient (given by the patient himself or by the doctor), in which the genesis of mental illness in that patient was explained in simple language; and popular fallacies about the causation of mental illness through hard round them was stressed. Basic religious concept of fatherhood of God and brotherhood of men was incorporated in these talks for relieving guilt of past conduct and anxiety about the fixture, it was also stressed that the duty must be done to the best of our abilities after consulting others, without fixating on the desired result. The fear of death was eased by explaining the teachings of The ‘Gita’ and other holy books. Principles of Mental Health and of healthy mental development of children were explained during these lectures, and also the way by which the chances of relapses in recovered patients can be reduced.

:- Propagation in information on Mental Health and Mental hygiene

The type of work outlined above won the admiration and regard of the patients, their relatives, and the people in general: They were impressed particulars by the fact that some of the doctors worked so selflessly. These doctors were invited to give talks on Mental and physical health in religious places, in clubs, schools and colleges, including Teachers Training Colleges. It was shown to them that the aim of education, of religion and of Mental Health was to promote physical, mental and social well being of the individual through constrictive activities.

Inquisitive people were taken round the Mental hospital individually or in groups for relieving their curiosity about the behaviors of the mentally ill. Students of the Arts Colleges, Teachers

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Training Colleges, and of higher classes of schools, were brought to the hospital by their teachers for educational visit. They were taken round the ward, places of work (such as work-shops, gardens and kitchen), and to E.C.T. rooms. They were also given a talk on the nature of illness and it was explained. The influence of childhood was explained. The influence of childhood experiences on the grown up adult’s style of life was also touched Upon.

THE HIGHLIGHTS OF THIS PROGRAMME

i. Very large number of patients have been treated in the out patients clinic of the hospital at little or no expense to the Government (Number of such patients being 10 times those admitted per year)

ii. The guardians of the patients are wilting to stay on for 10-30 days for getting their patients treated under their personal care, and so not mind the inconvenience caused But the very poor people want their wards to be admitted to the hospital.

iii. During their stay in the out patients block or camp, the relatives learn humane ways of managing their patients and elementary principles of mental and physical Health in the mass meetings held thrice a week

iv. The patient remains within his/her family, and does not build up resentment and suspicions on being incarcerated amongst the lunatics, particularly when he/she settles down mentally.

v. References to religious teachings recall to the patients’ minds the of heard teachings of our great sages and eminent personalities about having faith in the goodness of God, and draw comfort from it.

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13 COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY IN INDIAN PROSPECT. Dr. Vidya Sagar

The evolutionary process in Psychiatric thinking has programmed from the treatment of the individual patient to individual in family (Freud) individual in society (Meyer) and now to the mental health of the community. In advanced countries in the community, this is a very costly venture, requiring a lot of investment in trained personnel, consultation and treatment centers and subcentres, and a host of the other services, as given by Prof. Bhaskaran (1), in the chart given below.

It might take us 50 years to reach that goal, provided the food shortage and thereafter the increasing population, the military situation of the country, with powerful unfriendly power on the North, and very influentcial for matical power on the western borders, allowed some breathing time.

During the 25 years of planned development of the country, some improvements in Mental Health Services, have been made.

(i) Increased educational facilities for postgraduate training in psychiatry, in relatively inadequately staffed institutes of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research.

(ii) MostMedicalCollegesinthecountrynowhaveaDepartment of Psychiatry, with indoor bed accommodation. A few of these departments are adequately staffed, (i.e., have clinical Psychologists, Psychiatric Social Workers, Occupational Therapists and Analytical Therapists) very few of these department have associated child guidance, clinics vocational guidance, Youth Counselling, Marriage Counselling Services etc.

(iii) There have been notable improvements in the staffing of Mental Hospitals, although the staff is very inadequate. Most Mental Hospitals are predominantly home for the incurable patients with hardly 5-7% beds available for fresh patients.

Most Mental Hospitals now have outpatient department (started on the initiative of the Medical superintendent) and not by the direction of the authorities.

(iv) The Indian Lunacy Act 1912 is still in force, with the result, that many guardian of the patients are unwilling to believe that admission to the Mental Hospital has to be made order of and many of them are not willing to knock about the courts for getting the discharge from Mental Hospital. The new Mental Health Act, which is on the agenda of

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the Lok Sabha for the last 1 1⁄2 year, is not a charter of Mental Health Services for the country, but an Act for regulating admission and discharges but emblematically called Mental Health Acts.

(v) The District Head Quarter hospitals have a psychiatrist on their staff (except in Kerala, where all such hospitals have a psychiatrist), but not the psychiatric team.

The psychiatric Services in India during the next twenty years, are likely to be centered at the General and the Mental Hospitals. There will be therapeutic psychiatric, on the lines suggested by the writer.

In addition, these pioneer psychiatrists would need to take on themselves the duty of organizing Refresher courses for the general practitioners, writing articles for the them in of local Medical Journals. They would also make people mental health conscious by contributing small articles on minor psychiatric problems of everyday life in the daily and weekly papers and in magazines, and giving talks on these subjects on the Radios and in schools, colleges, clubs, study circle groups and in religious congregations. They should convince the concerned authorities for permission to give lectures to nurses on emotional problems of patients and to trainee teachers on Mental Health development of character. They can like wise speak to workers in factories on diet, physical and mental health and about the harmful effectsofalcoholandtabacco inthecommunitythroughsympathetic and earnest service of the mentally ill under his cares, he will be able to make a place for himself/herself.

The Priorities of Psychiatry have to impress their head of departments of medicine in their colleges and through them the principal and the medical faculty of their universities with the need for givingmoretimetopsychiatryinthecollegecurriculumon parwith that of Social and Preventive medicine as in advanced countries and to have an examination in psychiatry in view of the fact that 30-50% of ambulation patients attending at a general practioners office suffer from predominantly psychogenic illness. Moreover, the sub- committees on medical education of the Indian P.S. need to lead a deputation to All India Medical Council, when it is in session, for giving due importance to Psychiatry in the training of medical undergraduates, by treating it on par with social & preventive medicine.

If this much can be accomplished in the next 20 years, we should not only be satisfied, but congratulate ourselves on these achievements.

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14 MENTAL HEALING AND MENTAL ILLNESS Dr. Vidya Sagar

World Health Day (Health in the world of tomorrow)

The 20th year of coming into force of the constitution of the world health organization. This is celebrated every year by choosing a special theme for drawing the attention of the people on a topical problem.

United nations is a voluntary organization of all the governments (but a few countries in the world) where government representatives meet and discuss the problem of welfare of men all over the world in the spirit of “one world”.

Health is generally considered as a well-nourished body, free of any gross disease so that man can work as an active person, but the WHO constitution defines health as “physical, Mental and social well- being”. The first director of the world health organization, Dr. Brock Chisholm wrote soon after the Great War II.

“No longer can illness in its physical, mental or social aspect be regarded as of individual or local concern. The destructive potentialities of man have become so great that his inferiorities, anxieties, fears, hate, aggression, pressure, fanaticism and even his unreasoning devotion and loyalties which are among the common symptoms of physical, mental or social ill health, may now constitute a serious threat to the continued existence of large number of people, who previously were far beyond his reach, Hitler and the people whose emotional pressure he represented made a great trouble and suffering for the world but incomparably less than they would have done, had they possessed atomic bombs and biological weapons in 1939″.

The celebration provides an opportunity for reviewing the past and looking at the future, (i.e. next 10-20 years).

According to the review of the director general of health organization:

(i) There is general improvement in world health dues largely to their combined efforts, due to advances in understanding of disease and their better treatment and prevention.

(ii) Better collation of world experience for the common good of mankind.

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From the point of view of us Indians, we can see the following benefits,

(i) Control of malaria

(ii) Control of small pox

(iii) Unicef children’s nutrition and diseases

(iv) Medial education and medical care

(v) Population control

(vi) Better collation of world experience for the common

good of mankind

Programmes of future

(i) Cancer

(ii) Heart and blood vessels

(iii) Knowledge about ageing and postponement of old age

(iv) Causes of mental disorder

(v) Control of virus disease

(vi) Population control

(vii) Problem of pesticides, food addictives

(viii) Radioactive residues, polluted air, soil and water

(ix) Urbanization with over crowding

(x) Social maladjustment

(xi) High cost of living

(xii) Insufficient food

The most topical problems for present day India are:

(i) Nutrition

(ii) Deterioration of character due to lust for power and

bodily comforts.

It is not a political, but an educational problem.

Increasing mental illness:

The greatest single cause is inability to achieve harmony within and with environments, by not keeping within our physical, mental and material limitations and fixing and fulfillment of our wishes and needs without emphasizing on our duties.

The GITA: Said our attachment has to be duty rather than to result. LOUIS ARMAND: If we are to lose on the mental health side, what we are gaining on the physical today? Medicines will obviously fail in its task.

Our problems are to be tackled on personal level: I am to improve my health and that of my dependants.

Mental healing and mental illness

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15 ch-ch-lh- ,oa MkW- fo|k lkxj British Broadcasting Corporation, Sri Lanka

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B.B.C ds fL=;ksa dk izksxzke lquus okys izsfe;ksa dks ;kn gksxk] fd ———– dh geus euksfoKku ds tkudkj Mk- fo|k lkxj ls NksVs cPpksa dh ns[k Hkky ds ckjs esa ckrphr dh FkhA vkt og oM+s cPpksa ds ekufld LokLF; ds fo”k; esa dqN ckrsa crk;saxsaA nsf[k;s MkDVj th] vki us fiNys okrkZyki esa uotkr f’k’kq ds gkfnZd Lokxr esa] izseiwoZd ikyu vkSj ekrk&firk ds ‘kq1⁄4 vkpj.k thou fp= ds izHkko dks dgk Fkk] ijUrq vki izse vkSj ykM+ esa Hksn [kksydj cuk;saA

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MkaV dj gVk nsrs gSa] rks ckyd tc mudks nwljksa ds lkFk LoHkko esa ckrsa djrk gS rks chp esa vkdj fQj iz’u djrk gSA ;gh le; gS ehBs LoHkko ls mÙkj nsdj ckyd dh :fp vki Ldwy dh vkjs ys tk ldrs gSaA nwljs [ksyuk] dwnuk ckyd dk thou gaS] blh esa gh mldh fl[kykbZ gSA blfy, NksVs ckyd ds lkFk [ksysa vkSj nwljs cPpksa ds lkFk mls [ksyus dk ekSdk nsaA blh ij mlds Hkfo”; esa euq”; ek= ds izfr lEcU/k fuHkZj gSa] blh le; [ksy esa gh ckyd lh[krk gS] fd nwljksa ls izse iwoZd vkpkj esa vkSj mudh oLrqvksa vkSj mudh bPNkvksa dk vknj djus esa tks vkuUn izse ykHk gS og vdsys jgus esa ughaA

izLrko%

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mÙkj%

nhnh] orZeku euksfoKku ;g crykrk gS fd cPps ds nqO;Zogkj dk dkj.k mudh izse iwoZd (tSls eSaus vki dks crkbZ gS) dk izHkko gS (vkSj dqN nqO;Zogkj dk ;g dkj.k gS) fd ckyd lkalkfjd phtksa] vkSj deZ fØ;k dh [kkst esa yhu gqvk] viuh vYicqf1⁄4 ds dkj.k viuh o nwljksa dh gkfu dh ijokg u djrk gqvk ek¡&cki ds nq[k dk dkj.k gksrk gSA ,sls le; ij Øks/k djus dh ctk; ckyd dh bPNk dks le> dj mls ‘kkfUr iwoZd le>k nsuk pkfg;s] vkSj dbZ ckj fQj tks dguk iM+s rks ‘kkfUr ls dgsa fd ,d ckj lquh ckr rks ge cM+ksa ds eu ij Hkh lPpkbZ izLrko ugha cu tkrh gSA ;fn ckyd ds nqO;okgkj ls gkfu ekewyh gksxh rks mldks dgus nsus pkfg;s rkfd og Lo;a ‘kkUr gks tk;s] vkSj ,sls le; mls le>k Hkh nsuk pkfg;sA ;fn bl ds ckn Hkh ckyd nqO;Zogkj ls ugha :drk rks ml dh psrkouh ns nsuh pkfg;s] fd naM feysxk vkSj fQj naM vf/kd ugha gksuk pkfg;s] fd naM feysxk vkSj fQj naM nsos] naM vf/kd ugha gksuk pkfg;s dqN :i esa ugha nsuk pkfg;s blh fo”k; esa ;g ;kn j[kuk t:jh gS fd fdlh ckyd dks lnk gh cqjs uke ls cqykuk] tSls >wBk] ik[k.Mh] nq”V] ukyk;d] csodqQ] x/kk vkfn ml ds eu dh——nq%[k igq¡prk gSA og ekrk&firk ds izfr eu esa ?k`.kk djus yxrk gS] vkSj mu dh f’k{kk vkfn dk vknj ugha djrkA ,slk ckyd cM+k gksdj nwljksa ls ?k`.kk j[krk gS vkSj funZ;h curk gSA

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izLrko%

vc vki Ïi;k Ldwy tkus okys ckydksa dh ekufld j{kk ds fo”k; esa dqN izdk’k Mkfy;s!

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ckras bl le; ds fy;s cPpksa dks rS;kj djrh gaS ftlls og Ldwy esa nq%[kh ugha gksrkA

blds ekrk&firk ckyd ds lkFk Ldwy ds ckjs esa ckrsa djsa ogk¡ D;k u ml ds fe= gS D;k

i<+k gS o lh[kk gS bR;kfn ckrksa ls ckyd ds fopkj] :fp] Mj vkfn dk irk yx tk;sxk

vkSj fQj dfBukbZ;k¡ lqy>us esa ml dks lgk;rk nh tk ldrh gSA cgqr ekrk&firk i<+kbZ

ij cgqr T;knk tksj nsrs gS vkSj ckyd dks lc ls prqj cuus dks izsfjr djrs gSa vkSj tc

ckyd mu dh bPNkuqlkj prqj ugha cu ldrk rks og mnklh izdV djrs gSA ,sls Bhd ugha

gSA ijh{kk;sa ikl djuk euq”; thou dk mns’; ugha gSA ojuk vius vkuUn dk vuqHko

djuk vkSj nwljksa ds lkFk ‘kkfUr rFkk larks”ktud lEcU/k gksuk thou dk mn~ns’; gSA fo|k

xzg.k djuk bl mn~ns’; dh iwfrZ dk ,d t+fj;k gSA

mÙkj%

dsoy Hkkjr esa gha ugha cfYd ldy lalkj dh /keZ izFkkvksa ekufld LokLF; ds fu;e gaSA lc euq”; ek= gh ekrk&firk dks larku vrSo viuk HkkbZ cU/kq le>rs gq, lcdk Hkyk pkguk vkSj djuk gj ,d /keZ esa lPph izHkq HkfDr dgk x;k gS ;gh ekufld LokLF; dh loZ izFke f’k{kk gSA ,sls gh loksZre izHkq ds xq.kksa ds :i esa viuk vkpj.k cukuk euq”; ek= ds fy;s LFkk;h mns’; gSA ijUrq bZ’oj dks /keZ dh eq[; fØ;k ekuuk] ftl ls iqHkq izlUu gksrs gSa] vkSj LoxZ yksd dk egk lq[k nsrs gSa] vkSj :”V gksdj /khjs d”V esa Mkyrs gSa] ;g ckr esjs fopkj esa ekufld LokLF; ds fo:1⁄4 gSA ,slh f’k{kk dh :”Vrk dk Mj Hkh jgrk gS tksfd ekufld jksx dk ,d dkj.k gksrk gSA lkjka’k ;g fd ckydksa dh ;g fopkj ugha nsus pkfg;s fd efUnj esa tkdj uezrk iwoZd izHkq ls viuhs bPNk;sa ek¡xus ij lc dqN fey tkrk gS ijUrq mUgsa ;g f’k{kk nsuh pkfg;s fd og izHkq ls xq.koku gksus dh leFkZ ds fy;s izkFkZuk djsa vkSj lkFk gh vius thou esa ogh xq.k iSnk djus dh ps”Vk djsaA

Ldwy ckyd ds fy;s—-lalkj gS] ftl esa mls vius ?kj okyksa ls i`Fkd gksdj

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ekufld LokLF;

y?kqiqfLrdk

ekufld LokLF; rFkk ekufld jksx lEcfU/kr vko’;d tkudkjh gsrq

MkW- fo|k lkxj }kjk

fyf[kr

7 April 1959

(fo’o LokLF; fnol)

dks ve`rlj uxjikfydk ds lkStU; ls ekuo tkfr dks lefiZr dh xbZA

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i Hkwfedk

euq”; ds eu dks oSKkfud :i ls le>us dk iz;Ru yxHkx 60 o”kZ iwoZ gqvk tcfd fo;uk ds izfl) Mk- ÝkW;M us vius dqN [kkst Hkjs fucU/k fy[ksA ‘kkjhfjd jksxksa lEcU/kh [kkst vkSj Nkuchu dksbZ 300 o”kZ iwoZ vkjEHk gks pqdh FkhA mlh ds QyLo:i vkt vusdkas egkekfj;ksa ij fot; ikbZ tk pqdh gSA ‘kkjhfjd LokLF; foKku lEcU/kh bl lQyrk ds QyLo:i yksx ekufld jksxksa dks bruh mis{kk ls ns[kus yxs gSaA lkekU;r% gj i<+k fy[kk O;fDr Hkh ;g ugha tkurk fd ‘kjhj ds izR;sd vax ij ftlesa efLr”d Hkh lfEefyr gS] eu dk vR;Ur izHkko gSA ‘kkjhfjd jksxksa dh o`f) vkSj jksdFkke esa eu dh voLFkk cM+k izHkko j[krh gSA ekrk&firk rFkk lekt ds izHkko ls fodflr gksdj tUetkr lw> gh euq”; ds vkpj.k vkSj fopkjksa dk :i /kkj ysrh gSA

oSKkfud vfo”dkjksa us ns’k dky dh nwjh dks feVkus ds lkFk&lkFk euq”; dks bruh fouk’kd ‘kfDr ns nh gS fd vkt mldk LokLF; vFkok vLokLF; futh leL;k u jgdj iwjs fo’o dh leL;k cu pqdh gSA

ekufld jksx fnu izfrfnu c<+ jgs gSaA vesfjdk rFkk baXySaM tSls /kuoku vkSj mUur ns’kksa ds gLirkyksa esa Hkh vPNh l¡[;k ekufld jksfx;ksa dh gSA baXySM esa dh xbZ vc rd dh tk¡p ls irk pyk gS fd vke MkWDVjks ls bZykt djok jgs jksfx;ksa esa ls 40 izfr’kr ekufld jksxh gSaA ;|fi Hkkjr esa dksbZ ,slh tk¡p ugha gqbZ gS] ijUrq vuqeku gS fd ;gk¡ Hkh ,slh gh voLFkk gSA

ekufld jksxksa ds bl [k+rjs dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, fo’o&LokLF; laLFkk us 7 vizSy 1956 ds fo’o LokLF; fnol ij ;gh fo”k; j[kk FkkA

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ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk ii ekufld LokLF; foKku

LokLF; foKku og foKku ;k O;ofLFkr dk;Z gS tks chekfj;ksa dh jksdFkke vkSj mfpr thou <ax ds fodkl }kjk fdlh O;fDr ;k lewg ds LokLF; dh ns[kHkky ls lEcU/k j[krk gSA

blh izdkj euksjksxksa dh jksdFkke og foKku gS tks ekufld LokLF; dh j{kk ,oa o`f) djrk gSA bl foKku dh f’k{kk nsus dh loksZÙke fof/k ;gh gSa fd f’k{kd Lo;a buds fu;eksa ij vkpj.k djssaA

^^izlUu cPPkksa ls izlUu ifjokj curk gS vkSj izlUu ifjokjksa ls izlUu ns’k rFkk izlUu lalkj cu ldrk gS**A

ekufld LokLF; foKku dks gkbZ Ldwyksa] LokLF; deZpkfj;ksa] MkWDVjksa rFkk v/;kidksa ds ikB~;Øe esas LFkku nsuk pkfg;sA

ekufld jksxksa ds bl [k+rjs dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, fo”o LokLF; fnol ij ;gh fo’k; j[kk FkkA mlh fnol ij ;g iqfLrdk ve`rlj uxjikfydk }kjk izdkf”kr dh xbZA bl iqfLrdk esa bl fo’k; ij egRoiw.kZ tkudkjh nsus ds fy;s fy[kdj fo”o LokLF; fnol 7 vizSy 1959 dks ve`rlj uxjikfydk dh vksj ls izdkf”kr djok dj ;g iqLrd ekuo tkfr dh lsok esa lefiZr dh FkhA

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ekufld LokLF; lw=

th dh thoudFkk

1⁄4d-1⁄2vius vki dks vPNk le>sa D;ksafd vki db;ksa ls vPNs gSaA euq”; esa =qfV;ka vkSj cqjkb;ka gksrh gaSA muls nq%[kh u gksa] oju~ mudh igpku djrs gq, viuh cqf) }kjk vius vkidks laHkkysaA fdlh cqjkbZ djus okys euq”; ls ?k`.kk u djsa D;ksafd euq”; cny ldrk gSA

1⁄4[k-1⁄2viuh lkeF;Z] izkIr voljksa vkSj okrkoj.k dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, viuh meaxksa vkSj vkn’kZ dks <kysaA ;gh okLrfod larks”k gSA

1⁄4x-1⁄2 e/kqj lkekftd lEcU/k j[krs gq, izR;sd euq”; dks Lora=rk ls fopkj vkSj dk;Z djus dk vf/kdkj nsaA

1⁄4?k-1⁄2 O;k;ke esa] fo’ks”kr;k lkewfgd [ksyksa esa iwjh rjg :fp ysaA

1⁄4M+-1⁄2 vHkkoksa] dfBukb;ksa vkSj ihM+kvksa dks thou ds vfuok;Z izsj.kkL=ksr le> dj Lohdkj djsa] D;ksafd dfBukb;ka gh euq”; dks cukrh gS] lqfo/kk;sa ughaA 1⁄4p-1⁄2 lkalkfjd oLrqvksa] ifjokj] fe= vkSj laifÙk vkfn ds izfr gekjk O;ogkj

xohZys ekfyd tSlk ugh] vfirq i;ZVd rFkk fdjk;snkj tSlk gksuk pkfg;sA

1⁄4N+1⁄2 thou dk y{; e`R;q ugha] oju~ og izlUurk gS] tks bl Kku ls feyrh gS fd vkius nwljksa ls cgqr dqN lh[kk] dBksj ifjJe fd;k vkSj nwljksa ds fy, vPNs ls vPNk tks Hkh dqN dj ldrs Fks] fd;kA ;gh izlUUrk vkids dke dk eksy gSA blhfy, ;g ijokg u djsa fd nqfu;k vkids dke dk D;k eksy vkadrh

gSA

1⁄4t-1⁄2 ;kn j[ksa fd gj ckr dh vfr cqjh gSA vPNk jkLrk ogh gS ftlls fpj

LFkkbZ vkuUn feys vkSj okrkoj.k ds vuqlkj vius dks mfpr <ax ls <kyk tk ldsA

1⁄4>-1⁄2 cqf) }kjk viuh Hkkoukvksa dks lUrqfyr j[ksa vkSj nwljksa ds lkFk esy tksy }kjk viuh cqf) dks fodflr djsa D;ksafd tc Hkkoqdrk c<+ tkrh gS rks euq’; fopkj “kfDr ls dke ugha ys ldrk vkSj og vusd izdkj ds Hkzeksa dk f’kdkj gksus yxrk gSA

1⁄4 ́-1⁄2 lnk vkSjksa dh HkykbZ ds fy;s lkspsa vkSj dke djsa blls vkidh ekufld “kkfUr vkSj lkekftd lq[k cus jgsaxsA

1⁄4V-1⁄2 dke lEcU/kh ckrksa vkSj vaxksa dk i;kZIr Kku izkIr djsaA

104

ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk iv cPpksa ds ekufld fodkl lEcU/kh fu;e

1⁄4d-1⁄2 cPpsa dks viuk;sa rFkk I;kj djsaA

1⁄4[k-1⁄2cPps dks ,d O;fDr ds leku vknj djsaA Hkko gS fd cPps dh xfrfof/k;ksa] [ksyksa] ftKklkvksa vkSj ekaxksa dks le>sa rFkk mu ij /;ku nsaA

1⁄4x-1⁄2 cPps dks viuh izse Hkjh laxfr nsdj rFkk vU; cPpksa dks vkSj cM+ksa ls mldk ifjp; djok dj mlesa lkekftd :fp;ka mRiUu djsaA

1⁄4?k-1⁄2 cPps ds iz’uksa dk mldh cqf) ds vuqlkj mÙkj nsrs gq, mls mRlkfgr djsa] vkSj bl izdkj cPps dks mlds ‘kjhfjd rFkk ekufld fodkl eas lgk;rk nsa] vkSj mls LorU= fopkj’khy O;fDr cuus nsaA bl dk;Z ls tks vkuUn feyrk gS] ogh vki dh lsok dk ewY; gSA

1⁄4M+-1⁄2 NksVksa cM+ksa ds fy,] vkpkj&O;ogkj ds fu;e ,d tSls gksus pkfg,aA

1⁄4p-1⁄2 cPps dk ikyu vki dh ft+Eesnkjh gSA ukSdjksa ij vFkok nwljksa ij ;g ft+Eesnkjh Mkyuk cPps ds fy, rFkk Lo;a vkids vius fy;s gkfudkjd gSA

1⁄4N-1⁄2 cPps dh =kqfV;ksa ij Øq) u gksa vkSj mls nqO;Zogkj ls jksdus ds fy, vR;Ur vkos’k es u vk,a] u gh ekj&ihV djas tc rd fd vR;Ur vko’;d u le>sa] vkSj ml le; Hkh ‘kkUr Hkko ls dke ysaA

1⁄4t-1⁄2cPps ls] mldh vk;q ls Åaps Lrj ds O;ogkj dh vk’kk u j[ksa D;ksafd blls vki mls viuk ugha ldsaxsA

1⁄4>-1⁄2 cPps dks ,slh /kedh vFkok opu u nsa] tks vki iwjk u dj ldrs gkas vkSj u gh iwjk djus dk fopkj j[krs gkasA

1⁄4¥-1⁄2 cPps dks vki vius futh thou ls lh[kus nas] dfBukb;ka] nq%[k vkSj O;Fkk thou ds vko’;d rRo gSaA bUgsa ‘kkUr Hkko ls lqy>kuk pkfg,A ;fn ;g gekjh lkeF;Z ls ckgj gks rks ‘kkfUr ls bUgsa Lohdkj djuk pfg,A

105

th dh thoudFkk

v

fo’ks”k psrkouh

1⁄4d-1⁄2ekrk&firk dk f’k’kqikyu lEcU/kh vKku gh cPpksa ds nqO;Zogkj dk dkj.k gksrk gSaA

1⁄4[k-1⁄2euq”; ds vkpkj O;ogkj dk fuekZ.k cpiu esa gh gksrk gS vkSj mlh ls mldh Hkkoh thou fof/k dh jpuk gksrh gSaA

1⁄4x-1⁄2 cPps dks vius dYiuk dh ewfrZ cukus dk ;Ru u djsa ijUrq mldh tUetkr cqf) dks] Åij fy[ks fu;eksa dk ikyu djds fodflr djsaA

vi ekufld LokLF;

1⁄4d-1⁄2 ‘kjhfjd] ekufld vkSj lekftd :i ls vPNk gksuk vFkkZr~ vius vki

esa ‘kkfUr vuqHko djus dh voLFkk dk uke gh LokLF; gSA

1⁄4[k-1⁄2vius vki esa vPNk vuqHko djuk] ;ksX;rkuqlkj vPNh fuiq.krk ls dke

djuk vkSj okrkoj.k ds vuqdwy vius vki dks <ky ysuk gh ekufld LokLFk ds y{k.k gSaA

1⁄4x-1⁄2 gj txg ,slh lekftd O;oLFkk gksuh pkfg, fd izR;sd euq”; ekufld LokLF; ik ldsA

1⁄4?k-1⁄2 ;fn vius vki esa ‘kkUr jgus okys O;fDr;ksa dh ,d ih<+h fuekZ.k gks lds rks fo’o’kkfUr dh vk’kk gks ldrh gSaA

1⁄4M+-1⁄2 lekt dh ekufld fujksX;rk gh fo’o’kkfUr dks tUe ns ldrh gSaA

106

ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk

vi ekufld vLoLFkrk

ekufld :i esa vLoLFk O;fDr vDlj mnkl jgrk gSA og u rks vkjEHk

fd;s x;s dke dks viuh ;ksX;rkuqlkj fuHkk ikrk gS vkSj u gh vius lEidZ esa vkus okys yksxksa ls mldh cu ikrh gSA ekufld v’kkfUr gh ekufld jksx gSA

ekufld jksx fnu izfrfnu c<+ jgs gSa D;ksafd euq”; us foKku }kjk cuk, vR;kf/kd Hkksx inkFkksZa ls izHkkfor gksdj okLrfod lhekvksa esa jguk ugha lh[kk gSA

‘kkjhfjd jksxksa dh HkkfUr ekufld jksx Hkh vO;fLFkr ‘kkjhfjd fØ;kvksa ls mRiUu gksrs gSaA budk dkj.k nsorkvksa dks Øks/k] Hkwrksa dh Nk;k] vFkok xzg pØ ugha tSlk fd gekjs ns’k esa ekuk tkrk gSA blfy, jksfx;ksa dks vks>ksa dh funZ;rk Hkjh ekjihV ls cpk;sa vkSj mUgsa iafMrksa rFkk T;ksfrf”k;ksa ds pDdj esa u Qalus nsaA mudk bZykt fdlh ;ksX; euksfpfdfRld ls vFkok ekufld jksx gLirky esa djok;saA

;fn ekufld jksfx;ksa dk bZykt

igys o”kZ esa mfpr <ax ls djk;k tk;s rks 80% jksxh Bhd gks tkrs gSaaA

nwljs o”kZ esa chekjh ds bZykt djus ij dsoy 30% dks ykHk gksrk gSA

rhljs o”kZ esa chekjh ds bZykt dfBukbZ ls 10% gh Bhd gks tkrs gSA

blds ckn Bhd gksuk cgqr gh de lEHko gSA bflfy;s ikxyiu dk bZykt

‘kh?kz djok;saA

;fn ekufld jksxh O;fDr dk ‘kh?kz bZykt u djok;k tk;s rks og vius

ifjokj ds cPPkksa ij cqjs izHkko dk dkj.k gksrk gS vkSj cM+ksa ds dkedkt esa ck/kk curk gS rFkk vkl&ikl ds fy;s Hkh vkard cuk jgrk gSA

107

th dh thoudFkk

1935 esa fczfV’k eSfMdy ,slksfl;s’ku }kjk dh xbZ x.kuk ls lwfpr gksrk gS fd ns’k esa vkt MkWDVjksa ls bZykt djok jgs jksfx;ksa esa 35 izfr’kr jksfx;ksa ds jksx dk dkj.k iw.kZ :i ls ;k vf/kdka’k :i ls ekufld v’kkafr gSA blh izdkj fny dk bZykt djok jgs jksfx;ksa esas 50 izfr’kr vkSj isV ds jksxksa dk bZykt djok jgs jksfx;ksa esa ls 90 izfr’kr jksfx;ksa ds jksxksa ds dkj.k ekufld gSaA

fdlh ekufld jksxh ds }kjk nqO;Zogkj ij

vki Øq) u gkas]

mlls ?k`.kk u djsa]

u gh mls fp<+k;sa] D;ksafd ;gh fpUg rks muds jksxksa ds lwpd gSaA

ijUrq lgkuqHkwfr ls ekufld jksxh dh

mldh ckr lquuk

n;kiw.kZ fnyklk

I;kj Hkjh lsok iznku djus ls mls fujksxh cukus esa mrus gh lgk;d gksaxs]

ftrus fd vU; ‘kkjhfjd jksxksa esa gksrs gSaA

108

vii

ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk lkekU; lw=

fdlh lekt ds lkaLd`frd Lrj dk irk bl ckr ls pyrk gS fd mldk fu/kZuksa] nqcZyksa vkSj nfyrksa ds izfr dSlk O;ogkj gSA ekufld jksxh D;ksafd viuh ns[kHkky Lo;a ugha dj ldrs] bflfy, os nfyr rFkk viax gSaA D;k geus muds izfr viuk drZO; fuHkk;k gS \ D;k gekjs lekt esa ykokfjl ikxyksa dh vis{kk ykokfjl i’kqvksa dk /;ku vf/kd ugha j[kk tkrk \ D;k ,slk n’kk esa ge lH; dgykus ds ;ksX; gS \

gekjs ns’k ds vijkf/k;ksa] vokjkxnksZa] fHk[kkfj;ksa vkSj lk/kqvksa esa ekufld jksfx;ksa dh i;kZIr la[;k gSA ;fn vkjEHk esa gh mu jksxksa dks le> dj mfpr bZykt fd;k tk;s rks lekt dks mudh ywV[klksV vkSj vkfFkZd cks> ls cpk;k tk ldrk gSA

^^fdlh Hkh chekjh dks ‘kjhfjd] ekufld vFkok lekftd ut+j ls O;fDrxr ;k LFkkuh; u le>asA vkt euq”; dh fouk’kd ‘kfDr;ksa dk bruk fodkl gks pqdk gS fd mldh ghurk] Hk;] ?k`.kk] yM+us dh :fp] ladh.kZrk vkSj fopkj jfgr J)k ,oa vkKkikyu] tks fd ‘kkjhfjd] ekufld vkSj lkekftd :x.krk ds fpUg gSa fdlh le; lekt ds vfLrRo dks [krjs esa Mky ldrs gSa D;ksafd vkt dqN Hkh euq”; dh igq¡p ls ijs ugh jgk**A

izk;% dfBukbZ;ksa dks xyr <ax ls lqy>kus ds dkj.k gh vf/kdka’k ekufld jksx gksrs gSaA mfpr fof/k ogh gS ftlls euq”; vius vki dks okrkoj.k ds vuqlkj <ky dj] fpjLFkk;h vkuUn izkIr dj ldsA

109

th dh thoudFkk

viii ejuk lHkh dks gS fQj mlls Hk; dSlk vkSj ‘kksd dSlk \

Hkkjrh; laLd`fr ds vuqlkj vkRek vej gS] vkSj fQj nwljs pksys esa tUe ysrh gSA blfy;s gesa gj n’kk esa e`R;q dks Lohdkj djus ds fy, rS;kj jguk pkfg,A

gekjh bPNkvksa dh iwfrZ esa tks ck/kk,a vkrh gS] mUgsa ge dfBukb;ka dgrs gSaA gesa muds lEcU/k esa nwljksa ls ijke’kZ djds ‘kkfUr ls lkspuk pkfg, vkSj ftudks lqy>k ldrs gksa] lkgl ls lqy>k;sa vkSj os tks o’k ls ckgj gks mUgsa Lohdkj djrs gq, eu ds lUrks”k ds fy, dksbZ nwljk ekxZ viuk;asA

1⁄4d-1⁄2 fpUrk euq”; dh ije ‘k=q gS] euq”; blls lwfpr gksus okyh gkfu;ksa rFkk foifÙk;ksa dks cqf) }kjk lqy>kus ds fy;s vPNk <ax viuk;asA tc euq”; blls dsoy Mjus yx tkrk gS ;gh fpUrk ‘k=q cu tkrh gS

1⁄4[k-1⁄2xyfr;ka euq”; ls gh gksrh gSaA blfy, xyfr;ksa ds dkj.k vius vki dks fujk’k] yfTtr vkSj vijk/kh vuqHko u djsa cfYd muls feyh f’k{kk dks Hkkoh thou esa viuk;saA

1⁄4x-1⁄2 ^^gj ckr dh vfr cqjh gS] e/;e ekxZ gh lR; gS**A

1⁄4?k-1⁄2 ^lgk;rk vkSj lqfo/kk ugha] fdUrq dfBukb;ka vkSj foifÙk;ka gh euq”; ds thou dks cukrh gSaA

1⁄4M+-1⁄2 ^^pknj ds vuqlkj ikao ilkjas**A bl dFku ds vuqlkj viuh bPNkvksa dks viuh lkeF;Z vkSj izkIr voljksa rd lhfer j[ksaA

1⁄4p-1⁄2lla kjdsifzrvf/kdeerkuj[kusokysykxs ghokLroeasHkkX;’kkyhgAaS

1⁄4N+1⁄2 esns ds t[e] [kkus okyh oLrqvksa ls ugha gksrs cfYd eu esa ncs gq, Øks/k vkSj fpUrk ls gksrs gSa tks vkidks [kk;s tk jgs gSa**A mfpr vkSj vuqfpr dk tku ysuk gh dkQh ugha ijUrq ml ij vkpj.k Hkh djasA

1⁄4t-1⁄2 ;fn euq”; dks fdlh ckr ij xoZ djus dk vf/kdkj gS rks dsoy blh ij fd mlus fcuk fdlh rqPN LokFkZ ds gj drZO; rFkk dk;Z dks viuh iwjh ;ksX;rk ls fuHkk;k gSA

1⁄4>-1⁄2 bZ’oj dh bPNkvkas dks [kq’kh&[kq’kh Lohdkj u djrs gq, ge vius thou dks nq%[kh cuk ysrs gSaA

1⁄4 ́-1⁄2 vius LoIukas dks lkdkj cukus ds fy, fcuk v’kkra g,q lnc~ fq ) vkjS beZ kunkjh ls le; dh lhek u j[krs g,q [k’q kh&[k’q kh dke djus dh bPNk inS k djAas

1⁄4V-1⁄2 ^^/kuq”k vf/kd >qdkus ls VwV tkrk gS vkSj eu fcYdqy u >qdkus ls VwV tkrk gS**

110

ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk

1⁄4B-1⁄2 euq”; tUerk gS fdUrq lh[k dj ukxfjd curk gSA cPps dks tks dqN Hkh fl[kk;k tkrk gS og mls viuk ysrk gSA og mnkgj.kksa] izFkkvksa] ijEijkvksa vkSj lkekU; fopkjksa dks viukrk gSA lHkh lkekftd vkpkj O;ogkj vkSj HkkoukRed izdVko mls lh[kus iM+rs gSaA

1⁄4M-1⁄2 ge nlw jkas dh los k djds viuk gh Hkyk djrs gaS D;kfas d blls geas lEeku rFkk I;kj feyrk gAS los k djuk rFkk lgk;rk yus k] lEeku;Dq r fØ;k;as gAaS

1⁄4<-1⁄2 ^^/kughu euq”; nfjnz gS fdUrq ftl /kuoku ds ikl /ku ds vfrfjDr vkSj dqN Hkh u gks] og nfjnzrj gSA**

1⁄4.k-1⁄2 ^^;fn eSa dHkh v/;kid cuwa rks f’k{k.k dh vis{kk f’k{kk xzg.k djuk esjk ?;s; gksxkA**

1⁄4r-1⁄2 ^^thou dk mís’; vkuUn vuqHko djuk gS ftldh izkfIr dk LFkku vkSj le; ;gh gS vkSj le; gh ;gh ?kM+hA bldh izkfIr dk ekxZ gS** Lo;a izlUu jgus rFkk nwljksa ds lkFk izlUu j[kus dk gSa**A izlUurk rc rd v/kwjh gS tc rd fd nwljksa ds lkFk ckaVh u tk;sA

1⁄4Fk-1⁄2 ^^izlUurk dh jpuk gh fo’o dh lqUnjre dyk gS D;ksafd fcuk fdlh vk/kkj ds bls tUe fn;k tk ldrk gSA f[kyk gqvk psgjk] iz’kalk ds pkj ‘kCn] lgk;rkdsfy;sc<+sagq,gkFk]vkSjmRLkkgiznlEefrlslkFkhesarkt+xh]n`<+rk vkSj ‘kkfUr dk lapkj gksrk gS**A

1⁄4n-1⁄2 tks ikB ge Ldwyksa vkSj dkWystksa esa i<+rs gS] og ml f’k{kk dk ,d NksVk lk Hkkx gS tks geas vius vkSj nwljksa ds thou ds vuqHkoksa ls feyrk gSaA okLro esa fo|ky; esa izkIr f’k{kk gesa bl ;ksX; cukrh gS fd ge thou ds vuqHkoksa ls dqN lh[k ldsaA

1⁄4/k-1⁄2 fo|k dk mns’; euq”; dks /kuoku ;k egku~ cukuk ugha fdUrq mldk okLrfod mís’; euq”; dh cqf) dk fodkl djuk gS vkSj mldks jpukRed dk;ksZa esa yxkrs gq, okrkoj.k ds vuqlkj <ky dj fpjdky rd izlUu rFkk LoLFk thou Hkksxuk lh[kuk gSaA

1⁄4u-1⁄2Ldwyksa] dkWystksa] thou ds vuqHkoksa vkSj nwljksa ds lkFk esytksy ls feyus okyh f’k{kk dk mís’; ;gh gS fd euq”; viuh dqnjrh ‘kfDr;ksa vkSj Kku dks euq”; tkfr dh HkykbZ ds fy;s iz;ksx dj ldsA ;g f’k{kk gesa ;ksX; cukrh gS fd ge jkst+h dek lds]

1⁄4i-1⁄2 t+ehj bZ’oj dh vkokt+ ugha] vfirq ml lekt ls izkIr gqbZ gS ftl lekt esa ge iys gSaA

111

th dh thoudFkk

1⁄4Q-1⁄2 vius dks funZ;h Lokeh u cuk;sa cfYd mls cqjkbZ;ksa ls gVkus okyk vkSj jkg fn[kykus okyk fe= cuk;saA

1⁄4c-1⁄2 ge thus ds fy, lh[krs gS vkSj lh[k djds ln~thou cukrs gSaA

gs izHkq! eq>s ‘kkUre; Kku nsa fd

ftl fLFkfr dks eSa cny ugha ldrk mls Lohdkj d:a fgEer nsa fd tks cny ldrk gw¡ cny yw¡

ln~cqf) iznku djsa fd bu nksuksa dk vUrj tku ldwaA

MESSIAHof PSYCHIATRY 112

ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk

ix LoLFk ‘kjhj vkSj LoLFk eu ds fuekZ.k esa O;k;ke bl izdkj lgk;d gSA

1⁄4d-1⁄2 ;g ekufld ruko vkSj cks> dks ?kVkrk gSA

1⁄4[k-1⁄2 ;g esytksy dh Hkkouk vkSj izfr;ksfxrk lecU/kh vPNh Hkkoukvksa dks fodflr djrk gSA

1⁄4x-1⁄2 ;g euq’; dks mRlkg ls dke djuk vkSj fu”Nyrk fl[kykrk gSA

1⁄4?k-1⁄2 blls t; ijkt; nksuksa dks leku :Ik ls Lohdkj djus dh Hkkouk mitrh gSA

1⁄4M+-1⁄2 bl ls gesa Bhd <ax ls dke djus dk vkuUn feyrk gS vkSj vkRefo”okl c<+rk gSA

1⁄4p-1⁄2 [ksyksa }kjk izkIr “kjhfjd “kfDr euq’; dks bl ;ksX; cukrh gS fd og fnekx+h dkeksa dks vf/kd mRlkg ls dj ldsA

1⁄4N-1⁄2 thou la?k’kZ] cqf) ds usr`Ro esa g`’V&iq’V “kjhj gh dj ldrk gSA blfy, “kjhfjd O;k;ke vkSj lkewfgd [ksyksa dks Ldwyksa rFkk dkWystksa esa i<+k;sa tkus okys vU; fo’k;ksa ds lkFk leku :Ik ls LFkku nsuk pkfg,A

1⁄4t-1⁄2 ekufld foKku oDrkvksa] f’k{kk ‘kkfL=;ksa rFkk lkekftd dk;ZdŸkkZvksa us fd’kksj ckydksa dks nqO;Zogkj vkSj dqjhfr;ksa ls cpkus dk ,d cM+k mik; ;g ekuk gS fd cPpksa ds fy;s lkewfgd [ksyksa dh lqfo/kk;sa nssa djds [ksyksa es :fp rFkk Hkkx yssus dk vuqjks/k fd;k tk, vkSj vH;kl djk;k tk,A

113

th dh thoudFkk

17 ;qodksa esa ekufld fodkj

ftudks ekrk&firk us cpiu esa MkaV dj viuh vkKk esa j[kk gS vkSj dHkh fe=

Hkko ls ugha le>k;k fd og D;ksa ,sls dg jgs gSa] og ;qok voLFkk esa Lora= vuqHko dk ykHk ugha mBkrsA og lkalkfjd thou esa ,sls c<+rs gSa tSls fd ,d uko fcuk le>nkj ukfod ds nfj;k esa pyrh gSA ;qod viuh vk;q okyksa dh rjg thou ;kiu esa lqj{kk rFkk izlUurk vuqHko djrk gS vkSj og thou ds fy, izsj.kk] flusek ds dykdkjksa ls] /kuk<~; O;kikjh oxZ ls] vkSj mUur ns’kksa ds yksxksa ls o jktuhfrKksa ls] tks FkksM+h f’k{kk gksrs gq, lÙkk/kkjh cus gq, gSaA

Ldwyksa esa rks dqN [ksyksa ij /;ku fn;k tkrk gS ijUrq dkWystksa esa vkdj fcYdqy gh nwj gks tkrs gSaA iqLrdky; esa i<+uk rks og Ldwy ls ugha lh[ks] blfy, dkWyst esa fe=ksa ds lkFk euksjatu esa gh le; fcrkrk gS ftl ls [kkus&ihus dk /kqeziku vkfn dh vkSj flusek tkus dh vknr iM+ tkrh gSA ijh{kk ds fudV vkdj ds mudks ?kcjkgV gks tkrh gS vkSj fpUrk rFkk mnklh dk jksuk gks tkrk gSA

dbZ ;qod bl ekSt dks c<+kus dh xksfy;ksa dk vHkko vuqHko djus ds fy, budk iz;ksx djrs gSaA dbZ;ksa dks bruk Lokn vkrk gS fd mldk izfrfnu iz;ksx djus yx iM+rs gSaA tks i<+us okys gSa og cgqr Å¡ph bPNk rFkk meaxas crkdj dYiuk ds vUr ij c<+rs jgrs gSa vkSj tc og iwjs ugha gksrs fn[krs] rks nq%[k esa xzLr gks tkrs gSaA

bl vk;q esa dkeokluk dk fodkl gksrk gSA ijUrq gekjh lH;rk esa ;g xqIr fo”k; gksus ds dkj.k ;qod fdlh cM+s ls iwN ugha ldrk vkSj Mj tkrk gS fd dkeokluk iki gS] pfj= dh fxjkoV gS vFkok LoIunks”k] gLFk eSFkqu vkfn dks cqjk dke le>rk gqvk og viuh ‘kkjhfjd rFk fnekxh ‘kfDr dks {kh.k le>rs gSaA fyax ds detksj gksus dk o uiqald gksus dk Mj j[kus yx tkrs gSaA bldh fpUrk mu dks jksx xzLr dj nsrh gS vkSj dbZ

O;fHkpkfjd dk;ksZ esa yhu gks tkrs gSa ftlls i<+kbZ dh vksj /;ku de tks tkrk gS vkSj dqN

Dr. Vidya Sagar

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ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh y?kqiqfLrdk

ekrk&firk dk Mj vkSj dqN lekt dk Mj mudks jksx xzLr dj nsrk gSA dbZ izse ds vkfLrd ca/ku esa ca/k tkrs gSa vkSj dbZ dkYifud izseh cudj ,dkar esa jgrs gSa D;ksafd Hkkjrh; fopkj /kkjk mu ds ekxZ esa ck/kk Mkyrh gSA dbZ;ksa esa cpiu esa Hkkjrh; lkaLÏfr ds fopkjksa esa vkSj lk/kkj.k ;qodksa ds fopkjksa ls vius vki dks fe= vuqHko dj ds vius lkfFk;ksa ls i`Fkd jgrs gq, ghurk ds Hkko cuk ysrs gSa vkSj Mjrs jgrs gSa fd nwljs mudk galh etkd djsaxsaA dbZ eupys vkSj tks’khys ;qod ftuds [ksyksa ds {ks= esa viuh ‘kfDr;ksa dks fØ;kfUor djus dk volj ugha feyrk] og flusek ds izHkko ls ywV ekjh] MdSrh vkSj gR;k dk thou esa izos’k dj tkrs gSaA

fookfgr thou dh [kqyh f’k{kk u feyus ls dbZ;ksa dk fookg dk y{; ik’pkR; jhfr dk gksrk gS vkSj dbZ Hkkjrh; iz.kkyh ds lkFk fookg djds vius lkFkh esa vkdkaf{kr xq.k u ns[k dj nq%[kh gks tkrs gSaA og ugha tkurs gSa fd ik’pkR; ns’kkas esa izse fookg djds Hkh] ikap lky esa 30 izfr’kr dk fookg foPNsn gks tkrk gSA tks lEcU/k euilUn ij vk/kkfjr gS og vkSj vPNk ;qod ;qorh jkLrs esa vkus ls igys lEcU/k fgy tk;saxsa] vkSj v’kkafr cu tk,xhA Hkkjrh; laLÏfr fookg ca/ku dks ,d ifo= drZO; le>rh Fkh ftl izdkj ls vius cPps dks ikyuk ,d ifo= drZO; gSA ;qod&;qorh vius ekrk&firk dks cM+s HkkbZ&cgu dks vius thou&lkFkh ds pquko ds ckjs es fopkj ns ldrs gaS vkSj fookg dks vVwV cU/ku ekusaA

Hkkjr esa fookgksa esa v’kkafr] Dys’k bl dkj.k gksrh gS fd gesa irk ugha gksrk fd ifr&iRuh dSlk vkil esa O;ogkj iky ysrs gSa tSls og ekrk&firk dks ns[krs gSaA ;g f’k{kk bruh vko’;d gS ftruh O;olk; dh f’k{kkA

;qod ds fopkjksa dks ekrk&firk us le>uk gS vkSj ;qod us vius dks vkSj ekrk&firk dks le>uk gSA ;g f’k{kk tc Ldwy vkSj dkWyst esa vk,xh lks vk,xhA ijUrq vHkh vkdk’kok.kh] nwjn’kZu vkSj i=&if=dkvksa ds ek/;e ls budk izlkj ‘kq: fd;k tk

115

th dh thoudFkk

ldrk gSA fQj x`gLFkh dh rS;kjh djuh gS tkuk Hkh gSA dkbZ 70] 80 izfr’kr Hkkjrh;ksa dk x`gLFk 18] 20] 22 lky ls ‘kq: gks tkrk gSA

bl le; dkWyst es i<+us okyksa ij ik’pkR; lH;rk rFkk fopkj dk xgjk izHkko gS tcfd mlds ekrk&firk ij Hkkjrh; laLÏfr dh xgjh Nki gS ftlls fd ;qod ekrk&firk ikSjkf.kd ds fopkjksa dks le>rs gq, mudh dksbZ ckr ekuus dks rS;kj ugha gksrsA ;g [kkbZ xzkeh.k ekrk&firk vkSj mu ds dkWyst esa i<+us okys cPpksa esa T;knk PkkSM+h gksrh gS ftlls ;qodksa dh vius ekrk&firk esa vkLFkk de gks tkrh gSA ;qod oxZ ds fodkj pkSngosa o”kZ esa vkrs ‘kq: ugha gks tkrs] bu dh tM+sa rks cpiu esa ‘kq: gks tkrh gSaA budk lek/kku dqN rks ekrk&firk ds gkFk esa gS vkSj dqN rks v/;kid ds gkFk esa gSA vk/kqfud le; esa Ldwy vkSj dkWystksa ds f’k{k.k yM+dksa vkSj yM+fd;ksa dks thou ;k=k ds fy, dsoy ijh{kk ikl djus ds fy, ugha gksrh gSA ijh{kk esa ;g ugha tkuk tkrk fd veqd ys[k] o i|] o veqd ,sfrgkfld ckr ls fo|kFkhZ us D;k f’k{kk yh vkSj fdl izdkj ls lk/kkj.k euq”; ml fopkj dks vius thou esa yk ldrs gSaA f’k{kk ds ln~pfj= dks rFkk lekt ds vkSj vius thou dks fodflr djus ds fy, lksp fopkj djus dk /;ku ugha gksrkA bl f’k{kk iz.kkyh esa ;qod ;g ugha lh[krk fd tks vui<+ ekrk&firk dM+h esgur djds vkSj viuk [kku&iku rFkk igukok cgqr gh lknk j[k ds vius cPps dks i<+k jgs gSa os cqf1⁄4eku gSa] /kU;okn rFkk lEeku ds ik= gSA vius R;kx vkSj lsok ds fy, iwT; gSaA ;g fopkj fdrkcsa cnyus ls ugha f’k{k.k esa n`f”Vdks.k cnyus ls gks ldsxkA

,d fo}ku us cgqr gha lqUnj fy[kk gS fd bu fnuksa esa cPpksa dks ikyk ugha tkrk mudks iSls ns fn, tkrs gSa ftlls fd esfMdy dkWyst esa i<+us okyk Nk= ekrk&firk ls rhu lkS :i;s ekfld ys jgk gS tcfd dkWyst vkSj Nk=ky; dh Qhl o”kZ ds ‘kq: esa ys yh tkrh gSA

116

TEACHING MENTAL HEALTH PRINCIPLES TO SCHOOL CHILDREN

Dr. Vidya Sagar

18

MENTAL HYGIENE

Goal of Life: To live longest & happy in ourselves & environments. Mental Health : Physical, Mental and social well being resulting in the feeling of happiness and bliss.

The approach to the subject : For the child, the approach is

through example and play rather than didactic. Therefore, mental health principles have to be imbibed & embodied by the teacher.

(i) Do not inculcate inferiority in the child.

(ii) Donothurthisself-esteem.

(iii) Teachhimlovebyexamples&byencouraginghimtoserve.

Remember: That in general, the basic drive of the teacher has to be the “good of the customer.”- i.e. of the taught.

What are those Principles:?

i. Love others and love yourself.

(A) Serve.

(B) Avoidance of inferiority.

(C) Self-esteem or self-respect.

ii. Adaptation, internal and external. Internal

(A) Elastic conscience.

(B) Inculcation of long term rather than immediate satisfaction. (C) Acceptance of bodily needs of sex.

(D) Egoistic needs (ambitions, ideals, prestige and need for

power not pitched too high).

External

(A) Through intelligent nonviolent approach.

(B) Power or violence to defend rather than to assault.

iii. Dignity of labour:

(A) Hard physical work teaches us to work hard intellectually. (B) Life is a struggle primarily of brain and helped by brain.

(a) Maintenance of bodily heat, circulation and health. (b) Spirit of self-help and independence.

(c) Easing of mental tension.

(d) Pleasure of achievement.

(C) Work with a view that if your output will help others, and

through them, you will also help yourself.

(iv) Acceptance, wants, hardships & pain as essential elements

of life.

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th dh thoudFkk

This is done though:

(a) Faith in the goodness of man and the goodness of God-(and not a torturing, vindictive God)-a just God, who punishes for teaching and reform, rather than for retribution as we do in our faith, or for giving vent to our feelings. This teaches us to avoid jealousy and fear.

v. Know thyself.

(a) Moderate introspection into our actions and feelings.

(b) Far-sighted rather than short-sightedness. Answer questions

of children & encourage self-compassion. Cultivate long

term health rather than incomplete satisfaction.

(c) Right of independent opinion and expression by others.

(d) Do not insist on a different code of conduct for the children

than for yourself.

(e) Correct understanding and handling of anxiety.

(f) To err is human.

(g) Reality testing at every step.

(h) The correct attitude to the past and the future. (Earlier

experiences teach us to improve ourselves and not to

cry over it)

vi. Sex information rather than sex taboo for adolescents.

Sex knowledge for children through nature study.

vii. Sound mind in sound body.

There are the “Sapt-shilla” of Mental Hygiene. conflicts of biological drive of physical and emotional security with the reality and egoistic drives enshrined in our ambitions, standards, ideals and of either of these with the superego or conscience provide a painful emotional state of nervous or mental tension, which gets modified by certain inherent unconscious mental mechanisms called defence reactions of ego, and either get cleared off, or failing that produce certain secondary effects in the mind and the body, leading to variable (?) disturbance of harmonious adjustment of wild environment, of efficiency in work and in the disturbed emotional states.

Psychoanalysis has revealed 3 strata of mind:

(a) idorthecentralcareofbiologicalmindmanifestedintheneed

for physical or emotional security.

(b) The ego or the intellectual understanding of the self and the

environment & its formulation of ambition and ideals called

egoistic drives, and

(c) The superego or consciences, which enshrine the do’s and

don’t of society conveying to us from the very early days through our families, and subsequently through teachers, books and other sources of information.

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19 MENTAL AILMENTS OF CHILDREN & THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PARENTS

CHILD IS THE FATHER OF MAN. Dr. Vidya Sagar AS THE CHILD SOWS AND SO DOES THE ADULT REAP.

or

As the parents sow, so does the society reap, i.e., abnormal patterns conductshowtaughtbythe parents&teachersinchildrenshowlater

as juvenile delinquency and adult personality disorders.

Patterns of conduct:

the distinctive way of response to an external or internal stimulus. Law of physiology: repetition of response leads to facilitation of nervous impulse so that it gets established as the most economical pathway in terms of expenditure of psychic energy.

Normal pattern of conduct: one that is conductive to the promotion of healthy mental development of the child, which will enable it to teach ease of mind in the parents and in the future. Any pattern, that gives ease of mind in the children, but not in later life, or vice-versa, is not normal.

Abnormal pattern of conduct: That does not yield a long lasting happiness and harmonious adjustment.

Ease of mind: the feeling pf well-being or happiness that arises from being satisfied within oneself, through inner harmony. Keeping occupied in the constructive activities, according to one’s training and abilities, and in building harmonious relations with the environment. Healthy mental development: Harmonious expression of conflicting urges or drives, leading to full realization of one’s potentialities or hidden abilities.

Mental health: Healthy mental development, expressed in prevailing love of ease of mind, constructive mental activities according to one’s abilities, training and experience and harmonious adjustment with social milieu and physical environments.

Patterns of action or conduct have to be distinguished: From intelligence or abilities as they refer to the way of using one’s mental abilities.

The way in which a man uses his riches makes all the difference between its gainful use and waste.

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Basic patterns of conduct:

Depend upon physical and emotional security experienced by child, impinging upon its natural endowment.

(i) Physical security denied in infancy: The child becomes

irritable, restless, cries excessively, becoming lazy of losing interest in

foods.

(ii) From six months onwards, the child begins to show urge for

securing its happiness, first through warm, comfortable contacts and then through other sources as being taken out to see new things and then possessiveness of his sources of love-first individuals and then objects. At this time, he is quite jealous of possession of these sources, Any denial leads to inordinate craving with aggressive jealousy in the same, and disaffection in others.

Lock of emotional security between 6 months to three years leads to:

i. Jealousy – aggressive – boastful, possessiveness, greed – temper tantrums, shyness, identification follower type leads to suppression of personality:

ii. Inferitile depression – withdrawal of loss of interest, inferiority, mood swings – depression leading to over compensation. iii. Self-centeredness of aggressive or possessive type leading

to psychopathic character.

After 3 years when the child is moving about and starts mixing with

others, and finds sources of happiness.

iv. If he mixes with others, he becomes a good mixer and playful

learning and teaching. He will develop initiative.

i. If he is denied free contact then shy, withdrawn, dependent,

and demanding on elders. Becomes self-centered. If left to himself to

play about with toys, he becomes daydreamer, self-centered and

fearful of others.

ii. It needs encouragement in its activities and expression-

otherwise shy, withdrawn, inferiority.

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20 ekufld LokLF; ds fu;e (MkW- fo|klkxj)

121

th dh thoudFkk

21 ekuo lsok la?k] djuky ds ,d LFkkiuk fnol ds volj ij lans’k Dr. Vidya Sagar ekuuh; cgu ‘kkafr nsoh] ekLVj gfj jke rFkk mifLFkr cguksa vkSj HkkbZ;ks] eSa vkidks

ekuo lsok la?k ds okf”kZd LFkkiuk fnol ij gkfnZd c/kkbZ nsrk gw¡A vki tSls lekt ds izfr lefiZr djuky okfl;ksa ds vkfFkZd] ekufld ,oa ‘kkjhfjd lg;ksx ls ekuo ek= dh lsok djus gsrq ekuo lsok la?k vfLrRo esa vk;k gSA cgu th ,oa HkkbZ gfj jke ds lRiz;klksa ls vkt la?k egkiq#”kksa }kjk crk, x, vkn’kks± ij vxzlj gSA

MkW- lkgc us dgk fd vkt ds cPPkksa ij dy dk Hkkjr fuHkZj djrk gSA vr% cPpksa dks vPNs laLdkj nsa vkSj Hkkjrh; laLÏfr ls voxr djk,aA blds fy, ekrk ij cgqr ft+Eesnkjh gS D;ksafd cPPks dk igyk fo|ky; ?kj vkSj igyh f’kf{kdk ekrk gksrh gSA cPpksa ds fy, dsoy iqLrdksa dk Kku gh iz;kZIr ugha gS] mUgsa lqlLaÏr ,oa lH; cukus ds fy, mUkesa vPNh vknrsa Hkh MkysaA bl esa firk dh Hkwfedk cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA firk ds ekxZn’kZu esa cPps vPNs ukxfjd curs gSaA Lej.k j[ksa % ^^ vPNs ukxfjd] vPNk lekt**A

xkSre cq1⁄4 dk dguk gS fd ^^vki tks lkspksxs] oSls gh cuksxs**A gekjh lksp iqLrdksa ,oa /kkfeZd xzaFkksa esa fn;s x, fopkjksa ls curh gSA blds fy, ekuo lsok la?k ds ifjlj esa ,d iqLrdky; gS ftlesa cgqr vPNh Kkuinz iLq rdkas dk lxa gz gAS djuky oklh bliLq rdky;dkykHkmBkdjviuhfopkj/kkjkdksldkjkRedcuk,Aa

ekuo lsok la?k ds ewy fla1⁄4krksa esa la?k dk igyk fl1⁄4kar ^Lo&fujh{k.k* cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gSA le;&le; ij ge ‘kkar eu ls Lo;a dk fujh{k.k djsa fd D;k ge Bhd ekxZ ij py jgs gSaA ;fn ge vius esa dqN =qfV;ka ikrs gSa rks mudks lq/kkjus dk iz;kl djsa vkSj iz.k ysa fd Hkfo”; esa ge bu =qfV;ksa dks thou esa ugha vkus nasxas vkSj ge lPpkbZ ds ekxZ ij pyrs gq, fuMjrk ls thou ;kiu djsaxs] leL;kvksa ls ?kcjk,a ugha cfYd foosd ls mudk lek/kku fudkysaA

vki bl lalkj ds jfp;rk bZ’oj esa n`<+ fo’okl j[ksaA lq[k&nq%[k dks bZ’oj dk izlkn le>saA izk;% yksx f’kdk;r djrs gSa fd bZ’oj us nwljksa ds eqdkcys esa gesa cgqr de fn;k gSA ,slh f’kdk;rsa fujk/kkj gSaA bZ’oj us ge lcdks cqf1⁄4 nh gS] foosd fn;k gS vkSj dk;Z djus dh {kerk nh gSA blfy, ge bZ’oj }kjk fn;s x, vusd xq.kksa dk lnqi;ksx djrs gq, thou ds izR;sd {ks= esa lQyrk izkIr dj ds lq[kh thou fcrk,aA LoLFk vkSj

lq[khthoudsfy,viuhbfUæ;ksaijfu;a=.k vko’;dgSAgeikapksabfUæ;ksa&lquus 122

dh] ns[kus dh] lwa?kus dh] Lokn dh vkSj Li’kZ dh] ds izfr vklDr uk gksa] tks Hkh O;fDr bfUæ;ksa ds izfr vklDr gks tkrk gS] mldk fouk’k vo’;aHkkoh gSA

thou iy&iy dj O;rhr gks jgk gSA vkt dy esa cny tk,xk tks dHkh okfil ugha vk,xk D;ksafd chrk gqvk le; dHkh okfil ugha vkrkA Hkof”; vHkh mRiUu ugha gqvk gSA dy D;k gksxk] dksbZ ugha tkurkA ,s ekuo] vkxs Hkh tkus uk rw] ihNs Hkh tkus uk rw] tks Hkh gS cl ;gh bd iy gSA bl fy, vki orZeku esa ft,a vkSj iy&iy dk lnqi;ksx djsaA

^^ekuork dh lsok] bZ’oj dh loksZÙke lsok gSA** lekt esa ge fu/kZuksa] t+:jreanksa] jksfx;ksa vkfn dh lsok djds lekt ds mRFkku esa lfØ; lg;ksx nsa rFkk ;gh bZ’oj dh lPph HkfDr gSA vki nwljksa dh lsok djds mudh nqvk,a ysaA vius ?kj dks vkilh izse] ln~O;Okgkj ls LoxZ cuk,aA cPps ekrk&firk dh vkKk dk ikyu djsa vkSj os o`1⁄4koLFkk esa mudh lsok djsaA

gekjk eu la;eh gks vkSj cqf1⁄4 foosd’khy gkssA ^ân;* vuqjkxh gks vFkkZr~ nwljkas dks I;kj djus okyk gksA gekjk Hkko gks fd lc dqN bZ’oj dh Ïik ls gks jgk gSA ^eSa* dqN Hkh ughaA tks dqN gks jgk gS] og bZ’oj dh Ïik ls gks jgk gSA ^eSa* dqN Hkh ugha] tks dqN Hkh gS og bZ’oj dh n;k ls gSA ge lR; ds ekxZ ij pysa D;ksafd blls gekjk eu ‘kkar jgsxk vkSj

nwljksa ls fdlh izdkj dk dyg] >xM+k Hkh ugha gksxkA vki tkurs gh gSa fd ,d >wB dks fNikus ds fy, nl vkSj >wB cksyus iM+rs gSa] blfy, dHkh >wB uk cksysaA fpark ugha fparu ls thou dh cqjkbZ;ksa dk fo’ys”k.k djrs gq, vius pfj= dks lq/kkjsaA

ekuo lsokla?k ds fl1⁄4akrksa dk ikyu djrs gq, os ekuo ek= ds dY;k.k esa viuk lfØ; lg;ksx nsdj vius thou dks lkFkZd cuk,aA

/kU;oknA

(;g dsoy muds foLr`r lans’k dk lkjka’k gS)

vius izopu ds i’pkr~ og ;gka vk, gq, jksfx;ksa dks ns[krs FksA

123

fiz; ohj th] djuky (16&12&74)

Hkonh;

fo|klkxj

th dh thoudFkk

22 Mk- fo|klkxj th }kjk fy[ks x, dqN i= (i)

Jherh vknj.kh; ekrkth] Jh ohj th] rFkk iq=h lk/kuk th]

lknj iz.kkeA

vk’kk gS fd vki ifjokj esa dY;k.k dq’ky ls gksaxs vkSj cPps Hkh Bhd&Bkd gksaxsA bZ’oj vki lc dks lnk lq[kh j[ksA dy vki lcus eq>s vR;ar Lusg rFkk lEeku izdV fd;k mlds fy, eSa vR;ar vkHkkjh gwaA eSa tkurk gwa fd eSa mrus lEeku ds ;ksX; ugha gwaA blds vfrfjDr vki us tks iqjLdkj fn;k] mldk Hkh /kU;oknh gwaA ijarq vius vki dks ;kXs;ule>rsg,q ]euS s20#jkf’knkuQMa easnsnhgSftldhjlhnvkidksHkts jgkgAaw

Jh ohj th ds fopkj luq dj cMh+ [k’q kh gbq Z fd og vR;ra lTtu rFkk de’Z khy vkjS mnkj O;fDr g]Sa vkxgz djdss cl dk fdjk;k ns fn;k] ejs k eu ugha ekuk blfy, euS s nku eas ns fn;kA iTw ; ekrk th us Hkh migkj fn,] vius vki dks muds ;kXs ; u le>rs g,q ] mudh dher HkhnkueasnsnhgAS cjqkueuk,Aa lkekuogkavkidhcBSdeaseuSsBhdfd;kFkk]ejsh,d dkysjxa dhuk;W ykus Åudhtjqkcjgx;hgSirkdjusdkd”VdjAsa

Jh ohj th us vius lkjs gkykr fy[k dj ds fn, gSa tks fd lk/kuk th dh fpfdRlk esa ykHknk;d gksaxsA blh izkdj lk/kuk th Hkh viuh dfBukbZ;ka fy[k nsaoas vkSj eu esa ftu ckrksa ls v’kkafr jgrh gS fy[k nsaosa rks mudh fpfdRlk ds fy, vPNk gksxkA

vki lcdks ueLrsA

esfMdy dkWyst] LVkWQ fuokl] jksgrd

124

Mk- fo|klkxj th }kjk fy[ks x, dqN i=

vks…e ue%A t; txrA lizse ueLrsA

vk’kk gS fd izHkq Ïik ls vki] fiz; lk/kkuk th] I;kjs cPpkas rFkk ekrk th ds

ifjokj lfgr dY;k.k dq’ky ls gksaxsA bZ’oj vki lc dks lnk lq[kh ja[ksA

euS s 16 vkjS 17 fnlEcj 1974 dks vkidks ,d i= Jh gfjjke th dh ekQrZ Hkts k FkkAog’kk;nvkidksughafeykmleasvkilcdsvR;ra lEekudsfy,/kU;okndjrsg,q euS slk<s+ikpa #dhvkjS 20#dhnkudhjlhnsHkts hFkhAa vkiusvR;ra mnkjrklsejs k fdjk;k ns fn;k Fkk vkjS iTw ; ekrkth us nks veYw ; iLq rdsa e>q s nh Fkh]a og Hkkj u lgkjrs g,q euS s nkus ks jkf’k;ka jkfs x;kas ds dY;k.k fuf/k eas nha ftlds fy, vki n%q [kh u gkAas iHz kq dh Ïik gS fd

lk/kukthdkLokLF;BhdpyjgkgAS iHz kqblhidz kjLokLF;cuk,j[kAas

muds :f/kj c<+kus ds fy, vki mu dks Tab. Macrofolin iron (Glaxo) dh xksfy;ka ,d nksigj dh jksVh ds ckn vkSj ,d jkr dh jksVh ds ckn ns nsaA ;fn fLFkfr lkekU; gks rks b/kj vkus dk d”V u djsaA fdlh le; ukjkt+ gks tk,a rks vki ‘kkar jgas vkSj ftl ckr ls bu dks jks”k gksrk gS] og ckr ;k ml fo”k; ij ppkZ u djsaA vknj.kh; ekrkth

dks ueLrsA I;kj cPpksa dks] vkSj mudh ekrkth rFkk ukuh th dks ueLdkjA vki dk ‘kqHk fpard

fiz; ohj th

fiz; ohj th] djuky (21&12&74)

fo|k lkxj

esfMdy dkWyst] LVkWQ fuokl] jksgrd

(ii)

125

th dh thoudFkk

(iii)

fiz; ohj th]

vks…e ue%A t; txrA t; toku! t; fdlkuA lizse ueLrsA

vk’kk gS fd vki I;kjs cPpkas] lk/kuk th vkSj muds ekrk&firk rFkk HkkbZ&cguksa ds lkFk dq’ky iwoZd gksaxs&izHkq vki lcdks lnk lq[kh j[ksA vki dk Ïik i= feykA /kU;okn

vki dks ejs h tjq kc <<aw us dk d”V gvq k] {kek djxas As lk/kuk th ds ckj eas ftrus rd e>q s[kyq djufy[kasfdD;kckrgbq]Zftlijogn%q[khgbqZa;kukjktgbqZa&D;k’kCndg]s D;k fopkj/kkjk vfHkO;Dr dh mrus rd eaS dNq ugha dg ldrkA vxys lIrkg tc vki jkgs rd vk,a e>q ls fey dj tk,]a vki dk le; O;FkZ ugha tk,xkA viuh /keiZ Ruh ds vR;ra :X.k gkus s ds dkj.k eaS vHkh iLq rd dks nlw jh ckj l’a kk/s ku ugha dj ldrk gAaw 10&15 fnueasgh;gdkedjlda xw kAiHz kqÏiklsejs h/keiZ RuhdhO;Fkkigyslsdeg]S iHz kqdjs fd blh idz kj /khj&s /khjs mUufr gkrs h pys vkjS og i.w krZ ;k LoLFk gks tk,xa As ?kj eas ekrk&firk dksi.z kkeALkk/kukth]Hkkb&Z cgukasdksueLrAs cPpkasdksI;kj!

fiz; ohj th] djuky (26&12&1974)

Hkonh;

fo|k lkxj

jksgrd

126

Mk- fo|klkxj th }kjk fy[ks x, dqN i=

(iv)

(,d i= gSnjkckn ds Jh- ds- fo’oukFk jko ds uke) Jh ekU;oj iwT; th]

vks…e ue% tS txr] lizse ueLdkjA

vk’kk gS fd izHkq Ïik ls vki ifjokj ds lkFk dY;k.k dq’ky ls gksaxs vkSj vius lsok dk;Z esa yxs gksaxsA bZ’oj vki dks lkeF;Z iznku djs fd vki lekt dh vksj T;knk lsok cgqr yacs oDr rd djrs jgasA vkidk 12-2-75 dk d`ik i= feyk tks dqN vkius eq>vnuklektlsoddsckjsesafy[kkgS]ogcgqtgnrdT;knrhgSAlcdet+ksfj;ksa ls Hkjk gqvk ,d vnuk euq”; gaw tks fd viuh lkeF;Z vuqlkj viuk Qt+Z fuHkkrk gSA yksxksa dh cM+h d`ik gS fd og eq>s vPNk le>rs gSa ftlals eq>s mRlkg feyrk gSA eSa vc 65-1@2 lky iwjs dj pqdk gwaA exj gfj;k.kk ljdkj us eq>s vc Hkh ekufld jksfx;ksa dh lsok ds fy, j[k j[kk gSA eSa lqcg vkB cts tkdj jkr 11 cts okfil vkrk gwaA brokj dks dqN oDr gLirky esa lsok djrk gwa vkSj ckdh oDr lRlax esa ‘kkfey gksdj ds dqN vkjke djrk gwa] vxj ekSdk fey tk, rksA cgqr T;knk dke esa yxs jgus ds dkj.k ls gh eSa vkids d`ik i= dk mRrj ugha ns ldk vkSj vktdy xfeZ;ksa dh NqfV~;ksa esa dqN Mkd fudky jgk gwaA

vkidh t+jkZuokt+h gS fd vkius esjk Q+ksVks ekaxk gSA bl oDr rks ugha gSA tc cuokmaxk vkidh lsok esa gkftj dj nwaxkA eSa vius ‘kgj ds ,d egku~ vk;Z lsod dk /kU;oknh gwa ftUgksaus NksVh mez esa esjs lj ij gkFk j[kk Fkk tcfd esjs firkth lfoZl ij ckgj jgrs Fks vkSj eSa vius [kkunkuh ?kj es nknkth ds lkFk jgrk FkkA buds iFk&izn’kZu ls gh vk;Z lekt dh f’k{kk dh rjQ vkdf”kZr gqvkA bldks vius thou esa ykus dh dksf’k’k djrk jgk&fQj bZ’oj us euksjksx dh rjQ ekSdk ns fn;kA ftl foKku dks i<+dj lekt dh fcxM+h gqbZ gkyr dks le>k vkSj eglwl fd;k fd euq”; ds ekufld jksxks (v’kkafr) dh jksdFkke dsoy oSfnd f’k{kk dk dt+kZ gS tks fd eSa ekufld jksxksa vkSj ekufld v’kkafr ds jksx dh jksdFkke ds ckjs esa cksydj ds mrkjus dh dksf’k’k djrk jgrk gwaA izHkq ‘kfDr nsos vkSj vki tSls egkuqHkkoksa dk v’khokZn feysA

vkidk lsod

fo|k lkxj

esfMdy dkWyst] LVkQ DokVZt] jksgrd

127

th dh thoudFkk

(v)

i= }kjk ekxZ n’kZu

(9 osa tkeiqjh lEesyu] 2 vDrwcj] 1978 dks izkIr lans’k)

ßgekjh fcjknjh izxfr ij gS] ijUrq j¶+rkj FkksM+h gSA eSa og fnu ns[kuk pkgrk gwa] tc ml uxj esa tgka tkeiqjk yksx jgrs gSa& ogka viuh lHkk cuk;sa] feyrs tqyrs jgsa vkSj nq%[k&lq[k ds lkFkh gksaA lc laLdkjksa ds le; ij LFkkuh; iz/kku dk ogh lEeku gks tks tkeiqj esa pkS/kjh lkgc dk gksrk Fkk] ftlls fd ge cjknjh ds detksj lnL;ksa dh lsok djrs gq, jhfr&fjokt ds lq/kkj ij T;knk /;ku ns ldsaAÞ

ßfnYyh tSls fo’kky uxj esa dbZ mi lHkk;sa cukbZ tk;sa] tgka fcjknjh ds lnL; ifjokj lfgr vkil esa fey ldsaA vius {ks= ds nq%[kh HkkbZ&cguksa dh [kcj djus dks viuk futh vfuok;Z dÙkZO; le>saA euq”; ftrus rd lc ds Hkys esa viuk Hkyk ugha le>rk] mrus rd lekt esa nq%[k] Dys’k vkSj LokFkZrk c<+rh jgsxh] tSls fd ge vius ns’k esa ns[k jgs gSaA ;ksxh ân; ukjk;.k th ds fopkj vuqlkj] ^gj euq”; fnu esa ,d ?k.Vk vo’; fu”dke lsok djsA [kkus dk ikapoka Hkkx Kkr vkSj vKkr vfrfFk;ksa ds fy, j[ks vkSj vk; dk nloka Hkkx nku nsosA^

izHkq vki lc dks ikfjokfjd vkuUn] lq[k] LokLF; vkSj nh?kkZ;q iznku djsaA (lkHkkj&tkeiqjh if=dk)

128

Mk- fo|klkxj th }kjk fy[ks x, dqN i=

(vi)

Copy of the letter written by late Dr. Vidya sagar from JAMMU to Shri S.D. Chaudhary, General Secretary of the Jampuri Biradri Sabha, only 2 days before his death.

Jammu

My dear brother,

Om Namah Jai Jagat, Sincere regards

Hope by the grace of God this letter finds esteemed sister, Shri Bhopinder Ji, his wife and loving children and yourself in good health and spirits. May you all keep happy and well.

I arrived here yesterday as Dr. Ramesh Ji wanted to examine my blood again. It has been examined and there is further improvement. I am also feeling better generally. God be thanked for His mercy.

I have planned to go to the U.S.A . about the middle of the next month and want to carry some of the writings of Rishi Vinoba Bhave Ji so that I may read the same daily with Satya and the members of his family while at Delhi I enquired about these on phone from prominent Hindi book- dealers but could not get those. It is, therefore, requested that you may kindly place an indent with the publishers :- SARV SEWA SANGH RAJ GHAT, VARANASHI (U.P.) and collect the parcel. I shall make the payment when I come back to Delhi. Beg to be excused for the inconvenience caused

Wish sincere regards Yours affectionately Vidya Sagar

(Care of Dr. Ramesh K. Arya B-2 Medical College Enclave Jammu Tawi) Dt – 20-11-1978

129

(Photocopy of one of the inLand Letters)

th dh thoudFkk

(vii)

130

23

PAPERS, PUBLICATION, AWARDS & TRIBUTES DURING LIFE TIME

A) PAPERS :

i. He presented a paper at the WHO Seminar for South East Asia on “Organization and future needs of mental health service”.

ii. Presented a paper at World Federation of mental health workshop in 1971 on the subject of involvement of family in mental health care.

B) PUBLICATIONS :

i. Contributed a chapter on family involvement in the treatment of mentally ill India in a Booklet on ‘Psychiatry in India’ published by Indian Psychiatric Society.

ii. Mental Hygiene a chapter in Doctor Bedi’s Hand Book of Hygiene and Public Health.

iii. “Look after your Mental Health” A chapter in Dr. Prem Nath’s book on ‘Art of Living’.

iv. Scores of Clinical papers on psychiatric subjects in the Medical Journals for general practitioners.

v. A set of rules for Mental Health of Adults and for Healthy Mental Development of Children.

vi. “Introduction of Mental Disease for the common man” A bookletinvernacular(Hindi) inAmritsaron17-04-1959

C) AWARDS :

i. PRAMAN PATRA was awarded a by Punjab Govt. in 1966. ii. GOLD MEDAL by ROTARY CLUB OF AMRITSAR, was

awarded by Punjab state in1962.

iii. Was elected as VICE PRESIDENT of INDIAN PSYCHIATRIC SOCIETY in 1972, President of the same society in the year 1973.

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iv. FOUNDER MEMBER of the ROYAL COLLEGE FOR PSYCHIATRYINLONDONwaselected in1973

v. LETTER OF APPRECIATION was awarded for devoted ServicebytheGovernmentofHaryana in1976.

D) TRIBUTES :

i. Tribute by Rotary Club, Amritsar (Punjab State), July 1962 “It is a matter of great pride for us to say that you are actually following the Rotary objectives and principles and is a symbol of true vocational spirit. Your kindness and are compassion have benefitted society to a very great extent and your love for service to humanity will set an example and provide encouragement to posterity. You have, sir, ennobled yourself and the profession you belong to. If we may be permitted to say, we consider that you are a true Rotarian outside the fold of Rotary membership.

ii. TributerecordedbyDr.Hoch,Consultant,WHO,onvisitto Mental Hospital, Amritsar (Punjab State), in Appreciation of Dr. Vidya Sagar’s Contribution, November, 1964. “You have here at Amritsar as a sea of nectar (of human kindness and the stuff that revives) and also Mr. Vidya Sagar a sea of wisdom”. May they never dry up; With all best wishes and thanks for the warm welcome and fine hospitality. (See Page No. 135 to 158)

iii Tribute from Mr. Johan E. Bell, programme director, National Institute of Mental Health, Region IX, San

Francisco, California, March, 1965. MkW fo|klkxj fouezrk dk usr`Ro djus okys vius vki esa ,d leiZ.k gSA mUgksaus vius Hkko dh vkarfjd vkSj ckg~; :i ls lkoZtfud vkSj futh] ilZuy vkSj O;olkf;d :i ls ,d :i dj fy;k gS muds }kjk fd, x, izca/k] lk/kuksa dk lnqi;ksx vkSj vLirky esa muds }kjk fd, x, dk;ksZ dk iwjk ykHk muds jksfx;ksa vkSj muds ifjokj okykas dksfeykgAS yfsduvLirkydhv/kkjHkrw lQyrkijmudhd:.kkdkiHzkko Li”Vfn[kkbZnrs kgAS

132

Greatest Tibute to

Dr. Vidya Sagar During Life Time MENTAL HOSPITAL IN TENTS Dr. Hoch

Tribute Recorded By Dr. Hoch, Consultant, WHO, On Visit To Mental Hospital, Amritsar (Punjab State), In appreciation of Dr. Vidya Sagar’s contribution (November 1964).

24

This Chapter by Dr. Hoch is produced as ORIGINAL SCRIPT by photocopy

133

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134

Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

135

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

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1

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

2

3

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

4

Dr. Vidya Sagar has since retired, and has become professor of 5 psychiatry at the Medical College, Amritsar

143

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6

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

7

8

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9

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

10

11

12

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13

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

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15

16

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18

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Greatest tibute to dr. vidya sagar during life time

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25

HISTORY OF MENTAL HEALTH SINCE UNDIVIDED INDIA

History of Institute of Mental Health, Amritsar is like the history of mental health services in the erstwhile state of Punjab of Undivided British India. To understand it properly, it has to be viewed as before and after the Partition (1947) for convenience.

The treatment for psychiatric patients by a medical doctor started with the arrival of Dr. Honigberger. He belonged to Hungary and worked as state physician to Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1812. His services were initially limited to families and close relatives of nobles. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Dr. Honigberger was appointed in charge of the gunpowder factory located at Lahore and was also asked to treat general patients at the city’s General Hospital, then called Al-Shifa, located outside the Delhi Gate in Lahore. Dr Honigberger set up a ward for psychiatric patients in this hospital at Lahore and it was in this way that the foundation was laid for future psychiatric services in this region. When the British took over Punjab, Dr. Honigberger transferred his 12 patients to Dr. Smith, the district civil surgeon in Lahore. In 1854, Mr. Robert Montgomery, the judicial commissioner of united Punjab of British India floated the idea of building a mental hospital in Lahore, but this could not materialise for certain reasons.

Till 1900, these patients were shifted from place to place for various reasons till a new mental hospital was established in Lahore in 1900. The patients were given under the supervision of Col. Dr. Ewen, a psychiatrist, who was appointed as the first medical superintendent. This gentleman headed the hospital till his death in 1914. The hospital remained without a psychiatrist till 1922. Dr Lodge Patch took over as in charge of the hospital. Dr Patch, a psychiatrist, worked hard to improve the prevailing conditions and added also new buildings. As a result, the number of patients increased to about 1400. A distinguished psychiatrist of his time, Dr Kraeplin, had also wished to come over to Mental Hospital, Lahore to complete his research during

156

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that period. In 1947, the country was divided into India and Pakistan, and a decision was taken by the two governments to exchange mentally ill patients admitted to Mental Hospitals located in the two countries.

There were 14 mental hospitals in India at that time and there were three mental hospitals in Pakistan (Lahore, Hyderabad and Peshawar). Non-muslim patients admitted in Pakistan were transferred to India and Muslim patients admitted in India were transferred to Pakistan. Since the number of patients available for exchange was large and there was no Mental Hospital in East Punjab of India, the government decided to establish a Mental Hospital at Amritsar. A large number of mentally ill patients were shifted from Pakistan and all of them were to start with, lodged in tents erected in an open ground at Amritsar. An old dilapidated building of Borstal Jail was lying vacant and the then Government of Punjab decided to convert it into Punjab Mental Hospital, Amritsar. With the passage of time, The government acquired additional land lying vacant nearby and the hospital ultimately was converted into an 811 bedded hospital. The subject of mental health was in its infacny and there were no qualified psychiatrists available in the country with the result treatment of mentally ill patients in those days was largely custodial in nature. But with the appointment of Dr. Vidya Sagar as the Medical Superintendent of the hospital, there occured an all round improvement of the hospital and it became so famous that patients from Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir, Rajasthan, Utter Pradesh and other neighboring states started coming to Amritsar for treatment.

Punjab Mental Hospital came to acquire an iconic status in the city of Amritsar and became one of the three important places of Amritsar i.e. Golden Temple, Jallianwala Bagh and Mental Hospital, Amritsar.

In 1966, the state of Punjab was reorganised and divided into Punjab and Haryana. Dr. Vidya Sagar opted to join Haryana and was

157

History of mental health since undivided india

therefore transferred and posted as Professor and Head of Psychiatry Department at Medical College Rohtak. With the departure of Dr. Vidya Sagar started the gradual deterioration of this hospital and a time came in the 1990 to 1998 when it was always in the news for bad reasons. There were reports of indiscipline and absenteeism on the part of the staff, a few cases of rape and sodomy of the patients, and a general decline in the upkeep of the hospital. After accepting the report and recommendations of a High Powered Committee which was constituted by the government to suggest measures to improve the Mental Hospital, the Punjab Govt. transferred the administrative control of Mental Hospital, Amritsar to Punjab Health Systems Corporation with all its assets and liabilities and authorised to establish an Institute of Mental Health by constructing a new building with all the facilities.

The Govt. appointed DR. B.L. Goyal, a retired Professor and Head of Psychiatry department and Principal of Government Medical College, Amritsar as the new Director of Institute of Mental Health who assumed this charge on the 1st of January, 2001. A new, beautiful building with all the facilities for a 450 bedded hospital was constructed and was commissioned in 2003.

The Institute of Mental Health now has a modern kitchen, an automatic laundry, dormitory accommodation for the patients, clean toilets and bath-rooms with the facility of hot water during winter. It has a separate administrative cum out patients block with a shopping complex. All the required medicines for the treatment of mentally ill patients are available. The hospital has a well equipped psychological laboratory, a biochemistry lab and well equipped centre for administration of modified electroconvulsive therapy.

The institute is affiliated to National Board of Examinations, New Delhi for imparting training to D.N.B. candidates and has a School of Nursing where 40 students are admitted every year for three years course of General Nursing and Midwifery. Admissions of mentally ill patients to the hospital are done strictly as per provisions of Mental Health Act, 1987 and patients belonging to the states of Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh can be admitted as per this act.

158

Treatment

of Psychiatric Patients was Revolutionized

by

Late Dr. Vidya Sagar ji

• Actively involved in spreading knowledge about mental illnesses, treatment and role of loving care by the family.

• He strongly opposed the chaining or locking up of patients with mental illness.

• His main contribution to the field of psychiatry was the involvement of family in the care of patients with mental illness.

• He entrusted the nursing care of the psychiatric patients to the family members who stayed with the patients.

• He put up tents in the hospital campus to cater services to more number of patients and to accommodate their families.

• This new approach was quite effective in reducing the stigma towards patients with mental illness to serve the patients with limited number of psychiatrists.

• He compensated the shortage of psychiatrists by working three times the normal working hours without break through out his life.

He will be always remembered as

The Father of Psychiatry

159

Treatment

of Psychiatric Patients was Revolutionized

by

Late Dr. Vidya Sagar ji

• Actively involved in spreading knowledge about mental illnesses, treatment and role of loving care by the family.

• He strongly opposed the chaining or locking up of patients with mental illness.

• His main contribution to the field of psychiatry was the involvement of family in the care of patients with mental illness.

• He entrusted the nursing care of the psychiatric patients to the family members who stayed with the patients.

• He put up tents in the hospital campus to cater services to more number of patients and to accommodate their families.

• This new approach was quite effective in reducing the stigma towards patients with mental illness to serve the patients with limited number of psychiatrists.

• He compensated the shortage of psychiatrists by working three times the normal working hours without break through out his life.

He will be always remembered as

The Father of Psychiatry

160

Hkkx&3

thou foJke vafre ;k=k tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka ,oa lEeku

161

Different Dignitaries recall Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji with DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji in real sense was a:-

Dr. Rajiv Gupta

Rohtak 86890-33888

Dr. A. K. Vohra

London, UK

+44 7435645027

AN ICONE OF PSYCHIATRY AN ANGELIC BEING

(v}Hkqr O;fDrRo)

Dr. T.R Madaan LIVING GOD

Panipat (HR) 94160-30977

Dr. K. B. Kanwal ICON OF PSYCHIATRY

Director, Health Service, Haryana (Retd.) 98133-50347

Dr. Narinder Chawla OCEAN OF EDUCATION

London, U.K.+44 7919423006

Dr. Jagdish C Bathla ESTEEMED GURU

Bathla Psy. Hospital, Karnal 94661-86888

Lokeh izse ewfrZ

(iz/kku)] ekuo lsok la?k] djuky

80535-49730

lsok o izse ds izrhd lsok Hkkoh

Dr. Ramesh Arya PRACTICAL GUIDE

Gurugram 88263-65138

Dr. M. S. Lamba A SHANTI KI MURTI

Model Town, Karnal 98963-11938

Anonymous J & K FATHER OF PSYCHIATRY

Gurugram 88263-65138

162

thou foJke ,oa tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka egk ‘ko ;k=k

24 uoEcj] 1978 ‘kqØokj dks J1⁄4s; MkŒ fo|klkxj th dk tEew esa nsgkolku gks x;kA vfUre le; xk;=h rFkk vkse~ dk tki djrs&djrs mUgksaus Lo;a dks izHkq ds viZ.k dj fn;kA tgk¡ os xhrk ds vuqlkj deZ ;ksxh&dÙkZO; ds /kuh cus ogk¡ os vksfeR;sdk{kj czã ijea xfre~* xhrk ds bl mins’k dks lkFkZd fd;k vkSj ijexfr dks izkIr gq,A

nq%[kn lekpkj i¡gqprs&i¡gqprs lc vksj ‘kksd Nk x;kA mudk ikfFkZo ‘kjhj fnYyh yk;k x;kA LFkkuh; yksxksa ds vfrfjDr nwj&nwj ls cgqr cM+h la[;k esa vk, J}kyq tuksa us LoxhZ; MkW- fo|klkxj ds vfUre n’kZu fd;s vkSj J}k ds iq”i p<+k;sA

27 uoEcj lkseokj dks izkr% yks/kh gksVy ds lkeus fLFkr ‘ke’kku Hkwfe esa jksrs] vk¡lw cgkrs cM+h la[;k esa L=h&iq:”kksa us vfUre n’kZu fd;s vkSj iq”iekyk,¡ vfiZr dhaA

vfUre lLa dkj i.w kZ ofS nd jhfr ls iŒa Jh lR;iky ‘kekZ ds ikjs kfs gR; eas lEiUu gvq kA MkŒ lkgc ds liq =q MkŒ lR;oku us vius firk ds ikfFkoZ ‘kjhj dks vfXu dks HkVas fd;kAikzFkuZ klHkkeasijekReklsfnoXarvkRekdhlnx~ fr,oa’kkfUrdsfy,ikzFkuZ kdhxbZ rFkkifjokj,oaiesz htukasdsfy,lgu’kfDrdh;kpukdhxbAZ nksfeuVdhekuS ikzFkuZ kHkh gbq AZ lc [kk,s &[kk,s ls fn[krs FkAs n%q [kh ,oa Hkkjh eu ls ykxs ‘ke’kku Hkfw e ls ykVS As

lk;a olUr fogkj] ubZ fnYyh esa o;kso`1⁄4 usrk nhoku /keZpUn th dh v/;{krk esa J1⁄4katfy lHkk gqbZA gou ;K] izkFkZuk ds ckn J1⁄4katfy;k¡ vfiZr dh xbaZA iaŒ lR;iky ‘kekZ th] iaŒtSeqfu th] dsUnzh; eU=h izksŒ ‘ksj flag th dkeŒ jke fd’ku th HkwŒiwŒeq[; eU=h iatkc] MkŒdsŒlhŒdU/kkjh] Jh vrjpUn xqxukuh] cgu ‘kkfUr nsoh djuky] MkŒ vkjŒ,uŒlHkjoky vkfn us HkkoHkhuh J1⁄4katfy;k¡ vfiZr dhaA

iŒa lR;iky’kekZthu&s thukmlusft;krEqgaslkFkfy;k]txdhijokgudj] rjs k gh cl uke fy;kA lkekftd Hktu ds }kjk ijekRek ds lPps i=q dks J1⁄4kta fy vfirZ dhA Jherh/keZnsohth](jksgrd)us^jksrs&jksrsNksM+x;sgesafdldslgkjs*xhrds

}kjk J1⁄4katfy viZ.k dk n`’; cM+k gh ân; fonkjd FkkA

163

th dh thoudFkk

dNq us fo|k ds lkxj&’kgn vkjS ver` ds lkxj dks vius J1⁄4k ds i”q i HkVas fd;s rks dNq us fu%LokFkZ los h&nhu tukas ds I;kj d:.kk ds lkxj dks lk&S lkS ckj oUnu fd;kA de;Z kxs h&e;knZ k i:q “kkÙs ke dks iesz Hkjh J1⁄4kta fy vfirZ djrs g,q muds ‘kkunkj thou dks viukusijcyfn;kx;kAR;kxvkjS riL;kdhefwrZdksckj&ckjueLdkjfd;kx;kA egkekuoMkŒW fo|klkxjthdslkFk&lkFkmudhLoxh;Z /keiZ RuhJherhdk’S kY;knos hdks muds R;kx] riL;k] los korz ds dkj.k HkkoHkhuh J1⁄4kta fy vfirZ dh xbAZ jkxs h] ihfMr+ k]as fiNMs+ykxs k]as xjhck]as fo|kfFk;Z kasdk^lgk;rk;K*pyrkjgsblmí’s ;ls^MkŒW fo|klkxj& dk’S kY;k nos h eeS kfs j;y VLa V* cukus dh ?kk”s k.kk dh xbAZ mifLFkr tu legw us bl VLa V ds fuek.Z k dk gkfndZ Lokxr fd;k rRdky blds fy, /ku jkf’k bdVB~ h gkus h vkjHk gks xbAZ tkeijqhekr`lHkkusbli.q;dk;Zdsfy,5001:HkVas fd;s

(lkHkkj&tkeiqjh if=dk)

164

thou foJke ,oa tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka vfUre ;k=k & jksgrd

2 fnlEcj] 1978 dks izkr% 6 cts yks/kh gksVy ds lkeus ‘ke’kku ls LoŒ MkŒ fo|klkxj th dh vfLFk;k¡ mBkbZ xbZ vkSaj rhu dkjsa ikfjokfjd tuksa ds lkFk jksgrd ds fy, jokuk gqbZaA jkLrs* esa VaSfQd tke ds dkj.k ge yksx ƒŒ cts eSfMdy dkWyst dk lkjk LVkQ& MkWDVj] ftuds gsM MkWŒ lhŒ izdk’k Fks] bdV~Bs gq, FksA gekjs igq¡prs gh vk;Z lekt ds iz/kku vkSj MkWŒ lhŒ izdk’k us vfLFk;ksa dk ik= laHkky fy;k vkSj flj ij j[kdj lth gqbZ dkj rd ys x;sA ogk¡ iq”i ekykvksa ls bl dk Lokxr fd;k x;kA blds ckn lc yksx tywl dh ‘kDy esa vkxs c<+sA ckt+kj esa lc nqdkusa cUn FkhaA ^MkWŒ lkgc vej jgsa* ^MkWŒ fo|klkxj ft+Unkckn ^ds ukjksa ls xw¡t jgk FkkA jksgrd ds yksx lc jks jgs FksA MkWŒ lkgc dh vfLFk;ksa dks ns[kdj Jðk ds Qwy p<+k jgs FksA vUr esa tywl n;kuUn eB ij igq¡pk] vfLFk;k¡ lHkk LFky ij igq¡pk nh xb±A cM+h la[;k esa yksx ,df=r gks pqds FksA ogk¡ dbZ laLFkkvksa vkSj O;fDr;ksa us ‘kksd izdV fd;k vkSj MkWŒfo|k lkxj th dh vpkud ekSr ij xgjk nq%[k izdV fd;kA

fuEufyf[kr laLFkkvksa ,oa O;fDr;ksa us J1⁄4katfy;k¡ HksaV dha % &

(i) oSfnd HkfDr lk/ku vkJe] vk;Z uxj] jksgrd

(ii) xq:}kjk caxyk lkfgc] jksgrd

(iii) vk;Z lekt] iz/kkuk eksgYYkk] jksgrd

(iv) vk;Z lekt ekMy VkÅu] jksgrd

(v) cgu jkts’ojh nsoh] fHkokuh

(vi) lukru /keZ efUnj] jksgrd

(vii) MkWΠihΠ,lΠeSuh] esfMdy dkWyst] jksgrd

(viii) MkWŒ osn izdk’k] esfMdy dkWyst] jksgrd

(ix) MkWŒ vkseizdk’k] esfMdy dkWyst] jksgrd

(x) MkWŒ ,ŒdsŒxqIrk] eg£”k n;kuUn ;wfuoflVh] jksgrd

(xi) Jh uUnyky th] jksgrd

(xii) nqxkZ Hkou efUnj] jksgrd

vUr esa Jh tsŒ,uŒ pkS/kjh us MkWŒ fo|klkxj th dh e`R;q ij xgjk ‘kksd izdV

fd;k vkSj ml lHkk dh izcU/kd desVh dk /kU;okn fd;kA mUgksaus crk;k fd MkWŒ lkgc jksgrd esa gh cluk pkgrs FksA dk’k! mudh ;g bPNk iwjh gqbZ gksrh vkSj jksgrd fuoklh mudh lsok ls ykHk mBk ldrsA J1⁄4katfy;k¡ HksV djus ds ckn MkWŒ lkgc ds iq= us vfLFk;ksa dk ik= vius flj ij mBk;k vkSj ogha n;kuUn eB ds [ksr esa tgk¡ LoŒMkWŒ lkgc dh /keZiRuh LoŒ Jherh dkS’kY;k nsoh th dh vfLFk;k¡ nch gqbZ Fkha] muds lkFk gh] mudh vfLFk;ksa dks nck fn;kA gt+kjksa O;fDr;ksa us MkWŒ lkgc dh bl bPNk dks dh mudh

165

th dh thoudFkk

dqN vfLFk;k¡ mudh /keZiRuh dh vfLFk;ksa ds lkFk gh nck nh tk;sa] cM+s nq%[k ds lkFk bl n`’; dks ns[kkA blds ckn tywl fudV dh ‘ke’kku Hkwfe esa x;k vkSj tgka dqN o”kZ iwoZ mudh /keZ iRuh Jherh dkS’kY;k nsoh th dks vfXu dh HksaV fd;k x;k Fkk] ogk¡ t+ehu [kksndj MkŒ lkgc dh ‘ks”k vfLFk;k¡ nck nh xb±A ckn esa ifjokj ds yksxksa us MkWŒ lkgc ds cgqr gh fiz; lkFkh Jh uUnyky th ds ?kj HkkstukFkZ x;sA yxHkx 3 cts ge yksx fnYyh ykSV vk,A

(lkHkkj&tkeiqjh if=dk) lqUnjnkl pkS/kjh (egkeU=h)vf[ky Hkkjrh; tkeiqjh ekr` lHkk] ubZ fnYyh

fofHkUu laLFkkvksa o O;fDr;ksa }kjk MkW fo|klkxj dks nh xbZ J}katfy

i. fjlkys flag jkBh] Mkd?kj jksgrd

ii. foKkukuUn ljLorh] lapkyd] oSfnd HkfDr lk/ku vkJe] vk;Z uxj]

jksgrdA

iii. ns’kjkt vk;Z] ea=h vk;Z ikfjokfjd lRlax lHkk] jksgrd

iv. vk;Z lekt] iz/kkuk eksgYyk] jksgrd

v. vk;Z lekt] >Ttj jksM] jksgrd

vi. vk;Z lekt] f’kokth dkyksuh] jksgrd

vii. vk;Z lekt] xka/kh uxj] jksgrd

viii. vk;Z ohj ny] jksgrd

ix. Jh eLrukFk vk;qosZn egkfo|ky;] vLFky cksgj] jksgrd

x. vk;Z lekt] xqM+xk¡o Nkouh

xi. vk;Z lekt] vtqZu uxj] xqM+xk¡o

xii. vk;Z lekt] jke uxj] xqM+xk¡o

xiv. n;kuUn f’k’kq fon~;k eafnj] xqM+xk¡o 14. vk;Z lekt] ekMy VkÅu] xqM+xk¡o

xv. gfj;k.kk vk;qosZfnd ,.M ;wukuh izsDVh’kutZ+ ,lksfl,’ku (jft0)

xqM+xkao NkouhA

xvi. fxj/kkjh yky ukxiky] Q+kft+Ydk

xvii. lR;Hkw”k.k osnkyadkj] xzhu ikdZ] ubZ fnYyh 166

xviii. jkeukFk lgxy (lHkk lU=h)] vk;Z izknsf’kd izfrfuf/k lHkk] ubZ fnYyh

xix. vk;Z lekt] clUr fogkj] ubZ fnYyh

xx. vk;Z lekt] yks/kh jksM] ubZ fnYyh

xxi. uxj vk;Z lekt] ‘kkgnjk] fnYyh

xxii. gfjnso vk;Z] ‘kkgnjk] fnYyh

xxiii. vk;Z dqekj lHkk] fdaXt+os dSEi (jft-) fnYyh

xxiv. vk;Z dqekj lHkk] ‘kkgnjk] fnYyh

xxv. L=h vk;Z lekt] uxj ‘kkgnjk] fnYyh

xxvi- vk;Zlekt]osneafnj]U;wdkWyksuh]iyoy xxvi. vk;Z ek/;fed ikB’kkyk] U;w dkWyksuh] iyoy

xxviii. jkepUæ vk;Z] fQ+jkst+iqj Nkouh

xxix. lq[kn;ky j[kstk] fQ+jkst+iqj Nkouh

xxx. vk;Z vukFkky; fQ+jkst+iqj Nkouh

xxxi. Mh- vkj- igwtk] esjB Nkouh

xxxii. yonsoxzksoj]t;iqj

xxxiii. czãnÙk] ukxiqj

xxxiv. txUukFk j[kstk] caxykSj

xxxv. tkeiqjlHkk]jkaph

xxxvi. xq:n;ky flag cjkM+] laxr] ft+yk cfB.Mk (iatkc)

xxxvii. MkW- th-vkj- lsBh] ve`rlj

xxxviii. ‘kkafr nsoh (iz/kku)] gfjjke (ea=h)] ekuo lsok la?k] djuky

Mk- fo|klkxj th ds vlkef;d ,oa vdLekr~ fu/ku ij ekuo lsok la?k djuky (gfj;k.kk) ds lHkh lnL;ksa dks xgjk vk?kkr igq¡pkA vki lsok&ijk;.k] R;kxewfrZ] izse ds izrhd] lar LoHkko rFkk deZB] deZ;ksxh FksA os Hkkjr dh lR; egku~ foHkwfr FksA muds fu/ku ls gqbZ jk”Vah; {kfr dh iwfrZ vlEHko gSA izHkq ls mudh ln~xfr ,oa ‘kkafr ds fy, izkFkZuk djas fd os rks izHkq ds vius ghFksvkSjizHkqusviuhi+kouxksnesaxgz.kfd;kgAS iHzkqlsikzFkuZkrks;ggSfd muds ikfjokfjd tuk]as fe=k]as ifsz e;kas ,oa ifjfprksa dks ;g ân; fonkjd fo;ksx dk nq%[k lgu djus dh ‘kfDr iznku djsaA

thou foJke ,oa tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka

167

th dh thoudFkk

xxxix. INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, AMBALA CANTT. placed

on record its deep sense of sorrow and grief on the sad demise of Dr. Vidya Sagar, renowned psychiatrist. May God grant peace to the departed soul. Indian Medical Association, Ambala Cantt.

xl. DELHI THEOSOPHICAL FEDERATION, NEW DELHI

The members of the Federation offer their heart-felt condolences to the bereaved family. They pray to the Almighty that the may grant peace to the departed soul.

xli. JUNIOR DOCTORS ASSOCIATION (REGD.), ROHTAK

The association expressed deep condolences on the sad demise of Dr. Vidya Sagar. His services to the Institution and community were lauded as invaluable.

xlii. ROHTAS THEOSOPHICAL LODGE, ROHTAK recorded its deep sense of grief and sorrow on the passing away of its President, Dr. Vidya Sagar. He was a sage, some called him Rishi. Some even went to the extent of describing him as The embodiment of God. He was always ready to make any sacrifice. He was very busy in selfless task of helping others in their troubles regardless of his own comfort and now he has gone to eternal rest. The loss is great, irreparable and unbearable.

xiv. THIS ASSEMBLY OF STAFF & STUDENTS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE, ROHTAK “RESOLUTION”

Places on record its sense of profound grief over the sad and untimely demise of their revered teacher, philosopher and guide Dr. Vidya Sagar. May God grant his soul eternal bliss! God may give courage to the bereaved family to bear this irreparable loss. Copy of this resolution be sent to the members of the bereaved family. 28-11-1978 Ved Goswami, Chief Prefect, Medical College, Rohtak

xv. HARYANA RAJ BAHVAN CHANDIGARH

Camp (New Delhi) Nov. 27, 1978

HARACHARAN SINGH BARAR (GOVERNOR HARYANA)

My wife and I are deeply grieved to hear the sad and sudden demise of Dr. Vidya Sagar. The Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak had recently appointed him as Professor Emeritus in recognition of his services and his profession. He was a saint amongthedoctorsandhewillbebadlymissed byhisfriends,

168

thou foJke ,oa tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka

admirers and patients. His life will be a source of inspiration to the doctors, reverence .He achieved great eminence. The University and the state of Haryana will very badly miss Dr. Vidya Sagar, and his admirers like me will always remember him with and fond memories. On this sad occasion, my wife and I send our heartfelt condolences to the family and join them in prayers for the departed soul.

xvl. PUNJAB MENTAL HOSPITAL, AMRITSAR.

A condolence meeting was held on 27-11-1978 on the sad demise of Dr. Vidya Sagar, a renowned psychiatrist and Ex. Medical Superintendent, Punjab Mental Hospital, Amritsar. The services of Late Dr. Vidya Sagar founder, builder of Mental Hospital, Amritsar were highly appreciated. Rich tributes were paid by Dr. Baldev Kishore, Dr. Harbans Lal Sharma, Dr. Rajinder Arora, Smt. Balwinder Kaur, S. Ajit Singh and Sh. Gurdev Ram. It was unanimously resolved that the Municipal Corporation of Amritsar be requested to rename the present Jail Road after Dr. Vidya Sagar’s name as Dr. Vidya Sagar Road. It will be a living memory of such a great man.

xvii. DEMISE AND EULOGIES : 24 NOV. 1978 Mk- fo|klkxj dh e`R;q ls euksjksx ds {ks= ls ,d thou] ,d izdk’k iqat lnk ds fy, pyk x;kA ekufld jksx foHkkx mUgsa ,d Q+fj’rs dh rjg iwtrk gS D;ksafd mUgksaus 35 o”kZ ls vf/kd le; rd fnu&jkr vius vki dks bl {ks= ds fy, lefiZr dj fn;kA mudh dk;Z vof/k lqcg 6 cts ls jkf= ds 1 cts rd pyrh jgrh FkhA ysfdu vxys gh fnu jksfx;ksa dh u [kRe gksus okyh HkhM+ muds ?kj ds njokts vkSj gLirky ds ckgj [kM+h jgrh FkhA mUgksaus dHkh Hkh vius vki dks izkbZosV izsfDVl dh vksj ys tkus dh dksf’k’k ugha dh vkSj u gh dHkh fjVk;j gksus dh bPNk O;Dr dhA

mudk ‘kjhj (nsg)] efLr”d vkSj /ku lHkh dqN ekufld jksfx;ksa ds fy, lefiZr FkkA muds dSfj;j ds 35 o”kkssZa esa 4&6 jksxh lkekU;r% muds ?kj ij jgrs Fks vkSj ;s lkjs [kpsZ os vius vYi (FkksM+s) lk/kuksa ls iwjk djrs FksA

xviii. gfj;k.kk fo/kku lHkk fnlEcj 1978

jksgrd esfMdy dkWyst ds euksjksx foHkkx ds izksQs+lj vkSj ve`rlj ds eukjs kxs gLirky ds Hkrw iow Z lfq iVz Us MVas (v/;{k) Mk-W fo|klkxj dh eR` ;q mijkUr lcls Hkkoi.w kZ J1⁄4kta fy nh xbZA lHkh izfrLi/kkZRed foHkkxksa ds lnL;ks us mudh

169

xix.

xx.

xxi.

fuLokFkZ lsok ds fy, Hkkoiw.kZ J1⁄4katfy dh >M+h yxk nhA Mk- eaxy lsu] Jh y{e.k flag vkSj oDrk duZy jke flag us mÙkj Hkkjr esa ekufld jksfx;ksa ds fy, mudh lsok dks ns[krs gq, mudh Hkwfj&Hkwfj iz’kalk dhA os ,d Q+fj’rs ds :i esa tkus tkrs jgs gS vkSj mudk thou vkus okyh ihf<+;ksa ds fy, izsj.kk L=ksr jgsxkaA

Mk-W t-s ,l- uds h] fun’Zs kd] efs Mdy f’k{kk vkjS vulq /a kku&LukrdkÙs kj

bLa VhP;Vw ]pMa hx<+ Qjojh1979

Mk-fo|klkxj vius i+fjokj vkSj euksfpfdRlk ds {ks= dks fcy[krk gqvk

NksM+dj pys x, gaSA muds u jgus ls jkg fn[kkus okys dk LFkku n’s k eas fjDr gks x;k gAS osekuorkdsifzriesz vkjS viusdk;Zdsifzr:fpdh,dfelkyFksA

VkbEZalvkQW +bfaM;klekpkji=%fnlEcj1978Mk-fo|klkxjdhrjgdNq vkjS MkDW Vjkas us vius dk;k±s ds ,sls vfeV fu’kku NksM+ x, gSa tks tEew esa ln~xfr dks

izkIr gks x, gSaA ftUgkuas s 14 lky rd ita kc eukjs kxs gLirky] ver` lj eas f}rh; efs Mdy v/;{k ds :i eas dk;Z fd;k] yksx mUgsa ,d fpfdRld dh ctk; ,d lar ds :i esa vf/kd ;kn djrs gSaA

fVaC;wu %&fnlEcj 1978 Mk- fo|lkxj us ekufld fpfdRlk foKku ess ,d u;k jkLrk fodflr fd;k ftlesa mUgksaus jksfx;ksa ds fy, ikfjokfjd okrkoj.k dks bykt ds :i esa izksRlkfgr fd;k] mUgksaus ljdkj ls vkSj tu lk/kkj.k ls dkQh lEeku vkSj igpku vftZr dhA th-vkj-lsBh iatkc euksjksx gLirky] ve`rlj dh lykgkdkj desVh ds lnL;] tks Mk- fo|klkxj dks fiNys 35 o”kksZa ls tkurs Fks us dgk fd Mk- fo|klkxj dk lsok Lekjd gksuk pkfg, ftlls vkus okys MkDVj mudh fu%LokFkZ los k] tkfs d cgrq de ykxs kas eas gkrs h g]S ls ijsz .kk ikz Ir dj ldAsa esfMdy bfrgkl esa muds ;ksxnku dh otg ls vius fe=ksa vkSj pkgus okyksa ds fnyks esa lnk thfor jgsaxsA orZeku le; esa os ,d peRdkj ds :i esa ;kn fd;s tk,axs ftUgksaus vius vki dks vk/kqfud fpfdRlk foKku vkSj thll Økbl (tks muds vkn’kZ Fks) ds vkjksX; Li’kZ esa la;ksftr fd;kA ,d lefiZr vk;Z lekth ds :i esa muds fny esa mu lHkh /kek±s ds ifz r leku vknj Fkk ftuds lkfgR; dk mUgkuas s xgu v/;;u fd;k FkkA mUgksaus vius thou esa dHkh vkjke vkSj le; dh ijokg ugha dhA Hkxoku mudh vkRek dks ‘kkafr nsA

th dh thoudFkk

170

xxii J1⁄4katfy

Mk- enuyky oekZ ,e- ,-] ih-,p-Mh-] f’kokth dkWyksuh (jksgrd)

;kn rsjh gS dgkuh fta+nxh D;ksa gks ohjkuhA ekreh lius exj] ge rqEgsa u Hkwy ik,¡AA

pyfn;sNkMs d+ j],diyvkjkeuFkkA

req FkslPpsekuo]eryckaslsdkeuFkkA rqeus lc dk nnZ ns[kk] ge rqEgsa u Hkwy ik,¡AA

gV x;s fny ls rqe] fny gekjk D;k f[kysxk\

dkSu la?k”kks± dk thou] tkudj g¡lrk ejsxkA

ekSr rks fuekZ.k gh gS] ge rqEgsa u Hkwy ik,¡AA rqe ugha Fks flQ+Z bUlka] nsorkvksa ds eqdqV FksA

I;kj ds rqe miou] /keZ ds rqe ,d rV FksA

okLrfodrk dks u Hkwysa] ge rqEgs u Hkwy ik,aAA

dgk djrs Fks lc ls] ^^izHkq ‘kj.k esa ‘kkafr gSA lSaDM+ksa gkFkksa ls ck¡Vks ‘ks”k lc dqN HkzkfUr gSA

fu/kZuksa ij Fkh n;k] ge rqEgsa u Hkwy ik,¡AA

cksyrs u Fks vdsys] cksyrh Fkh lkjh nqfu;kaA

ikxyksa] nq%f[k;ksa ds eu dh] igpkuh nqfu;kA vc rqEgkjh fQj deh gS] ge rqEgs u Hkwy ik,aA

ge crk,a vkt fdldks] vLr gksrk lw;Z viukA

tc ryd ;s pk¡n&rkjs] feV ugh ldrk ;g liukAA

vkleka ls Å¡pk xe gS] ge rqEgsa u Hkwy ik,¡AA

xxiii esjB tkeiqj lHkk dh J}katfy

(iz/kku Jh fd’kupUn ljkZQ+) (lkHkkj&tkeiqjh if=dk)

vkg! egku vkRek MkWΠfo|klkxj th

bl nqfu;k¡ ^ljk; Qkuh ls] bd jkst fudyuk iM+rk gSA tc oDr [kRe gks tkrk gS] ;g tkek cnyuk iM+rk gSAA

;s nkSyr o t+j ;s rky o egy ;s ftrus fj’rs ukrs gSa] iSx+ke vt+y tc vkrk gS] lc NksM+ ds tkuk iM+rk gSA

thou foJke ,oa tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka

171

th dh thoudFkk

, gqLu tok¡ ex:j u gks] rqe ij Hkh cq<+kik vk;sxk] tks lqcg dks p<+rk gS] mls ‘kke dks <yuk iM+rk gSA

vkSjksa is flre tks djrs gSa] xhrk dk opu oks Hkwyrs gSa]

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dgk¡ gS %

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(njks nhokj is eqljr ls ut+j vkrs gSa [kq’k jgks vgys oru ge rks lQ+j djrs gSa )

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tSlk eSaus fudV ls ns[kk Jh vk’kkuUn oekZ

tc os ykgkSj esa Fks rks mUgksaus fu;e cuk;k gqvk Fkk fd izfrfnu fdlh tkeiqjh ifjokj esa nq%[k lq[k iwNus tkrs FksA ykgkSj esa esaVy gLirky ugj ds fdukjs ij FkkA lkou ds eghus lkouh rFkk fidfud ds fy;s tc vius tkeiqjh ogk¡ tkrs rks os cM+s izlUu gksrs Fks vkSj dgrs Fks fd ge /kU; gSa tks gekjs ?kj gekjs HkkbZ&cU/kq vk, gSaA lcdks [kwc f[kykrs &fiykrs FksA

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LorU=rk izkfIr ds ckn ljdkj dh vksj ls baXySaM tkus ls iwoZ dqN tkeiqjh cqd lsyt+Z fcjknjh us mudks fonkbZ nsus ds fy;s ,d gksVy esa O;oLFkk dhA mlesa MkWŒ lkgc us dgk ^eq>s ns[k yks eSa tkeiqjh tk jgk gw¡ vkSj tkeiqjh gh okil vkÅ¡xkA* okilh ij tc mudk Lokxr fd;k x;k rks lpeqp fdlh izdkj dh rcnhyh ugha vkbZ Fkh] tSlh lknxh esa x;s Fks oSls gh ykSVs FksA

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mUgsa viuk ‘kqHk Hkkx fcuk ek¡xs nsus esa fdruk vkuUn vkrk FkkA

thou foJke ,oa tulk/kkj.k dh J1⁄4katfy;ka

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izFke n`’; & 1962 esa] LoŒ t;nso th pkS/kjh] LoŒVsdpUn th xkM+h] pkSŒeksguyky th rFkk eSa tkeiqjh lHkk ds fy, vk’khokZn ysus x;sA xkM+h esa vaxzst+h i= ^fVaC;wu* i<+us dks feykA cM+h lq[khZ esa turk }kjk MkŒ fo|k lkxj th dks eku&i= HksaV djus dk lekpkj i<+dj ge cfYy;ksa mNy iM+sA tc ve`rlj igq¡ps rks c/kkbZ nhA os cksys iatkc dh] fnYyh dh turk us c/kkbZ nh gS ijUrq fdlh MkWDVj us eq>s c/kkbZ ugha nhA os yksx rks dgrs gSa fd ;g 15&16 ?k.Vs dke djus okyk dc tk;sxk] blus rks gesa rax dj j[kk gSA

nwljk n`’; & ?kj dh gosyh esa 15&20 ejht+ pkjikb;ksa ij ysVs gq, FksA MkWŒ lkgc /keZiRuh Jherh dkS’kY;k nsoh th vius gkFkksa ls ejht+ksa dks [kkuk f[kyk jgh FkhaA mu lc dh lsok vkSj ns[kHkky os Lo;a djrh FkhaA ge ml rifLouh ds n’kZu dj /kU; gq,A geus MkWŒ lkgc ls iwNk fd bu jksfx;ksa dks gLirky esa D;ksa ugha j[krs\ MkWŒ lkgc us mÙkj fn;k fd ;s FkksM+h chekjh ds ejht+ gSa] ;fn budks gLirky ds ejht+ksa ds lkFk j[ksa rks budh chekjh c<+us dk Mj gSA

rhljk n`’; & gekjs cSBs&cSBs gh ,d lsB ogk¡ vk,A muds iq= dks MkWŒ lkgc us bykt ls fcYdqy Bhd djds u;k thou fn;k FkkA og lsB dqN /ku HksaV djuk pkgrk FkkA MkWŒ lkgc us lkQ+ bUdkj fd;k ij dqN irs nsrs gq, dgk¡ fd ;fn rqe lPps fny ls nsuk gh pkgrs gks rks bu xjhc cPpksa dh Q+hl] fdrkcksa ds fy;s muds eka&cki dks 30 :i;s izfr ekl Hkst fn;k djks] ;gh esjh lsok vkSj esjh [kq’kh gksxhA

vf[ky Hkkjrh; cqd lsylZ ,lksfl;s’ku dh vkSj ls J1⁄4s; MkWŒ fo|klkxj th dks ckjEckj ueLdkjA

Jh vk’kkuUn oekZ iz/kku vky bf.M;k cqd lsylZ ,lksfl;s’ku (lkHkkj&tkeiqjh if=dk)

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Tributes

to

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji

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Tribute-i

Dr. Vidya Sagar

An angelic being (vn~Hkqr O;fDrRo) Dr. A. K. Vohra

He is a source of inspiration for the coming generations. He made a number of scientific contributions. A few of them are “Organisations and future needs of mental health services”. Paper presented at the WHO Seminar for South East Asia, a chapter on ‘Look After Your Mental Health’ in Dr. Prem Nath’s book on ‘Art of Living’, a booklet in vernacular (Hindi) on Introduction of Mental Diseases For The Common Man’, a chapter of family involvement of family in the treatment of mentally ill in India in booklet on ‘Psychiatry in India’ published by Indian Psychiatric Society.

His special contribution to the field of Psychiatry was an emphasis on the involvement of the family in the care of the mentally ill and not to assign the mentally sick to mental asylum.

Among cluster of tributes to Dr. Vidya Sagar, during his life time a few are worth mentioning. Dr. Hoch, Consultant, WHO, on his visit to Mental Hospital, Amritsar in 1964 in appreciation of Dr. Vidya Sagar, writes

“You have here at Amritsar a sea of nectar and also in Mr. Vidya Sagar; a sea of wisdom”. Mr. Johan E. Bell, programme Director, National Institute of Mental Health, region DC, San Francisco, California in March 1965, remarked, “ Recognizing that this will be a difficult task we acknowledge that the mark of Dr. Vidya Sagar’s kindness, dedication, simplicity, and love will be carried away in our- persons, as well as the memories of being in his home, and make our task more simple-.”

With the demise of this great, completely dedicated, most selfless and self effacing person on November 24, 1978, went out from the field of Psychiatry in India The mentally ill worshipped Dr. Vidya Sagar as a God. He spent 35 years in the service of mentally ill. He continued his services from 6 AM to 1 AM the next day, patients used to flock around him. He offered his mind, body & money at the disposal of the mentally ill patients and never encouraged himself for private practice. He used to keep four to six patients admitted at his home and used to spend money from his personal source.

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I had the pleasure and pride to be Dr. Vidya Sagar’s student and a wonderful opportunity of working under him. Dr. Vidya Sagar worked tirelessly for the service of the mentally ill who had an unending faith in him. He was full of compassion, love and affection for them. Such a messiah comes seldom and remains for times to come a source of inspiration to the community.

Dr. A. K. Vohra

Former HOD & Professor of Dr. Vidya Sagar Deptt. of Psychiatry Pt BD Sharma University of Health Sciences Rohtak124001,Haryana Aug. 1983 to Sep. 2004

SEPT. 2004

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Tribute-ii

ROHTAK PSYCHIATRY DEPARTMENT SPEAKS

(Dr. Vidya Sagar’s & Mental Health)

Dr. Rajiv Gupta & Dr. Hitesh Khurana

We are trying to write about a Personality who was an exemplary psychiatrist, an excellent human being. He was known as a saint/magician. Dr. Vidya Sagar Dewan was an angel to the people who had mental health problems and he worked like a priest in the temple. He worked selflessly at the Medical College Rohtak ever since its inception in 1964 till his last breath. We never had been fortunate to work with him or get his teaching directly from him. We are fortunate enough to follow his concepts about experiences of mental illness and treatment in legacy that the whole world admires.

Whenever one speaks of community psychiatry movement in India, the talk invariably starts with reference to Dr. Vidya Sagar. Social innovations for the treatment of mental illness in the time when Dr. Vidya Sagar practised was both his passion as well as need.

While working as the superintendent of 900 bedded Mental Hospital at Amritsar in 1950s, he realized that it is difficult to work with a handful of trained mental health team. Involving families was the only practical way out to deal with the scarcity of man power and infrastructure. The western concepts were somewhat in contradiction with what Dr. Vidya Sagar had thought of. The western world was still occupied with the concepts of schizophrenogenic mother, marital schism and other family psychopathology for the genesis of mental illness. Dr. Vidya Sagar thought of involving families in the treatment of mentally ill for three different reasons.

(i) First,thereisshortageofdoctorstrainedinmentalhealthat the primary care level.

(ii) Secondly, it gives a chance to the patient to stay with family hence creating an environment of de-institutionalization during indoor stay where family takes care of their ill members at no cost to the state.

(iii) Thirdly, and most important now a days, while staying with the patient, the family gets a chance to learn from the doctor’s behavior with patients about mental illness and treatment that can help in early treatment seeking in future. He was also of the view that ex-patients and the families of mentally ill persons should get involved in educating community about the mental illness so that the stigma associated with it should be over.

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He obtained MRCPsych in 1951 from The Institute of Psychiatry, London. Before joining Mental Hospital, Amritsar, Dr. Vidya Sagar never accepted any fee from the patients coming to his clinic. Consequently, in no time the government job was forced upon him for earning livelihood. He realized that just 20000 hospital beds and 500 psychiatrists are not sufficient to provide care to 7 million psychiatric patients in the country at that time. However, his benevolence continued despite grim situation, instead of asking the state to provide more infrastructure, he devised his own ways that made him world famous. He arranged surplus tents from the army headquarters, and put these around the mental hospital and housed the families of the patients into those tents till discharge. With ‘tent approach’ coupled with involving family in daily care of the patient , prognosis of mentally ill patients drastically improved as reflected by the discharge rates that too in pre-antipsychotic era in the country.

Dr. Vidya Sagar never documented or published his experiments. His experiments provided empirical evidence against the western concepts of toxic family for genesis of mental disorders and showed a way forward in mental health care for improving the outcome of mental disorders at no extra cost by the family involvement.

When he joined as a Professor in the department of medicine at Medical College, Rohtak in 1964, he was already a popular public figure and philanthropist. Within a few years, he was provided an independent building to provide care to the mentally ill. He continued to work on his concept of involvement of family and tent approach. Listening to the patients and helping them till late night were observed by those working with him as his patients.

He had a strong belief that the religion and culture play a great role in mental health .In his own words ; fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man” is taught by all religions. However, these virtues getting mixed up by the faulty beliefs and practices impede the process of mental well-being and healing in mental illness. He used to practice religiously oriented psychotherapy and supported the role of yoga in the mental health. He often used to cite the Gita to support his patients and de-stress and convinced their families. As a President of The Indian Psychiatric Society in 1973,he also proposed that the society should have a subcommittee on yoga for promotion mental well being and research.

He also expressed that mental health legislation of his time

was not patient friendly. He was of the view that there should not be

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any legal problem in seeking treatment for mental illness. Mental Health Act was already under consideration in the Parliament in 1970s. Dr. Vidya Sagar was of the view that the mental health act should have minimum legal tangles. The board of three doctors should be empowered to admit and discharge mentally ill patients and should make family members responsible to take care of the patient after discharge. This is now in the Mental Healthcare Act 2017 that we have been able to realize the value of his views which he held so strongly in 1970s.

He also proposed many innovations for the mental health program and policy which were quite advanced, considering the time when these were proposed. He proposed that the government should take initiatives so that there should be qualified psychiatrists at each district headquarter and later at sub divisional level hospitals too. He supported the recommendations of the Saha committee of the IPS for full subject status of psychiatry at undergraduate level and also proposed that all postgraduates should be rotated for three months in psychiatry.

For Dr. Vidya Sagar, the objectives of mental health promotion and education were the same. Both aimed at to promote man’s innate mental abilities and utilize these in constructive activities for one’s own good and that of others. He proposed that teaching & learning methods in education should not be examination-oriented but it should be for living and (let living). He favored special schools for educable mentally backward children and need for setting child adolescent guidance clinics.

Dr. Vidya Sagar was patriotic from the core. In his Presidential address of IPS in 1973, he proposed policy changes for army personals in seeking treatment for mental illness so that they should feel at ease in getting treated all over the country.

Seeing his passion in profession and selfless services, the Government of Haryana allowed him to continue work till he wished. However, he had to seek retirement due to health reason but he was allowed to continue as professor emeritus by the government of Haryana. He continued to work till he breathed his last on November 24, 1978. Even after his demise, his legacy for selfless service continued. Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh sent a proposal of Dr. Vidya Sagar award to the Indian Council of Medical Research 1985. Since then this award is given annually for meritorious work in Community mental health.

Tribute-ii (Dr. Rajiv & Dr. Hitesh)

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Rajiv Gupta

Senior Professor Director cum CEO

Institute of Mental Health Pt BD Sharma University of Health Sciences, Rohtak (HRY) rajivguptain2003@yahoo.co.in

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The department of psychiatry that he founded at Medical College, Rohtak was a 64 bedded hospital with outdoor services for psychiatric patients. The department has been renamed as Dr. Vidya Sagar Department of Psychiatry. The department with time has expanded to include a 10 bedded State Drug De addiction Centre and 40 bedded State Institute of Mental Health. The department was upgraded to the Institute of Mental Health (IMH) in 2016 that now also houses the departments of clinical psychology and psychiatric social work. The IMH also provide training for professional courses MD (Psychiatry), MPhil (Clinical Psychology) and MPhil (Psychiatric social work).

As per the will he had left, his family members and friends created Vidyasagar Kausalya Devi Trust. The Trust started Vidyasagar Institute of mental health and neurosciences (VIMHANS) in four-acre land allotted in New Delhi by the state government. The VIMHANS runs a rural mental service center at village Saidul Ajaib in Mehrauli (New Delhi) as one of its responsibility

Indeed, Dr. Vidya Sagar was a saint and a pioneer in community psychiatry. His vision about the mental health was far ahead of his time. The world will always remember his contributions and services to the promotion of mental health.

Dr. Vidyasagar

Department of Psychiatry (OPD Block)

Hitesh Khurana

Professor Institute of Mental Health Pt BD Sharma University of Health Sciences Rohtak (HRY) doctorhitesh@rediffmail.com

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Tribute-iii

DR VIDYA SAGAR

13 uEcj v’kqHk ugh gS

STATE INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH University of Health Sciences

Rohtak, Haryana-124001

In the history of mankind, the name of Dr Vidya Sagar will remain immortal. He was not only a very good Physician but one can say a man with different facet personality. Initially he worked in Punjab and then shifted to Rohtak. After his joining at Rohtak while serving psychiatric patients, he realized that the patients come from far flung places to get their treatment from Rohtak. Initially he used to prescribe medicines for two or three days and advise them to come for follow up. The patients were mostly poor and they used to stay in front of the department. They used to make their chullas, a place to cook food for themselves and their patients. For this, many people used to make fun of Dr. Vidya Sagar, but they were not aware of this fact that what benefit a patient would get from this service. The basic aim of Dr. Vidya Sagar was to involve the family in patients care. He had a vision that how family helps in curing the patient. The involvement of family is very important in the treatment of a Psychiatric patient. He used to work tirelessly and many a time he would hold the patient’s hand to examine but because of long hours of work, he used to doze while examining but the patients and their attendants used to think that he is examining so thoroughly and nobody would disturb him. The department bearers used to shake him and remind him that he was examining the patients Many times he used to help financially poor patients whenever they were in trouble. The donations given by some people he never used to touch and guide the donors to keep in almirah. He was a saint/social worker/doctor and above all a noble man and an immortal soul.

There are some incidences which are worth mentioning. Once

Ch Bansi Lal, the Chief Minister of Haryana at that time was on his way

to Chandigarh and at very odd time he expressed his desire to meet

Dr . Rajeev Dogra

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Dr. Vidya Sagar, the staff brought him to psychiatric OPD in the late evening. When the CM entered the room, he saw Dr. Vidya Sagar was examining the patients. Dr. Vidya Sagar didn’t expect him. So very politely he asked Ch Bansi Lal, “What is the problem”? Ch Bansi Lal introduced himself to Dr. Vidya Sagar and expressed his gratitude. Ch Bansi Lal kept this incident in mind and when Dr. Vidya Sagar’s file was put before him at the time of superannuation, he ordered that extension is allowed till Dr. Vidya Sagar wants it.

Dr. Vidya Sagar never took any advantage or accepted any administrative post but once he was appointed as Medical Superintendent, he was falsely charged by someone taking commission in eggs supplied to the hospital. He immediately resigned from the post and there after never accepted any position.

He always used to remain cool. Once Dr. Vidya Sagar was coming out of the wash room and one patient who could not control his bladder by mistake urinated on him and his clothes were spoiled. He remained cool and asked the hospital bearer to bring another trouser from his home. He continued examining the patients with spoiled clothes.

Dr. Vidya Sagar department of Psychiatry has a unique importance and many old patients still bow in front of his statue before entering the department.

Today’s department is a great contribution of late Dr Vidya Sagar.Itisequippedwith80 beds.

When this department was constructed, it was given number 13. as there were 12 wards in the old building. No other department was ready to take this building due to its number being 13. It was only Dr Vidya Sagar who volunteered and took over this building. Thus he conveyed to the public the superstition about number 13 harbored by the society. For Dr. Vidya Sagar nothing was bad in number 13 and he used to believe in “work is worship.”

He used to say that you do not have to pray to God if you are doing your work honestly and dedicatedly. Your prayers will be accepted by God.

Former Professor & Head Dr . Rajeev Dogra Department of Clinical Psychology

Email: Dr.rajeevdogra@gmail.com | Mob: 9728090100

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Tribute-iv

AS IN ONE OF THE SOUVENIRS

DR. VIDYA SAGAR DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY

(Souvenir on 24 annual conference of India psychiatric society, north zone, held on 13-14 November 1999 held at Rohtak. A few lines have been added to make the subject up to date)

The department of psychiatry came into existence inJune, 1964, with its OPD in present ‘E’ Block and inpatients in Ward No. 10. The department at that time had 30 inpatients Dr. Baldev Kishore was then the Head of the department, and he worked in that capacity for about 11⁄2 years when Dr. J.S. Neki took over the department in the capacity of Associate Professor and Head. In 1965, Dr. Vidya Sagar joined as Head of the department and continued extending his great services to the patients till 1978. After the unfortunate and sad demise of Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji, Dr. Ved Parkash took over as Associate Professor and Head, till 1983 when he sought premature retirement. Since 1983 the department was headed by Dr. A.K. Vohra. till September 2006 when Dr. S.C. Bhargva took over till April 2008 when he resigned. Since May 2008 Dr. Rajiv Gupta is professor and HOD till date.

The psychiatry O.P.D. was shifted from ‘E’ Block to ‘G’ Block in 1968andthisdepartmentwasshifted toitspresentbuildinginJune 1972.

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji served the department with full devotion and dedication for about 14 years and the patients from different parts of Northern India used to flock around him and people had great faith and admiration for him.

More than 10,000 psychiatric out patients approximately were seen every year and about 3000 admissions were done annually. Special clinics as Child, Bio-Feedback, Behaviour Therapy Clinic and all types of somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment are provided to the patients. The department also has emergency services and consultation Liaison Services.

The department has already been upgraded to Post Graduate Department with starting of Diploma and M.D. in Psychiatry courses. District Kurukshetra has been adopted under District Mental Health Programme wherein Meidical Officers, Para-Medical Staff and Key- Workersaretrained.Induecourse,thedepartmentisalso planningto adopt another district under the same programme for the wider coverage of the state of Haryana.

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DR. VIDYA SAGAR & GITA

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Tribute-vi

HOW COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CAN BE THE ANSWER TO INDIA’S GROWING MENTAL HEALTH CRISIS

Living Prateek Sharma

In1957, Dr. Vidya Sagar, a psychiatrist working at the Amritsar Mental Hospital, realised that the place was extremely short staffed in comparison to the growing number of patients, so he decided to bring about some changes. He set up army tents outside the hospital building and had the patients move into them. He also requested the accompanying relatives to stay in the tents with them in order to assist the nursing. Little done by Dr. Sagar know the landmark shift he had brought in treating mental illness. He had just discovered the dynamics of community mental health.

Community mental health, also known as community psychiatry or community psychology, is a sub-discipline of psychiatry that offers a framework for working with people with mental illness who are marginalised by the social systems. This mainly includes the majority to whom mental health remains not only inaccessible due to demographic reasons but also to whom the available system backfires in many ways.

Upon shifting the place of treatment to an open area with tents, Dr. Sagar noticed some drastic changes in patients’ perception of the treatment. It brought down the hostility of patients in psychiatric facilities experience upon hospitalisation. The involvement of relatives in the tents worked against the age-old myths about the incurability of mental illnesses and in the meantime, the families also learned about the impact of psychiatric conditions and hence were able to brainstorm their own preventive measures within the communities.

Community psychiatry is destined to provide all these essentials that Dr Sagar discovered but its emergence is rooted in an integration between human rights and psychiatry that challenges the mainstream system of mental health in numerous ways.

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About 80% of the Indian population living in rural areas do not receive proper healthcare. The treatment gap doesn’t seem to lose its stretch with accessibility to psychological interventions almost becoming a farfetched idea. Moreover, the number of clinical psychologists inIndiahasonlycrossed800afteritslastcensusin 2016, contrasting to millions living with a range of mental health conditions, It is too depressing to blame the obvious lack of professionals over such gaps because the actual problem has deeper social-political roots. This is where bridging the ends using the participation of community becomes significant.

How it all began?

Although community psychology emerged globally, its philosophical ground was laid in the 1960 in the United States. There was an evident need to expand the reach of psychology as an aid to the suffering patients, but what really paved the way for the community-based interventions to emerge was the interaction between the people and social systems.

But how would something like this work in terms of providing care to those suffering from a mental illness as disabling as psychosis or OCD, the treatment of which is already inaccessible? The answer lies in a diverse collaboration with the community.

Implementing community-based approaches to the Indian system In his TED talk titled. ‘Mental health for all, by all’ Dr. Vikram Patel, a psychiatrist and research fellow at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, discusses the concept of ‘task- shifting’ which simply calls for relocating healthcare tasks such as assessment and diagnosis from expensive professionals established in urban areas to people who are more available and accessible to the community. This can include primary healthcare workers or even people who simply belong to the community and are optimistic about bringing changes.

Tribute-vi (Prateek Sharma)

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Not only Dr. Patel’s strategies and their implications across various low-income countries have proved to be statistically effective in training community workers, but research has also found efficacy of such community-based interventions in reducing impacts of severe illnesses such as schizophrenia.

“We believe in equitable and participatory collaborations of a range of people,” adds Kalha. “This value is extended while working in a community which requires an alliance with stakeholders across all sectors such as community groups, informal and formal leaders and the department of health and social justice. We follow a rigorous process to identify ‘champions’-People who can be trained to recognizing and alleviating distress.”

Such implications are not new to policymaking in India. The Government initiated projects such as the National and District Mental Health Programmes (NMHP, DMHP) have existed since 1982 circuiting the very same methods being discussed, but over the years their appraisal has only shown a decline in progress. Critiques of the Indian mental health system have called out such programmers to be bureaucratic with a lack of understanding of the very power dynamics they intend in breaking.

But all hope is not lost. Thriving initiatives such as Atmiyata have surfaced over the past few years making dents in the traditional delivery system.

“There is a need to reform the terminology of mental health care. For example, instead of ‘treatment gap’, we call it the ‘mental health care gap’ which sounds more holistic and inclusive of the social determinants.” Kalha proposes addressing the issues related to the implementation of community programmes. “We need to focus on the prevention of mental health distress, scale-up evidence-based interventions, adopt approaches that are actually acceptable to the people who are using them. All of the above require an inter-sectoral and inter sectional approach which emphasises on people’s rights.”

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Tribute-vii

AN OLD HOUSE PHYSICIAN SPEAKS

Dr. Varinder Mohan M.D. Psychiatry P.G.I. Chandigarh Dharampur, H.P.

Like many medical students, I was also confused which speciality I should choose after doing my MBBS. I had many in mind like ortho surgery and even Gynaecology. After working with Dr. Vidya Sagar in my final year and during my internship, I thought of this branch also. He impressed me with his dedication and the amount of faith he carried amongst his patients. Once I started working as a house physician with Dr. Vidya Sagar I found this branch to be very different from all other specialities. It needed utter patience and lots of hard work to explore this new speciality. I also realised that dealing with human behaviourial problems was a real challenge. I was surprised to know that how Dr. Vidya Sagar managed thousands of patients when there were very few medicines and other methods of treatment. I was joined by Dr. Jagdish Bathla as a house physician. We really enjoyed working together and we were competing who works harder than the others but if I go back down the memory lane, we both were confused about the subject. Six months is too less a time to understand a fraction of psychiatry, but these six months left a deep impact about human behaviourial problems. I also remember that sometimes around 1.00 A.M. after completing OPD work, Dr. J.C. Bathla would take Dr. Vidya Sagar to his house on his scooter.

The main thing that surprised me about Dr. Vidya Sagar was that he almost worked fourteen to sixteen hours a day, six days a week and I never found him to be absent or on leave any day. During that era all over the world people were trying to find or categorising the diagnosis of different patients. He even gave lots of time to a patient who was suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. The thing which impressed me the most was when he dealt with mentally retarded children, he spent time with parents to explain how to manage a child with mental retardation. It was so fascinating that we all knew that the child is not going to grow up to be a normal person. He used to explain them what is the potential of the child and to what extent the child is capable of learning. The most significant thing was he emphatically told the parents that they must accept the child as he or she is. I am still

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following his footsteps in treating my mentally retarded patients and I have been very successful, and I have a large number of mentally retarded children under my treatment. The other thing that fascinated me was that he ate so little during his working hours and he took very small portions of food but never looked weak and tired, rather he was always full of energy and had an aura around him at all times. I joined MD psychiatry in 1970 in PGI Chandigarh. The scenario in PGI was completely different than in Rohtak with Dr. Vidya Sagar. I remained confused for about six months on which school of psychiatry was to be followed. Gradually I had to merge both the schools in my mind which I’m following till now. I have a belief that psychiatry is very different from other specialties. Taking psychiatry at that time was stigma not only to the patient but also to the doctors. Understanding human behaviour and dealing with it takes a very long time and it almost continues throughout life.

Learning in PGI was another great experience, I had very learned teachers who taught us certain things which I still carry in my soul. I have been practicing psychiatry for the past forty five years and I usually talk about Dr. Vidya Sagar with my staff and this gives me solace that he still lives in my mind. I think that great people like Dr. Vidya Sagar showed the world that mental patients should never be stigmatized. He had a very memorizing aura, I still remember many incidents but one incident is worth quoting. One of the female patients was suffering from anxiety, he had a long talk with her and ultimately he prescribed her Valium 5mg half BD. The patient was already taking calmpose 5mg BD. Once the patient left, I enquired that the patient is already taking a good dose of tranquiliser and why have you prescribed the same drug of a different name and also reduced the dose. He smiled and told me to wait for her follow-up. To my surprise after fifteen days of treatment, she came back and she was smiling and was free of symptoms. This forced me to think what conversation took place between the therapist and the patient. After many years of practicing psychiatry I could understand the real meaning of psycho therapy (though considered unscientific at that time) so I also follow his principles of psychiatry till present day.

I bow to the great soul who gave his students so much of treasure of wisdom that till our last breath we will never forget him.

Dr. Varinder Mohan

(Dharampur) P/o Dharampur, District Solan (Himachal Pradesh) 174209 E-mail mohanvirandra@gmail.com | M.: +91-98160-58585

( I & Dr. Virender Mohan were first two house physicians with Dr. Vidya Sagar since the inception of department of psychiatry as per our information):- Dr. J.C. Bathla

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AN OLD STUDENT FROM LONDON SPEAKS…

Dr Narinder Chawla

Psychiatrist London, U.K.

I am a retired Psychiatrist living in England. I got to know late Dr Vidya Sagar in Rohtak Medical College in 1967 & 1968 as his student when he gave us few lectures about Psychiatry in our final year M.B.B.S.

It is a honour and privilege that Dr Jagdish Bathla asked me to write about this great & a noble gentleman. Dr Vidya Sagar came to Rohtak Medical College from Amritsar Medical College in mid 1966’s with reputation of hard working, kind, compassionate and humble doctor.

He used to run his out patient clinics from morning’s till 10 or11 PM without any significant break in between. We have heard many stories about his Psychiatric Practices in Amritsar. For instance, he used to have tents in Hospital grounds and had his Patients there as beds in the Hospital were fully occupied. They were also short of nursing staff, hence he involved the family members in managing the patients and kept them in the tents.This improved the relationship between patients and the family members and subsequently it reduced the stigma of Mental illness. Basically this was the start of Community Psychiatry in late 1950’s or early 1960’s in Amritsar which was unknown in the Western World at that time. I started my Psychiatric training in England in January 1974 and at that time in UK no body knew about Community Psychiatry.

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I think his parents gave him a very appropriate name Dr. Vidya Sagar which in English means Ocean of Education, In fact by starting the concept of Community Psychiatry and care in the Community in late 1950’s or early 1960’s, he proved that he had a vision about future of Psychiatry and he gave brilliant ideas to

the western world. Hence, I can say without any hesitation that Dr Vidya Sagar is “The founder and father of Community Psychiatry.” Furthermore, he worked tirelessly and he was a kind and a nice human being as well as a good teacher. I salute him and feel very proud in saying that I attended his Psychiatric lectures in the final year specially about Schizophrenia and affective disorders He had compassion, empathy and he gave time and a good listening ear to his patients. His contribution to Psychiatry is outstanding and for which he deserves enormous credit. I wish I could do justice to his credentials.

(Dr. Narinder Chawla was my class fellow and best friend in the MBBS course He was one of the top brilliant students in the class. He specialized in psychiatry from London and settled there permanently. He is very much attached to his parent country, India. He natively belongs to Distt. Bhiwani, Haryana.

Dr. J.C. Bathla

Dr. Vidya Sagar was the doctor for the masses

English meaning of Vidya Sagar

OCEAN OF EDUCATION.

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lsok o izse ds izrhd lsok Hkkoh ^^MkW- fo|k lkxj th**

Lokeh izse ewfrZ

(iz/kku) vksm~e ekuo lsok la?k djuky

yxHkx lu~ 1964 esa n;ky flag dkWyst djuky dh vksj eq>s fueU=.k feyk fd MkW- fo|klkxj th ds Hkk”k.k dk izksxzke gSA ogka tkdj eSa muds Hkk”k.k ls cgqr izHkkfor gqvk vkSj dk;ZØe ds i’pkr~ muls feyk o mudk irk iwNkA mUgkasus eq>s crk;k fd os ve`rlj ekufld gLirky esa lsokjr gSA eSa O;fDrxr :i ls muls ve`rlj feyus x;k vkSj izkFkZuk dh og ekuo lsok la?k djuky esa le; vuqlkj i/kkjdj ekufld jksfx;ksa dk bykt djsa o viuk Hkk”k.k Hkh nsaA mUgksaus ÏikiwoZd vkuk Lohdkj dj fy;k vkSj ekuo lsok la?k djuky es jksfx;ksa dh lsok o Hkk”k.k }kjk gesa vius vewY; fopkjksa ls ykHkkfUor djrs jgsA eSaus ikuhir esa Hkh mudk dk;ZØe j[kok;k FkkA

1965 esa tc og ve`rlj ls cny dj jksgrd esfMdy dkWyst esa vkx,A eSa mudks ogka tkdj feyk vkSj ;Fkk iwoZ djuky vkus ds dk;ZØe dh izkFkZuk dh tks fd mUgksus Lohdkj djyhA ge muds ekufld LokLF; fu;eks dk izpkj ,oa izlkj.k djrs jgrs gSaA ekuo lsok la?k] djuky dh ekfld if=dk ^^vueksy opu** tks fd fiNys ukS o”kksZ ls Ni jgh gS lkSHkkX; dh ckr gS fd vxLr 2020 dh if=dk es Hkh ekufld LokLF; fu;eksa dks izdkf’kr fd;k x;k gSA

okLro es og izse ds izrhd] lsokHkkoh] fu”Bkoku] deZ;ksxh MkWDVj FksA esfMdy dkWyst esa izFke lM+d dk uke MkW- fo|klkxj ekxZ j[k x;k gSA fnYyh es usg: uxj esa muds ifjokj us ,d cgqr cM+k fpfdRlky; VIMHANS ds uke ls cuok;k gSA tc bldh LFkkiuk gqbZ rc eSa rFkk MkW- ts-lh- cByk bl ‘kqHk dk;ZØe esa ekStwn FksA bl izdkj MkW- lkgc dk uke ges’kk vej jgsxkA lekt rFkk fo’ks”k dj ekufld jksxh bl ifjokj ds fo’ks”k dj buds laLFkkid Loñ Jh ts-,u- pkS/kjh ds iz’kald jgsaxsA

djuky ekuo lsok la?k (jft-)] djuky (gfj;k.kk) nwjHkk”k % 0184&2254455 94164&67999

E-mail : swamisharnanand@gmail.com | karnalmanavsewasangh@gmail.com

http://www.swamisharnanandji.org

This is the best social organization I have seen in my life time. Dr. J.C. Bathla 194

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Tribute-x

FEW MEMORABLE FACTS ABOUT DR. VIDYA SAGAR.

Dr. T.R Madaan

Panipat (Haryana)

Dr. VidyaSagar was a living GOD for mentally sick patients in Northern India. He started his career in Mental Hospital in Amritsar & shifted to Rohtak in 1966 after the formation of Haryana.

I met him in 1966 for the treatment of my mother who was having mental ailment (Schizophrenia for the last over 20 years) and was confined to one room in the house at Panipat. During those days it was regarded as a bad thing for the family to consult for mental sickness& admission in mental hospital. It was not possible to shift my mother to Rohtak for consultation. I requested Honorable Dr. Vidya Sagar to come to Panipat and see my mother. He very gladly and immediately agreed to come to Panipat. He prescribed only one tablet per day (Eskazine plus). My mother, who was 60 years old at that time, recovered fully and lived upto the age of 88 years. Hats off to this great God gifted doctor for this miracle power.

I happened to visit his house one day and I was very much surprised to see that as there were 25 folding beds with beddings in his house where the patients used to come & sleep when they could not get a bed in the hospital. All these patients were given free food by his devoted wife. Such an example is not there anywhere in the world.

Dr. Vidya Sagar all his life used to sleep four hours a day from 12 midnignt to 4 A.M in the morning. Unimaginable stamina, used to reply all the letters written by the patients to him from 4 A.M to 6 A.M.

His O.P.D used to be from 8 A.M to 11 P.M at night all the seven days. He used to give free medicines from his pocket to very poor patients.

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Such a devoted, simple and godly person will perhaps never be born again in this world. Seeing all this, the President of India Honorable Gyani Zail Singh made a hospital in his name (VIMHANS, Vidya Sagar institute of mental and neurosciences) in Nehru Nagar which is still working and giving par-excellent health services.

Because of his unmatchable services, the government of Haryana gave him a certificate that Dr. Vidya Sagar will never retire and he worked till his death upto the age of 68 years. His bank balance was only a few thousands at the time of death.

The government of Haryana made a road in his name, Dr. Vidya Sagar Road ( The connecting road of PGIMS Rohtak). Because of him, a separate mental hospital has been made by the government of Haryana at PGIMS Rohtak, giving excellent services to mentally sick patients.

The road from Dr. Vidya Sagar department of psychiatry to the institute of mental health has also been named as Dr. Vidya Sagar Road.

I bow to this man with regards and such a Person will never be born again in the history of mankind. He used to work 20 hours a day, all his life. All his son-in-laws and son are at very high posts, IAS, IFS and Professors in Medical Colleges. More credit goes to his wife, who co-operated with him for his mission, all his life.

DR. TILAK RAJ MADAAN

Ex. Senior faculty member of surgery, PGIMS, Rohtak (1965 to 1978) M.B.BS., M.S (PGI) Sr. SURGEON, UROLOGIST & ENDO SURGEON

MADAAN HOSPITAL

Assandh Road, Model Town, Panipat-132103, Haryana Ph.: 0180-2697491, Fax: 4010105 | http://www.madaanhospitals.com

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Tribute-xi

A ‘SHANTI KI MURTI’

I appreciate the keenness and pleasant gestures of Dr. J.C. Bathla, a renowned Psychiatrist of Haryana to write biography of a Legend Dr. Vidya Sagar Jee. It is very kind of him for giving me this opportunity of sharing a few words about him. I, in fact, find no words & no ink to do justice to the noble qualities of this gentleman & Psychiatrist but still I am unable to resist myself from sharing a few of my nostalgic moments with him. This saint was a mixed bag of philanthropy, philosophy, guidance, humility and dedication to serve humanity.

I have to make a few narrations, I remember it was a hot humid Sunday in 1953 when I went to seek his opinion regarding my mentally challenged & aggressive brother in a crowded OPD despite lacking in the authority of admitting him. He helped me by sending me to SDM & getting the needful done. Patience, willingness to help destitutes, indefatigable nature very well remind me of his dedication. He worked daily from 7am to past midnight without any holiday or leave & was never tired, always fresh.

During the 4th year MBBS posting in his OPD, I learnt regarding the management of psychiatric illnesses. On my invitation as Secretary IMA, Karnal, he responded in affirmation & delivered a public lecture on “How to attain mental peace”, followed by free consultation rendered by him to a large gathering of patients.

DR. M. S. Lamba

# 23-R, Model Town Karnal-132001 98963-11938

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One of my class fellow, Sh. Hari Ram ji, a selfless whole time social worker of MANAV SEVA SANGH, Karnal caught the thread & started inviting Dr. Vidya Sagar Jee for public meetings and for patients every now & then. This continued for several years from Rohtak also. Sh. Hari Ram now Swami Jee A ‘Shanti ki Murti’ met Dr. Vidya Sagar jee another ‘Shanti ki Murti’ and this worked very well.

He had no desire for worldly fame & name or wealth, & worked selflessly till God took him to His abode. You can’t find another example of such a selfless doctor. May his soul rest in peace ! He will remain alive in the hearts of the people forever.

Acknowledgment:- My sincere thanks to my son Dr. J.S. Lamba (Surgeon-Delhi) for editing and rewriting & Mr. Raman Ahuja for typing.

(Dr. M.S. Lamba is the senior most & humblest doctor in Karnal. I highly appreciate his memory, intelligence & vocabulary at this age also. Though 85 years old but but still very energetic like a young man, always seen in very good spirits.) Dr. J.C. Bathla

Dr. Vidya Sagar in reality was:-

“SHANTI KI MURTI”

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Tribute-xii

Dr. Vidya Sagar “Icon of Psychiatry in India”

Dr. K. B. Kanwal

MD., Radiology Director, Health Service, Haryana (Retd.)

For one who has seen Dr. Vidya Sagar talking with his patients deep into the night and then taking them (who had come from distant places) to his own house where his dedicated wife would serve them hot

food and make arrangements for their comfortable stay. This has provided me an opportunity to write a few words about this great son of undivided Punjab.

I have known Dr. J. C. Bathla, the writer of this publication for the last about fifty years. His active dedication to the cause of this book and his deep commitment to the cause of social Psychiatry are his life time achievements. I am indebted and grateful to him for giving this opportunity to write something about Dr. Vidya Sagar, a dynamic Psychiatrist of our times.

Society’s indifferent attitude to the psychiatric patients is well known but nation-states also indulge in such inhuman acts is amply described in SADAT HASAN, Manto’s famous novel-Toba Tek Singh- where the two governments failed to accept hapless. Psychiatric patients who kept on standing in the no-man’s land at Wagha border between India and Pakistan throughout the wintry night and were found dead the next morning.

Dr, Vidya Sagar was born in Dera Ghazi Khan in the frontier province of Pakistan, Just for information, the present Prime Minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan was also born in Dera Ghazi Khan.

While at Rohtak, Dr. Vidya Sagar received a message to see the Chief Minister in his office at Chandigarh, his simple and honest reply was that “I have no work with the Chief Minister and If he has some work with me, he should come to my OPD.”

His simplicity, humility, honesty, compassion & devotion to the cause of Psychiatry & his abiding interest in the welfare of patients will inspire the members of all the disciplines of medicine, especially Psychiatrists for years to come.

One of my colleagues at Amritsar narrated to me this small incident from the life of Dr. Vidya Sagar. On the day of his daughter’s marriage he kept on working in his OPD till in the evening unmindful of barat to come. A few respectable persons of Amritsar got together, made all arrangements and brought Dr. Vidya Sagar from his OPD to receive barat in time.

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Dr.

Tribute-xiii

‘s FAMILY SPEAKS……… One

^J1⁄4k&lqeu*

izse yrk pkS/kjh

(T;s”B iq=h Loñ MkW fo|k lkxj) /keZiRuh Loñ Jh ts-,u- pkS/kjh

deZ;ksxh MkW- fo|k lkxj th dk thou yxHkx cpiu ls gh jksfx;ksa dh lsok ,oa vUkFkd esgur ls Hkjiwj jgk gSA mu dh lknxh] R;kx] riL;k o nku&lsok lar egkRekvksa tSls jghA mu dk iwjk thou ,d mnkj] deZB vkSj lgkuqHkwfr iw.kZ MkWDVj dk gh jgkA mUgksaus ejht+ks dh lsok th tku ls djrs gq, vius dÙkZO;ksa dks Hkh vPNs ls fuHkk;kA

viuh lsokvksa ds lkFk ifjokj dks Hkh tksM+s j[kkA mudh /keZiRuh dk iwjk ;ksx nku jgkA lc ds fy, J1⁄4k o mnkjrk ds Hk.Mkj FksA

MkWñ lkgc th dh ru&eu /ku ls dh gqbZ lsok gekjk lekt ges’kk ;kn j[ksxkA jksfx;ksa ds fy, rks os lar :i esa MkWDVj FksA

muds ek/;e ls ekufld jksfx;ksa dks gj rjg ls ekU;rk feyhA muds R;kx ds fy, gekjk ‘kr&’kr ueu gSA

mudk thou lc ds fy, izjs.kkL=ksr cuk jgsxkA

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Tribute-xiv

Dr. ‘s FAMILY SPEAKS………Two

Dr. Ramesh Arya Son-in-law of Dr.Vidya Sagar Gurugram

With God’s blessings, there could not have been any better fortune for me than to be the son-in-law of Dr. Vidya Sagar Jee. His son, Dr. Satyavan Dewan had migrated to America before I moved into his home even before my marriage. I lived with him in the same house, all the years until God took him away in 1978.

(i) DAILY ROUTINE: Summer/winter, spring/autumn, both at Amritsar & Rohtak, his routine did not change. Getting up in the morning, straight to study table for writing 10-12 letters to patients (mostly post cards) with his own hand for nearly 2 hours. Quick breakfast of mashed raw vegetables, with a few nuts & a cup of milk. He would rush to the hospital always before 8.00 A.M.

Working in the hospital, wards rounds for in-patients, performing procedures, individual psychotherapy sessions until afternoon. Then after out-patient (OPD) services around 3.00 pm that would last until midnight or often early next morning. Open public lectures on preventive psychotherapy on alternate days in the evening during OPD hours. If he could not attend to some of the OPD patients & they were alone, he would take them home. My mother-in- law & my wife would attend to their feeding & bedding, though no servant at home. These were patients, who needed family environment as a part of their treatment. This was normal rather than exceptional though unbelievable.

(ii) HOSPITAL IN TENTS: To begin with (in early 1950s), when he was medical superintendent in the Mental Hospital Amritsar, (virtually an asylum) no patient could be admitted without the permission of police/court. Dr. Vidya Sagar devised a practical solution for it. He invited a contractor to provide fifty tents (5-6 persons capacity) in the hospital premises along with facilities for open air kitchen, adequate water & appropriate toilets, etc. The patients could live in tents as OPD with their families. They were cared for medical

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problems as good as inpatients. Thus a larger number of patients would receive treatment virtually as in-patients, under direct medical supervision. It had two other additional major benefits:

(A) The rate of recovery was much higher when they lived with their families.

(B) The patients’ families had a unique opportunity to meet the treating doctors & know about the progress.

World Health Organization (WHO) team visited the hospital at Amritsar. Appreciating these remarkable efforts, they wrote “A unique low cost Hospital-In-Tents” with strong recommendations for the third world countries. (Details on Page Number 135)

(iii) MAGIC PERSONALITY OF DR. VIDYA SAGAR’S:-

(A) That was the era of Electroconvulsive therapy

(ECT) also called, “Bijli Ka Ilaaj” (fctyh dk bZykt) for chronic psychotic patients. Dr. Vidya Sagar would perform this procedure personally in the morning for indoor & evening for the OPD patients. Many patients would struggle hard, even violent so, when laid on the bench for procedure but when they would see Dr. Vidya Sagar approaching towards them, they would get calm down & tranquility spreading on their face at that time was like a magic to watch.

(B) Many patients refused to eat anything, suspecting poison in it. Such patients were fed by “Nasal Feeding”, mostly done by the nursing staff. This causes lots of discomfort & even transient pain. At times Dr. Vidya Sagar would be called for help. On seeing him, even a tough & violent patient would suddenly begin to smile & start

eating This seemed to be a miracale. ;g cgqr vk’p;Z tud yxrk Fkk tSls fd fdlh us tknw dj fn;k gksA

(iv) OPEN PREVENTIVE PSYCHOTHERAPY:- He would regularly hold lectures on alternate evening for 2 hours, for the public, patients’ attendants & some old patients. Patients would narrate their stories from beginning & freely present his or her understanding of the disease & process of improvement. Dr. Vidya Sagar would explain the patient’s problems in simple medical terms. The other fellow patients, their relatives & public would be encouraged to ask some relevant questions. Answers to which used to be elaborated by Dr. Vidya Sagar that touch on the advice & mechanism of preventive strategies for that disease. These lectures were keenly attended & were absorbed by the audience with great interest & benefit. (This was foresight of community psychiatry.)

Tribute-xiv (Dr. Ramesh Arya)

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(v) TRANSFER TO ROHTAK:- On the creation of Haryana in Oct. 1964, the Chief Minister Ch. Bansi Lal got him transferred to Rohtak. I was also transferred along with him. Thus, we continued to live together in the same house. Hospital attached to Medical College was much smaller than that of Amritsar, but the pattern & extent of services rendered even got larger with daily working hours extending from 8 am to past midnight every day. Due to smaller capacity of indoor, OPD services enlarged enormously.

(vi) UNIQUE FEATURE OF SERVICES IN ROHTAK:- For long, Dr. Vidya Sagar had been thinking that it is extremely hard for the mental patients who live out of Rohtak to come for consultation & treatment. Firstly, they needed to be accompanied by a one-two or more persons & also arranged for the transport mostly private transport as public transport is never suitable for mentally sick patients. He developed a unique method for these patients. Instead of the patients coming to him, he will go to the patients in their residential towns, on every Sunday. He will travel to different neighboring towns, Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Bhiwani, Sirsa & Hissar etc. by roadways bus. Local organization would make all arrangements for consultation & meals. These sessions started regularly around 9.00 am & continued late in the evening with no exception. He will always travel by roadways bus. I Occasionally accompanied him too. (Another golden step towards Community Psychiatry). When Hon’ble Chief Minister – Ch. Bansi Lal came to know, he ordered for a private car which after two weeks was returned respectfully but firmly that he will travel by roadways bus only, saying that he uses the car only once in a week & hence the driver & car remain unused for the rest of the week.

(vii) RESPECT & HONOURS:- (A) He was offered the post of Principal at Medical College, Amritsar that he politely refused saying that he was happier serving the patients & bringing them back to their families, which was a greater gift of God than any other authority or position could give in life.

(B) He was nominated for the “Padam Shree Award” That also he politely surrendered saying that awards from his patients & from the glory of God are more than enough.

(viii) A UNIQUE BUT UNBELIEVABLE EVENT:- While in Rohtak, I got a call from the personal secretary of the top most official of the Haryana Government, (I will not name) that he wishes to meet Dr. Vidya Sagar & I should arrange a meeting in his OPD.

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Dr. Vidya Sagar used to have the patients sitting along the walls of the OPD room & around his office table. His policy was not to have the patients wait outside where their anxiety would increase while waiting for their turn. Inside the room, the doctor is within their sight, they would remain calm & comfortable. As I led this VVIP official, who was a Sikh gentle man, into the OPD room, Dr. Vidya Sagar got up from his chair & walked towards the door to greet him. As they approached each other in the middle of the room, the VVIP removed his turban & placed it in Dr. Vidya Sagar’s feet, without caring for numerous patients around. That time tears rolled down from my eyes. As I write this, my eyes are getting wet even today.

Hon’ble Chief Minister, Haryana passed an official order that Dr. Vidya Sagar will remain in service, till his health permits or as he desires. This means he will never retire.

(ix) THE IMPORTANT POINTS I REMEMBER VIVIDLY:

(A) He used to support widows financially regularly.

(B) There was a donation box in the OPD where the public & patients’ wards would drop in some funds that usually amounted to nearly 5-10 thousands rupees per week which was spent entirely on the patients’ welfare.

(C) When he officially retired from service on superannuation, he received a sum of Rs. 50,000 as provident fund. He did not take even a single rupee to home. He quietly donated the entire amount already to an orphanage cum widows, care society without telling anyone at home.

(D) After retirement, I went to his bank to close his account. Astonishingly, his bank balance was Rs. 5200 only, as his entire life’s savings. Unfortunately his wife, developed breast cancer & was operated & later given chemotherapy in house. He even then continued his work regularly.

(x) SINGLE DAY LEAVE IN WHOLE SERVICE:- His hospital work continued regularly through out his life except he was out of station due to court evidence in relation to his patients. He took only one day leave in life on the marriage of one of his three daughters.

(xi) LAST DAYS:- During the last days of his life, Dr. Vidya Sagar suffered Chronic Lymphoid Leukaemia, for which he

took oral chemotherapy at home. He responded well & recovered

Tribute-xiv (Dr. Ramesh Arya)

204

after few months. This time, he planned to visit his son in America for the first time, but God had other plans. Before he could go to America, he suffered massive heart attack one night & passed away calmly & quietly at the age of in 69.

(xii) VIMHANS (Dr. Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences):- President of India, Gyani Zail Singh, approached Dr. Vidya Sagar’s eldest son-in-law, Sh. J.N. Chaudhary & sanctioned a piece of land in Nehru Nagar, New Delhi, for building a Mental Health Charitable Hospital in honour & recognition of his services for the humanity.

Gyani Zail Singh knew him since Amritsar days when he was the Chief Minister of Punjab. Sh. J.N. Chaudhary perused this noble cause tirelessly, single-handedly & brought up the Institute “Dr. Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (Vimhans)” that stands tall today in Delhi. It renders specialized OPD & indoor services in Psychiatry, clinical psychology, & rehabilitation in addition to several degree courses, affiliated educational, training & research programs in these specialties. In addition to running nursing & other paramedical courses in related disciplines, it also serves the needy people by out-reach services in neighboring locations.

Presently, Sh. J. N. Chaudhary’s son (Dr. Vidya Sagar’s

grandson, nksgrk) Dr. Satindra Nath Chaudhary has taken the responsibility as the Chairman with his daughter Mrs. Sandhya Chaudhary as the Manager. Sh. J.N. Chaudhary left this world to take over the charge in GOD’s office on dated 16-02-2016

(Respected Dr. Ramesh Arya was my teacher in pathology at Rohtak during my M.B.B.S. course. He was a very excellent teacher. He has two sons, and one of them, Dr. Dinesh Arya is a psychiatrist and heading the health department in Malaysia. The information submitted by him on the life of Dr. Vidya Sagar ji has been divided into twelve heads to make it more clear.

Dr. J.C. Bathla

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Dr.

MkW- ‘kkark lHkjoky

Tribute-xiiv

Family Speaks…………Three

dlkSyh (fgekpy)

MkW- fo|k lkxj dh lqiq=h MkW- ‘kkark lHkjoky ,oa MkW- lR;sUæ lHkjoky nkekn (eksckbZy ij jeu vkgwtk }kjk okrkZyki)

ftl izdkj egkHkkjr esa fookg Loa;oj esa vtqZu tc rhj pyk jgk Fkk rks mlls iwNk x;k fd vkidks D;k ut+j vk jgk gS rks mlus mÙkj fn;k fd eNyh dh dsoy vk¡[kA MkW- fo|k lkxj dks euksjksx jksfx;ks ds vykok dqN ut+j ugh vkrk FkkA blh izdkj MkW- fo|klkxj dks ekufld jksfx;ksa ls c<+dj dqN Hkh vPNk ugh yxrk Fkk pkgs og O;fDrxr ‘kjhj dh ns[kHkky gks] [kkuk gks] ifjokj ;k fe=x.k gksA

tc esjk fj’rk gqvk rks Mk- fo|k lkxj ve`rlj esa FksA fQj eSa vkxs dh i<+kbZ ds fy, baXySaM pyk x;k] ogh ij MkW- fo|k lkxj dh lqiq=h MkW- ‘kkark ls ‘kknh gqbZA ml le; Hkkjr ls dksbZ Hkh ugha vk;kA ‘kknh esa yanu esa jgus okys MkW- fo|klkxj ds ppsjs HkkbZ us dU;knku fd;kA fdlh dks MkW- fo|klkxj ds u vkus ls dksbZ gSjkuh ugha gqbZ D;ksafd lcdks ;g irk Fkk fd Mk- lkfgc nqfu;knkjh esa T;knk fo’okl ugha j[krs FksA

‘kknh ds dqN le; ckn tc ge Hkkjr vk, rks lkspk Fkk fd MkW- lkgc ,oa mudh iRuh fnYyh gokbZ vM~Mk ij feysaxs ijUrq og ugh vk,] ;|fi ml le; gfj;k.kk cuus ds i’pkr~ og jksgrd esfMdy dkWyst esa Vak¡lQj gks pqds FksA mlds dqN eghus i’pkr~ ge jksgrd muds ?kj ij x, rks ogk¡ esjh lklq ekrk feyh] mUgksaus dgk fd MkW- lkgc [kkus ij vk,¡xsaA ge nksigj ds [kkus ij bUrt+kj djrs jgs ij MkW- lkfgc ugha vk, D;ksafd og vius ejhtksa esa gh O;Lr FksA fQj ge muls feyus ds fy, gLirky esa pys x,A Mk- lkgc vius ejht+ksa esa gh O;Lr Fks vkSj gesa dg fn;k fd jkr dks [kkus ij feyrs gSa] [kkuk bdVBs [kk,saxsA jkr dks Hkh [kkus ds le; rd Hkh ugha vk,] ge bUrt+kj djrs jgsA MkW- lkgc nsj jkr rd gLirky esa O;Lr jgs vkSj og jkstkuk dh rjg nsj jkr dks ?kj vk,A

tc eq[;eU=h cUlh yky th us mudh iza’klk lquh rks mUgksaus MkW- lkgc dks fizafliy cukus dk izLRkko Hkstk ftldks mUgksus vLohdkj dj fn;kA MkW- lkgc us dgk og ml in jgdj vius ejht+ksa dh lsok ugha dj ldsaxsA bl mÙkj ls eq[;eU=h cgqr vk’p;Z pfdr gq, vkSj dgus yxs fd yksx rks bl in ds fy, yM+rs] ejrs vkSj flQkfj’kas

MkW- lR;sUæ lHkjoky

206

th dh thoudFkk

djrs gSaA mUgksaus lUns’k Hkstk fd MkW- fo|k lkxj ls dgks fd eq>s p.Mhx<+ vkdj feysA ijUrq MkW- fo|k lkxj us tokc fn;k fd esjs ikl rks ejht+ksa dks ns[kus ds vykok le; ugha gS] eq>s eq[;ea=h egksn; ls dksbZ dke Hkh ugha gSA ;fn mUgsa eq>ls dksbZ dke gS ;k ckr djuh gS rks os jksgrd vk tk,¡ mudk Lokxr gSA calh yky th cM+s vf/kd gSjku gq, fd lh-,e- cqyk, vkSj dksbZ vkus ls bUdkj dj nsA fQj eq[;ea=h Lo;a jksgrd x;s vkSj O;fDrxr :Ik ls muds dke djus dk tk;t+k fy;k vkSj vkns’k ikl fd;k fd MkW- fo|k lkxj dHkh fjVk;j ugha gksaxs vkSj tc dHkh mUgsa NqVVh ysuh gksxh rks esjs vkWfQl ls NqVVh ysaxs ukfd fizafliy vkfQl lsA og tc rd dke djuk pkgsaxs djsaxs vkSj mudh dksBh Hkh ogh jgsxhA bl ds i’pkr~ mUgksaus MkW- lkgc dks vkf/kdkfjd dkj nsus dk izLrko Hkstk vkSj mUgksaus ;g dg dj bUdkj dj fn;k fd xkM+h vkSj Makboj rks lkjk fnu [kkyh jgsaxs D;ksafd eq>s gLirky ds vfrfjDr dgha ugha tkuk gksrkA bl ij eq[;eU=h vkSj Hkh vk’p;Zpfdr gq, vkSj mUgksaus mudh lfoZl cqd ij fy[kok fn;k fd og tc rd pkgsa ;k tc rd fta+nk gSa og lfoZl dj ldrs gSaA

MkW- fo|k lkxj ds fy, /ku dk dksbZ egRo ugha FkkA ftl izdkj ls mudk uke Fkk og djksM+ks :i;s dek ldrs FksA mUgksaus dHkh nkSyr ls I;kj ugha fd;k cfYd og vius osru esa ls Hkh ?kj dk [kpkZ j[k dj ckdh iSlk ejht+ksa ij [kpZ dj fn;k djrs FksA muds ikl O;fDrxr dksbZ edku ugha FkkA tc MkW- lkfgc vk;q ds fglkc ls fjVk;j gq, rks xzSP;qVh feyh rks mudh iRuh us dgk dqN nku ugha djksxs rks mUgksaus mldk 25% nku dj fn;k fQj mudh iRuh us dgk fd vHkh rks ljdkjh edku esa jgrs gSa tc mls [kkyh djsaxss rks dgk¡ tk,asxs rks mUgksaus dgk fd nks dejs dk ,d NksVk lk edku ys ysaxsA

dNq le; i’pkr~ mluh iRuh dk ngs kra gks x;k rks mudh pkFS kk dh jLe ij gh lkjh cph gbq Z jkf’k dks nku djus dk ,yku dj fn;kA ^^mUgkuas s dgk tc ?kjokyh gh ugh]a rks ?kj dkD;kdjxas As **,slsegkuFksgekjsiwT;uh;firkthAdksbZO;fDriwNrkgSfd;sxkuk fdl xk;d us xk;k gSA MkWDVj lkgc us viuh viuh bfUæ;kas&bPNkvkas dks dkcw esa j[kk vkSj mUgs nck dj j[kkA mudk dsoy ,d gh /;ku Fkk fd ekufld jksxh vkSj mUgksus lcdqN le;] iSlk] Kku lHkh dqN ekufld jksfx;ksa ij U;kSNkoj dj fn;kA mUgksaus viuh bPNkvkas vkSj bfUæ;ksa dks dHkh acknowledge ugha fd;kA eu dh bPNk] thHk dk Lokn] vk¡[kksa dks vPNk yxus okyk] eu dh rjaxkas dks dHkh egRo ugh fn;kA tSls dksbZ lqUnj dkj ;k lqUnj oLrq fn[kus ij euq”; lksprk gS fd ;s esjs ikl nksuks gksuh pkfg, ;k dqN Lokn Hkkstu dks lqxU/k vkus ij euq”; lksprk gS fd eSa ;s Loknh Hkkstu [kkÅa ;k dksbZ lqUnj xhr lquus ijA

207

Different Dignitaries recall Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji with DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji in real sense was a:-

Dr. Rajiv Gupta

Rohtak 86890-33888

Dr. A. K. Vohra

London, UK

+44 7435645027

AN ICONE OF PSYCHIATRY AN ANGELIC BEING

(v}Hkqr O;fDrRo)

Dr. T.R Madaan LIVING GOD

Panipat (HR) 94160-30977

Dr. K. B. Kanwal ICON OF PSYCHIATRY

Director, Health Service, Haryana (Retd.) 98133-50347

Dr. Narinder Chawla OCEAN OF EDUCATION

London, U.K.+44 7919423006

Dr. Jagdish C Bathla ESTEEMED GURU

Bathla Psy. Hospital, Karnal 94661-86888

Lokeh izse ewfrZ

(iz/kku)] ekuo lsok la?k] djuky

80535-49730

lsok o izse ds izrhd lsok Hkkoh

Dr. Ramesh Arya PRACTICAL GUIDE

Gurugram 88263-65138

Dr. M. S. Lamba A SHANTI KI MURTI

Model Town, Karnal 98963-11938

Anonymous J & K FATHER OF PSYCHIATRY

Gurugram 88263-65138

208

Hkkx&4

MkW- fo|k lkxj th

ds LFkk;h Lekjd

Permanent Memorials of

Dr. Vidya Sagar

209

th dh thoudFkk

i AMRITSAR

Mental Hospital of Amritsar has been named as:

Dr. Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health, Amritsar

vkL ft1⁄4fdnk ;kro fJ3;Nhfuú±N nÅc w?Nb j¶bE

Dr. Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health

210

(ii) Dr. Vidya Sagar Memorial Oration Award Since 2013

Started in 2013 by Indian Psychiatric Society Punjab & Chandigarh State Branch and given to the psychiatrist for their excellent contributions to the field of Psychiatry every year

Recipients upto date :

2013Prof. P. Kulhara (Ex. Prof. PGIMER, Chandigarh)

2014Prof. B.L. Goyal (Ex. Medical Supdt. Mental Hospital Amritsar)

2015Prof. R.L. Narang (Ex. Reg. DMC, Ludhiana)

2016Dr. Ashok Gupta, Jalandhar

2017Prof. Ajit Avasthi (Prof. & Head Dept. of Psychiatry, PGIMER, Chandigarh) 2018Prof. P.D. Garg (Ex. Prof. & Head Dept. of Psychiatry, GMC, Amritsar 2019Dr. Ranjive Mahajan (Prof. & Head Dept. of Psychiatry, DMC, Ludhihana

Permanent memorials (Amritsar)

211

th dh thoudFkk

V.M. Gupta

AMRITSAR SPEAKS…

GUPTA MEDICAL STORE

Dr. Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health, Amritsar (98782-01158)

eSa 1960 es esaVy gLirky ds esfMdy v/kh{kd MkW- fo|k lkxj th ls igyh ckj feyk Fkk] eSa muds fy, vtuch Fkk] eSa fdlh dke dh ryk’k es feyk Fkk] ‘kk;n eq>s dksbZ ukSdjh nsaA eSa muls rc 3&4 ckj yxkrkj feykA ,d fnu mUgksus iwNk fd nokb;ksa ds ckjs eSa dqN tkudkjh gS] rks rqe esaVy gLirky ds ikl nokbZ dh nqdku [kksy yks] ml le; nokbZ dh nqdku esaVy gLirky ls 3&4 fd-eh- nwj gksrh

FkhA ejht+ksa dks cM+h fnDdr dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk Fkk] ijUrq esaVy gLirky ds ikl nokbZ dh nqdku [kksyuk Hkh dksbZ vklku dke ugh Fkk] D;ksafd vkl&ikl dksbZ fcyfMax Hkh ugh Fkh ftl essa nokbZ dh nqdku [kksyh tk ldsaA MkW- lkgc us dgk fd rqe nokbZ dh nqdku dk [kks[kk [kksy yks] [kks[ks dh ijfe’ku feyuk vklku dke ugha FkkA MkW- lkgc us Mh-lh- dks nqdku [kks[kk [kksyus ds ijiksty ckjs ijfe’ku ds fy, fy[kkA eq>s btkt+r fey x;h] esjs ikl ml le; dsoy 200 :i;s Fks ftlls eSaus dke pkyw fd;k FkkA

og jkr dks 3 cts rd ejht+ksa dks ns[krs jgrs Fks] mudh lsok es yxs jgrs Fks] muesa dke djus dk tuwu Fkk] dHkh Fkdrs ugh FksA mudh iRuh Jhefr dkS’kY;k nsoh muds fy;s lkjh&lkjh jkr dkWQ+h ys ds vkrh jgrh FkhA MkW- lkgc nsj jkr dks fcuk [kkuk [kk;s lks tkrs Fks] tc mudh iRuh mUgsa nw/k ihus ds fy;s fgykrh Fkh] rks oks uhan esa dgrs fd ^^chch fpark uk dj rsjs ejht+ dks ns[k dj tkÅxk¡**] Mk- lkgc dHkh Hkh fdlh ejht+ dks ns[kus mlds ?kj ij ugh tkrs Fks] dHkh etcwjh eas tkuk Hkh iM+k rks viuh lkbfdy ij tkrs FksA MkW- lkgc lknk thou O;rhr djrs FksA

ckn esa MkW- lkgc jksgrd esfMdy dkWyst es pys x;s FksA og fgUnw jhfr&fjokt dks cgqr ekurs Fks] muds csVs lR;oku us vesfjdu yMdh ls vesfjdk esa ‘kknh dj yhA MkW lkgc us nksckjk Hkkjrh; jhfr&fjokt ls (vk;Z lekftd jhfr&fjokt) ‘kknh djokbZA

esjs ifjokj es 6 MkWDVj gSa] csVk MkW- jktuh’k xqIrk euksjksx fo’ks”kK gS vkSj ve`rlj esa eukscy gLirky ds uke ls dke dj jgk gSA esjs iksrk Mk- la;e xqIrk Hkh euksfoKkfud gS vkSj MkW- fo|k lkxj Institute of Mental Health ve`rlj esa fu;qDr gSA vkSj og MkW fo|k lkxj th ds in~fpUgksa ij pyus dh dksf’k’k dj jgs gS vkSj ekufld jksfx;ksa dh lsok dj jgs gSA

jeu vkgwtk djuky }kjk O;fDrxr :i ls Okh-,e- xqIrk th ls 10-02-2019 ve`rlj esa lk{kkRdkj ij vk/kkfjr

212

ii ROHTAK

(A) Department of Psychiatry at Pt. B.D. Dayal Sharma Medical College, Rohtak has been named as DR. VIDYA SAGAR DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY.

A statue of Dr. Vidya Sagar was installed on 25-10-2002 in front lawn of the department. This was unveiled by Sh. A.K. Yadav, IAS, the Deputy Commissioner at that time Rohtak & was presided over by Major General Dr. V.S. Punia, the then Director PGIMS, Rohtak.

This was donated by Dr. Vidya Sagar Samarak Samiti with its President Late Sh. Attar Chand Gugnani.

Dr. VIDYA SAGAR

1909-1978

Unveiled by

Sh. A.K. YADAV, IAS

Deputy COMMISSIONER Rohtak

Presided Over by

Maj. Gen. (Dr. V.S. PUNIA)

Director PGIMS on 25th October, 2002

President

Attar Chand Gugnani

Dr. Vidya Sagar Samarak Samiti

213

th dh thoudFkk

(B) Dr.VidyaSagarMarg.RoadfromtheDepartmentofpsychiatryto State Institute of Mental Health (SIMH) has been named as Dr. Vidya Sagar Marg. This was inaugurated by the then worthy ViceChancellorDr.O.P.Kalraon10-10-2020(MentalHealth Day)

(C.)

Services :

(a) Vidya Sagar Memorial Public School (Nursery to 5th) from 2014 free education to 100 students

(b) Silai Centre (run by Rotary Club)

(c) Physiotherapy Centre (run by Rotary Club)

(d) Payau (Water Cooler)

Dr. Vidya Sagar Charitable Psychiatry & General Hospital, Gohana Road, Rohtak (Run by Dr. Vidya Sagar Samarak Samiti, President Sh. Rakesh Guglani This was started by his father Late Sh. Attar Chand Guglani.

214

Permanent memorials (Rohtak)

MkW-fo|klkxj dh izfrHkk dk vukoj.k 2-9-07 (nSfud HkkLdj@jksgrd dsljh) gfj;k.kk ds eq[;ea=h ekuuh; Hkwisaæ flag gqM~Mk us xksgkuk jksM fLFkr vLirky esa MkW- fo|klkxj dh izfrek dk vukoj.k fd;kA mUgksaus Mk- fo|klkxj Lekjd lfefr dks nks yk[k 51 gtkj #i, nsus dh ?kks”k.kk dhA mUgksaus dgk fd Mk- fo|klkxj us fu%LokFkZ Hkko ls ejht+kas dh lsok dh vksj ;gka rd fd os ejhtks ds fy, nokbZ viuh ru[okg ls Hkh [kjhn dj nsrs Fks]blls cM+k mnkgj.k vkSj D;k gks ldrk gSA mUgksaus nwljs MkDVjksa ls Hkh vihy dh fd tu lsok dh Hkkouk dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, Mk- fo|klkxj ds thou fl1⁄4karksa dk vuqlj.k djsaA blls u dsoy mUgsa vkfRed ‘kkafr feysxh cfYd lekt esa mudk xkSjo Hkh c<+sxkA

D. MANAV SEWA SAMITI (Regd.) Pardhana Mohalla, Rohtak established by : Dr. Vidya Sagar himself & run by : Arya Samaj, Pardhana Mohalla Society, Rohtak (Sh. Nand Lal Gandhi 98962 14378)

Health Dispensary at Rohtak, Haryana state : During his lifetime Dr. Vidya Sagar, with the help of local community, helped to start up a health dispensary. It is a part of the religious institution, Arya Samaj. The health dispensary not only caters to the needs of the patients with free Consultation and free medicines but also helps the poor and the needy (fu/kZu] xjhc] t:jrean) by way of providing them many other types of assistance.

Its financial needs to meet monthly expenses are covered by voluntary donations by the members of Pradhana Mohalla Arya Samaj and many other admirers of Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji.

215

th dh thoudFkk

iii

DELHI

VIDYASAGAR INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH, NEURO AND SCIENCES ( )

MkW- fo|k lkxj dh bPNkuqlkj] ifjokj us mudh thoui;ZUr dh vYi cprksa dks ,d VaLV esa yxk;k ftls MkW- fo|klkxj dkS’kY;k nsoh VaLV dk uke fn;k rkfd MkW- fo|k lkxj dks LoxZ fl/kkjus ij Hkh ifjokj] fcjknjh ,oe~ nksLrksa vkfn dks mlh izdkj ,d LkkFk j[kk tk lds ftl izdkj thou esa jgkA VaLV dks lfefr vf/kfu;e ds vUrxZr iathÏr djk;k x;kA muds lacaf/k;ksa rFkk iz’kaldksa ls dh xbZ tksjnkj vihy ds QyLo:i nks yk[k :i;k bdëk gks x;kA bl jkf’k ij C;kt dh vkenuh ls lfefr us fiNys dqN o”kks± rd esa muds lEeku esa LFkkfir fd;s x;s laxBuksa vkSj fo’ks”k dj fuEufyf[kr laLFkkvksaa dks 75]000@& :i;s dk nku fn;k %

i) MkW-fo|klkxj/kekFkZvkS”k/kky;]fHkokuh]gfj;k.kkA

gfj;k.kkA gfj;k.kkA

ii) MkW-fo|klkxjLekjdlfefr]jksgrd] iii) oSfnd dU;k ikB’kkyk] xqM+xkao]

iv) MkW- fo|klkxj vdkneh] esjB dSaV]

;w-ih-A

MkW- fo|k lkxj dkS’kY;k nsoh eSeksfj;y VaLV (Regd. 1981) ds vkjEHk ls gh

gekjh ;g ;kstuk Fkh fd fnYyh esa ,d vk/kqfud euksjksx LokLF; dsUæ dh LFkkiuk dh tk, ftlesa iwjs ujol flLVe (Nervous System) dh fcekfj;ksa dk bZykt ,d gh Nr ds uhps gks ldsA fnYyh fd fofHkUu laLFkkvksa] ftuesa fnYyh fodkl izkf/kdj.k rFkk fuekZ.k vkokl ea=ky; izeq[k gSa ds lkFk yEcs iz;Ruksa ds ckn] usg: uxj] Jh fuokliwjh esa tks Mcy LVksjh yktir uxj ds cgqr lehi gS] ,d Hkw[k.M gekjs VaLV@lfefr ds fy, vkcafVr dj fn;k x;k vkSj gLirky cukus dk dk;Z izkjEHk fd;k x;kA

VIMHANS is a non-profit organization working tirelessely towards providing treatment and care for mental health issues. VIMHANS is a living legacy of Dr. Vidyasagar, honorably remembered as FATHER OF INDIAN PSYCHIATRY. Dr. Vidyasagar Kaushalya Devi Memorial Health Centre by the name VIMHANS started in the year 1987 by adopting a practical approach, of rather than waiting for the entire hospital building to be completed. It started with the first block functional with mental health outdoor services. The Institution is on firm ground with three objectives:-

i. Service to the community with compassion.

ii. Qualitative service with best medical infrastructure.

iii. Aim at the comprehensiveness of services under one roof.

216

Permanent memorials ( Delhi)

VIMHANS initiated as an integrated neurosciences and mental health centre and continues to stand tall among its contemporaries. The first step forward was initiated in the year 1995 to upgrade the hospital to a Neuroscience Centre. This became a major milestone for VIMHANS in terms of diversification.

VIMHANS has established an organized outreach programme structure, under which the institution organizes seminars and interactive workshops on health and other socially relevant issues on regular basis. The community has found these to be very useful and we have earned appreciation from all quarters for the efforts.

The society has undertaken many long term projects in collaboration with schools and NGO’s (Non Goverment Organisation) in and around Delhi to train the counsellors and teachers in life skills, traits to enable them with abilities for adaptive and positive behavior for dealing effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. These programmes will enter the next phase with the involvement of more schools in near future.

MONTHLY MENTAL HEALTH CME (Continuing Medical Education) programmes for Family Physicians are being conducted by the Mental Health Department for the last many years and are being appreciated for taking up issues of concern on the platform of Family Physicians.

VIMHANS has earned trust and confidence of people from all over the country, as well as from overseas through its efficient and transparent system of functioning, dedicated, experienced medical professionals and management team. The Institution is committed to ensure the mental and physical well being of all our patients through comprehensive and reliable approach.

VIMHANS is an eloquent testimony to the vision, enthusiasm, motivation and very hard labour of Late Shri J.N. Chaudhry who single handedly initiated the project with a mission to provide quality and affordable medical care to the deprived fields of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Rehabilitation. Due to his untiring attitude and continuous efforts, today VIMHANS has achieved a cult status among its contemporaries. We, at VIMHANS, continue to strive for clinical excellence, personalized care, transparent and ethical medical services that are responsive to the need of the society. The hospital is involved in a lot of charity and free treatment to the poor and needy patients in low income group with commitment of providing free treatment to this category of people.

217

BRIEF HISTORY OF VIMHANS

(i) Bhumi Pujan 10 Feb 1985.

(ii) Inauguration 13 May 1987.

(iii) Indoor beds-90

(iv) Daily OPD-250 app. (Psychiatry) & 20 app. Psychology (v)Education / Teaching :- DNB started in 2006 with two

seats (01 Primary & 01 Secondary) every year. Selection through centralised counseling done by National Board of Examinations. Number of DNB passed upto date is 10.

(vi) Consultants in Mental Health:- Consultants in Psychiatry (10) Consultants in Psychology (09) Creative Therapists (03) Music Therapist (01)

(vii) ACTIVITIES OF VIMHANS:-

(A) Mental Health Day Care Rehabilitation Centre:- Deals with patients/addicts of various substance abuses. Organises self help groups and works with them in their rehabilitation.

(B) Neuro Rehab Centre-Helps in rehabilitation of post injury, stroke, surgery, etc.

(C) Mind Body Centre Services in specialties like: Hypnotherapy, Yoga, and NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)

(D) Services for The Care of The Mental Elderly: ranging from acute to chronic and home care services.

(E) Occupational Therapy Services

(F) Speech & Audiology Services

(G) Wellness Centre These centers function on highly subsidized basis & are extremely useful for the patients in helping them overcome considerable limitations in an effort to improve and manage their lives with considerable quality.

(viii) SERVICES: Mental Health Care Services at VIMHANS. These services can be divided into:

(A) Subsidized / Free Indoor Patients

(B) Subsidized /Free OPD Patients

(C) Subsidized / Free Neuro Rehab Services

ix. TRAINING : The training programmes co-ordinated by the society include:

(A) Psychology: Short Term (1 Month-6 Months) & Long Term (1Year) Internship programmes for under graduates and post graduates.

218

Permanent memorials ( Delhi)

(B) Scholarships for Psychology postgraduate students

(C) DNB Training Programme (2 Seats) since 2006.

(D) Physiotherapy Internship

(E) Occupational Therapy Internship

(x) Workshops for students & professionals: Round the year (xi) Out Reach Activities : To go to public/patients to

serve at their door step

(A) Interactive Programmes with schools includes life skills. Training Programme for children and train the trainer Programmes for teachers and counselors.

(B) Monthly Mental Health CME (Continue Medical Education) Programmes for Family. Physicians : These are being conducted by the Mental Health Department and are being appreciated for taking up issues of concern on the platform of Family Physicians.

(C) Project With Special Children : Follow-up Early Intervention Services for children in the age group of 0-7 with developmental disabilities specially. Autism & ADHD.

(D) Project With Ashiana Housing Group seniors living for attaining better quality of life:

(E) Vimhans For Schools Run By The Delhi Govt. This project started in October 2015 and around 3000 students have benefitted with this project till date in terms of mental issues screening and speech pathology screening.

(F) Outreach awareness programmes at India habitat centre- Continuing for the last 10 years. These have been highly appreciated by the general public. In the year 2017-18, the following topics have been covered in these programmes. Structured outreach programme with Don Bosco since year 2006 for the International Clinical Population.

(G) VIMHANS PROJECT WITH AUROBINDO ASHRAM :

(a) Counseling services and skill enhancement program for school children for early detection of academic and behavioral issues, prevention of certain behavioral issues through training and psycho education of parents and teachers.

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(b) Positiveskillbuildinginadolescentstoempowerthem to deal with modern day life styles.

(c) Quantitative and Qualitative Data collection as indicative of the efficacy of the program.

(xvi) SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES:

(A) Rural Health Care Centre: Vimhans, as a part of its social responsibilities runs a rural health care centre in village Saidul Ajaib, distt- Mehrauli, in Delhi. This hospital has been upgraded and the services of Rehab Professionals have been made available to the surrounding population. The hospital conducts free medical camps in various disciplines almost every month at the centre and in various slums and villages of the district.

(B) Free Treatment To EWS (Economical Weaker Section) Patients Vimhans offers free treatment to EWS patients in Outdoor and Indoor, which includes free consultations, free medicines, free investigations, free in door beds and food. This is recognized by all the government departments.

xii SCOPE OF ACTIVITIES:

(A) Special IPD medical services for Utsav residents.

(B) Preventive medical screening

(C) Rehab support

(D) Training and placement support for caregivers

(E) Support for mental health

(F) Alternative Therapies

(G) Specialty medical camps/consultations

(H) Help for coping and expressions

(I) Research and data collection

(J) Alternative Therapies/complimentary (mind

body services)

(K) Project Review & Feedbacks

220

Permanent memorials ( Delhi) ARCHITECTURE OF VIMHANS

(Sh. Jatindra Nath Chaudhary)

Padma Shri Sh. Jatindra Nath Chaudhary, eldest son-in-law of Dr. Vidya Sagar was an eminent personality who handled multifarious assignments both in government and private sectors.

Born on 10th June 1926, he was a scholar in DAV

College Lahore till August, 1947. As a refugee migrant

from Jampur (Pakistan), he took his first assignment on 10-11-1947 as special assistant with late Shri Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Minister of Communication, Govt. of India, He joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1948.

Sh. Chaudhry helped in drafting the first Passport Manual of Indian Ministry of external affairs from 1948 to 1950. He was india’s first Envoy to Vietnam stationed at Hanoi, North Vietnam in April, 1950. On transfer from Vietnam to Delhi, he was appointed as Parliamentary Officer to Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru in the Ministry of External Affairs, He was given special assignment in the Indian Embassy, Washington DC, USA.

After resigning from Indian Foreign Service, he took up an assignment as Director of Hindustan Aluminum Ltd. (Hindalco) in Mirzapir District, UP. After 2 Years 10 months service with Hindalco, he took appointment as Secretary General, Indian Woolen Mills Federation. He organized Participation of Indian Woolen Industry in the first India Industry Exhibition in Moscow. He was a resident director of Organization of Pharmaceutical Produces of India, New Delhi.

He was the founder Chairman of Vidya Sagar Kaushlaya Devi Memorial Health Centre Society-Responsible for VIMHANS. creation for getting land from the govt. in posh area & constructed with funds from donations from his admirers & relatives

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Sh. J.N. Chaudhry getting Padam Shri Award on 20-03-2006 from Honorable President of India Sh. Abdul Kalam Ji

222

Permanent memorials ( Delhi)

223

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Inauguration by former President Giani Zail Singh Ji

Continuing medical education for professionals & the community

224

BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PSYCHIATRISTS Speaks of VIMHANS Extract Page No. 62 Vol. 2 Feb. 1987

DR. VIDYA SAGAR KAUSHALYA DEVI MEMORIAL TRUST.

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji was an eminent Indian psychiatrist who was trained at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, (1948-51) and dedicated his whole life to the care and attention of the mentally ill. He worked first at the Mental Hospital, Amritsar and later on at Medical College, Rohtak. His family, friends, relatives, colleagues and students have set up a charitable trust: Dr. Vidys Sagar Kaushalya Devi Memorial Trust.

The AIMS of the trust are to set up a Health Centre dedicated to carry out his ideals. The trust has received moral and physical support from a wide spectrum. The government of India has given four acres of valuable land in the centre of New Delhi. The Corporation has promised financial support towards construction work. The Health Centre has the possibility of being a premier centre for psychiatric education and research.

Indian psychiatry has enjoyed a close and cordial relationship with

its British counterpart. Most Indian Psychiatrists have worked and

trained in this country or North America. Teaching and training

programmes at various academic centres in India have received

extensive help and guidance from academic organisations in the

United Kingdom, in particular the Institute of Psychiatry. s

We hope that with the Vidya Sagar Health Centre, we will receive similar support not only from psychiatrists of Indian origin working outside India, but also from friends and well wisher all over the world. This is a worthy cause which requires urgent support. Financial donations should be made to Vidya Sagar and crossed Account Payee Only. Offers of any other form of help should be conveyed to one of us (RG).

Raghu Gaind

112A HARLEY STREET, LONDON WIN IAF

Permanent memorials ( Delhi)

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iv

BHIWANI

DR. VIDYA SAGAR CHARITABLE HOSPITAL Run by Jampur Sewa Samiti (Regd.)

Dr. Vidya Sagar Dispensary & Aushadhalya, BHIWANI, Haryana State : Local Jampur community in Bhiwani, Haryana State and many admirers of Dr. Vidya Sagar, with their combined efforts, have done a wonderful job. They secured a plot of land measuring 500 sq meters in the central part of Bhiwani, and had built a full – fledged dispensary and a pathological laboratory at the cost of nearly Rs. 500,000/-, to begin with all with voluntary donations from philanthropists from all parts of the county, mostly, from friends and admirers of Dr. Vidya Sagar was frequent visitor to dispensary provide consultation to psychiatric patients and the local community will reamin highly indebted to him. Bhiwani health centre is a full fledged dispensary unit with a medical officer who is assisted by a pathological laboratory where tests for urine, stool & blood can be conducted under his advice. In this manner the unit is able to provide reasonable diagnostic services to the patients.

A number of Indian pharmaceutical companies donate, from time to time, medicines for free disbursement to patients. The dispensary caters to poor people in the area and also some sections

of the rural population. The dispensary has plans to provide field service in rural areas with a mobile van to visit once or twice every week.

The community provides financial needs on regular donation basis every month and the monthly expenses come to Rs. 10,000/- with a capital outlay of equipment, etc. for Rs. 1,00,000/-. The health centre also has plans to provide X- Ray facility to the needy patients.

226

v CHANDIGARH

DR. VIDYA SAGAR AWARD PGI

DR. VIDYA SAGAR AWARD was instituted in 1985 by the faculty of the Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, in memory of Dr. Vidya Sagar, former Professor of Psyciatry, Medical College, Rohtak. The Award is given in alternate years for the best research work in India in the field of mental health.

This is to certify that

has been awarded Dr. Vidya Sagar Award for his research work in the field of Mental Health for the Year 2014

227

Recipients upto date overleaf

LIST OF RECIPIENTS OF DR. VIDYA SAGAR AWARD PGI UPTO DATE

1998 Dr. S.K. Chaturvedi (Additional Prof. Dept. of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore)

2004 Dr. K.S. Jacob (Prof. Deptt. of Psychiatry, CMC, Vellore) 2006 Dr. Prabha S. Chandra (Prof. Deptt. of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore)

2010 Dr. G.Venkatasubramaniam (Associate Prof. Deptt. of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore)

2012 Dr. Ritushree Kukreti (CSIR Insitute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi)

2014 Dr. Ajit Avasthi (Prof. & Head Dept. of Psychiatry, PGIMER, Chandigarh)

2016 Dr. Sandeep Grover (Prof. Dept. of Psychiatry, PGIMER, Chandigarh)

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Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. J.C. Bathla

DR. VIDYA SAGAR JI

Guru / Master / Teacher / Mentor

and

DR. J.C. BATHLA

Student / Disciple / Nk=] fo|kFkhZ @ f’k{kkFkhZ

This Part of the book on Dr. Vidya Sagar, I have not written for

any other purpose but to show that I am working on the footprints of Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji.

I wish to show, how I was Impressed with the way of his working, thinking & knowledge of Dr. Vidya Sagar ji.

Through this book, I earnestly wish to keep his memories alive so that it may continue to guide the future psychiatrists forever.

229

We Salute Dr. Viday Sagar on Every Psychiatric Functions

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. J.C. Bathla

230

Annual conferences of SRMH (Society of rural mental health) was organised on 29 – 30 September 2018 at Hotel Jewel and Dr. Vidya Sagar the was remember by garlanding the by his photo

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DOCTOR JAGDISH CHANDER BATHLA

(i) Date of birth

(ii) Education

(iii) Internship

(iv) House Job

(v) Registrarship

(vi) Dc PM

(vii) Fellowship

do

do

do

(viii) Govt. Job

(ix) Publication: (A)

(B) (C)

(D).

: : : :

: :

:

:

:

: :

1-03-1946 Kamalia Mandi, (Lyallpur) Pakistan MBBS, PGIMS Rohtak, 1964 Batch

January 1969 to January 1970

29-01-1970 to 28-01-1971

(1st House Physician in Psychiatry with Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji)

05/1975 to 12/1978. Department of Psychiatry, Medical College, Rohtak on deputation from Haryana Govt. Service. Doctorate in Psychiatry Medicine by The Society of Advance Studies in Medical Science, New Delhi.

F.M.H.S. Ind. Council of Medical Research ICMR

Indian Society of Malaria & Communicable diseases

Indian Medical Association “Torture Medicine” certificate course.

IMA Academy of Medical Specialist

Haryana Govt. (1/1971 to 5/1991) as Psychiatrist for 16 years (1975-1991)

Magnesium in Schizophrenia: Ind. J. Medical Research 61,7, July 1973, 998 to 1001

Copper Metabolism in Schizophrenia: Ind. J. Med. Research 61, 8, August 1973-1152 Changing Socio demographic clinic profile of patient attending Gen. Hosp. Psy. Clinic, some indication of community acceptance : Ind. J. of Psy. 1981, 222 (1) 86-89. Trans-sexualism in schizophrenia : Ind. J. of Psy. 1989, 4 (2) 186-188.

(x) Paper Presentation at National & International Conference (A) Feasibility of treating Psychiatric Patients in

general medical ward of Distt. Hospital. Paper read at 38 Annual Conferences of IPS, SMS Med. College, Jaipur; 3-5 Jan.1987

231

(B) A Novel method of Psychiatric services to maximum public with minimum psychiatrists; Paper read on 45th annual conferences of IPS (Lucknow, 6-9 Jan. 1993.)

(C) Technique to honor GENEVA DECELERATION in mental health for rural masses in the country like India;

Paper read on 24-03-1994 on International Conf. “Innovations in community psychiatry” University of York, Manchester, UK 23 to 25th March 1994. University fo York, Manchester. Dr. Vidya Sagar presented an excellent example of community psychiatry as he used to work at least three times the ordinary sincere doctor without any break.

Though the name of community psychiatry was hardly used at that time. That’s why he used to say at times in a hilarious mode that he has an experience of 150 years in the field of psychiatry.

(xii) COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY Pioneer in the field of community psychiatry (Details on page number 240-241.)

(xiii) AWARDS

(A) Pride of Karnal Award, NIFAA:- for the outstanding

contribution in the field of “Promotion of better medical

services, at Harmony 2013.

(B) Awarded “Kalam Ke Sipahi” Amar Shaheed:-

Sh. Ramesh Chander Ki Yaad Mein 15-5-2002 by Bhartiya Samaj Sewak Sangh, Tilak Nagar, New Delhi

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. J.C. Bathla

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INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION KARNAL SPEAKS for DR. JC BATHLA

Address by Dr. Subhash Singhal Chairman of Selection Committee for the award

(Hall of Fame) for the 2018-19

Dr. Jagdish Chander Bathla is a charismatic, helpful and a respectable life member of IMA, Karnal. After having graduated from the prestigious Medical College, Rohtak in 1969, he joined HCMS in 1971 and subsequently as a Registrar in Psychiatry (1975-78), under the able guidance of world renowned Late Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji.

Following this he was appointed as Psychiatrist at Civil Hospital, Karnal in December 1978 and served till May 1991 and subsequently running a Licensed Private Psychiatry Hospital at Kunjpura Road, Karnal

He is an active member of various social organizations. He was the Vice-President of IMA-Haryana (1985-86); President-IMA Karnal (1986-87); President Bharat Vikas Parishad (1996-97) & is currently the President of Indian Association of Private Psychiatry Haryana Branch (2018-20) created on 05-08-2018.

He is the brain behind the HCMS benevolent fund scheme and also has been the pioneer to run the ICMR Psychiatric Satellite Centre at Samalkha for almost 9 years as a weekly visit every Thursday very regularly. He is a regular invited speaker especially on Drug Abuse among the various Institutions and social organizations.

He has contributed to the society in fighting against the stigma related to psychiatric illnesses for which he has authored 16 books, all of which are distributed free of cost. The recent book titled “ANGER” was inaugurated by the Karnal Mayor Mrs. Renu Bala and another one titled “HIMMAT” was inaugurated by a senior and renowned Psychiatrist, Dr. RC Jiloha, on 30-09-1918 at the recent state Conference in Karnal for which Dr. Bathla was the organizing Chairperson.

He has been married to Mrs. Pushpa Bathla for 50 years and

has a happy family with the elder daughter (dentist) married to a

Psychiatrist, settled in Rohtak and his younger son also a Psychiatrist

married to a dentist who is also Professor HOD Periodontist at Mulana

Medical College, Mulana. He has a great ambition to author a book on

his guru. “The biography of Late Dr. Vidya Sagar” for which he is

working very hard.

GOD BLESS HIM AND GIVE HIM THE COURAGE!!

233

Different Dignitaries recall Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji with DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES

Dr. Vidya Sagar Ji in real sense was a:-

Dr. Rajiv Gupta

Rohtak 86890-33888

Dr. A. K. Vohra

London, UK

+44 7435645027

AN ICONE OF PSYCHIATRY AN ANGELIC BEING

(v}Hkqr O;fDrRo)

Dr. T.R Madaan LIVING GOD

Panipat (HR) 94160-30977

Dr. K. B. Kanwal ICON OF PSYCHIATRY

Director, Health Service, Haryana (Retd.) 98133-50347

Dr. Narinder Chawla OCEAN OF EDUCATION

London, U.K.+44 7919423006

Dr. Jagdish C Bathla ESTEEMED GURU

Bathla Psy. Hospital, Karnal 94661-86888

Lokeh izse ewfrZ

(iz/kku)] ekuo lsok la?k] djuky

80535-49730

lsok o izse ds izrhd lsok Hkkoh

Dr. Ramesh Arya PRACTICAL GUIDE

Gurugram 88263-65138

Dr. M. S. Lamba A SHANTI KI MURTI

Model Town, Karnal 98963-11938

Anonymous J & K FATHER OF PSYCHIATRY

Gurugram 88263-65138

234

(E) KARNAL IMA Award “HALL OF FAME” on the annual day for year 2018-2019

Award of Hall of Fame by the State IMA President to

Dr. JC Bathla with his family member and executive on 31-03-2019

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

235

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(C) LAURELS BY H.C.M.S. ASSOCIATION

LAURELS TO DR. J.C. BATHLA

AS SECRETARY BENEVOLENT FUND H.C.M.S. ASSOCIATION

He has done a remarkable job in streamlining the Benevolent Fund scheme. Only devoted person like him could have done this uphill task single handedly. The Association owes a lot to him Editor HCMS Magazine.

(D) Appreciation by Allken Laboratories PVT. LTD.

Allken Laboratories PVT. LTD.

Dr. Jagdish Bathla MBBS, FEMHS (ICMR), Dc. P.M.F.I.S.C.D, H.C.M.S Ex. Consulting Psychiatrist

Brain&me

a Medical magazine by

Allken Laboratories PVT. LTD. Published to MED NEO Printed the photo of Dr. J.C. Bathla on the Cover page

of the of its issue 2/2020

236

(F)

MkW- ts-lh- cByk dks ljdkj us fd;k lEekfur

izfl1⁄4 euksjksx fo’ks”kK MkW-ts-lh- cByk dks ljdkj us fd;k lEekfurA djuky uxj ds izfl1⁄4 euksjksx fo’ks”kK MkW- ts-lh- cByk dks gfj;k.kk ljdkj us mRÏ”V O;fDrxr miyfC/k ds fy, y?kq lfpoky; lsDVj 12 esa iz’kfLr i=] Le`fr fpUg rFkk 50 gtkj :i;s dk Mak¶V nsdj lEekfur fd;kA lkekftd U;k; ,oa vf/kdkfjrk foHkkx gfj;k.kk }kjk vk;ksftr u’kk eqfDr ds {ks= esa dk;Z djus ds fy, jkT; Lrjh; iqjLdkj forj.k lekjksg esa paMhx<+ ls fofM;ks dkaÝsflax ds ek/;e ls lkekftd U;k; ,oa vf/kdkfjrk foHkkx ds jkT;ea=h vkse izdk’k ;kno us lEekfur fd;kA djuky esa mUgsa ftyk mik;qDr fu’kkar ;kno rFkk lekt dY;k.k vf/kdkjh lR;oku f<ykSM+ us iz’kfLr i=] Le`fr fpUg o Mak¶V iznku fd;kA

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237

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

lkStU; lekpkj i=% vej mtkyk 4&12&2020

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A FEW EXCELLENT & INSPIRING COMMENTS On Haryana Govt. Award

Very happy after reading this message.

First, thanks to almighty who blessed immense ability. Second thanks to our Jaahijee and Baujee who illiterate hote

hua bhi apko iss layak banaya.

Third dhanyad to your family jisne apki full support ki and

apnne parents ka nam roshan kiya.

Finally, congratulations to you and your family and most thankful to our parents who will be most happy to hear this message

from haven.

Gurcharan Bathla and family, Rohtak (Younger Brother)

A true reflection of Dr Vidyasagar Dr Bathla’s contribution in creating awareness about mental health in a modest and humble way, which appeals to masses, is indeed unique. Forty five years of his dedicated and relentless service for the mentally ill is too big for any award. Congratulations dear Dr Jagdish

Dear Sir, Congratulations for your achievements and the recognition. This was long due. Regards & Best Wishes.

Dr Kesho Ram Gupta (Yamunagar Wale), New Zealand

Congratulations Dear Dr. J.C. Bathla. Keep it up your dedicated service to humanity.

cgqr&cgqr c/kkbZ MkW cBykA gesa vki ij xoZ gSA

Congratulations Dr. J.C. Bathla Sir, We are proud of you.

gekjh rjQ+ ls vkidks cgqr&cgqr c/kkbZ gksA vkidk vk’khokZn lnk ge cPpksa ij cuk jgs t; fl;kjke th

238

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

Congratulations

You deserve Padam Shri

vknj.kh; MkW- lkgc th] vkids xkSjo’kkyh O;fDro vkSj cgqeq[kh izfrHkk dk lEeku lkjh fpfdRld fcjknjh dk lEeku gSA cgqr&cgqr c/kkbZA

ijw h ‘kk[kk ds fy, xoZ dh ckrA cgrq &cgrq ‘kHq kdkeuk,a Jh Mk-W cByk thA

Heartiest Congratulations to our Most Respected Dr Bathla being honoured with gallantry award for his commendable contribution towards society. We are always Proud of You “SIR”

Big congratulations to dear Sir. His life is devoted to mental health of the poor. I am seeing another Dr Vidya Sagar in my life.

Congratulations Dr. Bathla Sir, You are an icon not only in Haryana but neighbouring states as well, and you are most worthy of this award. A true reflection of Dr Vidyasagar, Dr Bathla’s contribution in creating awareness about mental health in a modest and humble way, which appeals to masses, is indeed unique. Forty five years of his dedicated and relentless service for the mentally ill is too big for any award. Congratulations dear Dr Jagdish

239

CONTRIBUTION TO HARYANA PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION

(i) After long years of hard work I ultimately succeeded in starting the Haryana Chapter of Psychiatry under the chairmanship of Late worthy eminent Psychiatrist Dr. N. N. Wig at Karna Lake auditorium, Karnal in 1992. There was only one Psychiatrist Dr.V. Mohan of Dharampur, (Himachal Pardesh). So Dr. Wig suggested to name the society as “Haryana Himachal Psychiatry Association”. He nominated Prof. & HOD Psychiatry Rohtak Dr. D.K. Puri as President & myself (Dr. J.C. Bathla) as secretary cum treasurer.

(ii) Organized one day IPS (Indian Psychiatry Society) north zone mid-term Conference on “Anxiety Disorders” at Panchayat Bhawan, Karnal on 10.07.1998. Proceedings of the Conference were printed in 98 pages book by worthy Psychiatrist of PGI Chandigarh, Dr.Ajit Awasthi.

(iii) Haryana Chapter of I A P P (Indian Association of Private Practitioner.) was created on 05.08.2018 at Hotel Country Wood, Shahbad (Ambala) under the chairmanship of Dr. Parmod Kumar of Chandigarh. Dr. J.C Bathla was elected as President.

(iv) Annual Conference of SRMH (Society for Rural Mental Health) was organized at Hotel Jewels, Karnal on 29-30 Sep, 2018 under the Chairmanship of Dr. J.C. Bathla and the topic was “Current Challenges in Psychiatry”.

(v) 1st Conference of IAPP was organized at Hotel Noor Mahal, Karnal on 11.08.2019 and the topic was “Current challenges in child Psychiatry”.

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

24305

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COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY

To serve maximum number

of

Dr. J.C. Bathla

patients with limited resources.

I was one of the nine participants (psychiatrists) who were trained in “Extension in mental health services in the community” be ICMR for a period of 6 weeks (18.7.8.81 to 29.8.81). Two weeks each at Chandigarh, Delhi and Bangalore under the stalwarts of psychiatry namely Dr. NN Wig, Dr. RS Murthy, Dr. RL Kapoor and Dr. CR Chandrashekhar and various others.

Soon after training, I started weekly satellite clinic for psychiatric patients at Primary Health Center, Samalkha, 55 Kms from Karnal on Delhi Road on 8.3.1982 and it continued till 18.12.1988, every Thursday without any break.

I never demanded any travel facility and always travelled by the roadways bus services. I used to work for 1-2 hours at Civil Hospital, Karnal in morning before going to Samalkha to serve there from 11am – 2 pm. On return, I used to go to Civil Hospital, Karnal again at around 4 pm and would provide my services for the waiting patients. Usually 2-3 patients would be waiting on an average.

At Samalkha, in addition to free consultation and medicines were provided free of cost arranged through donations. Awareness of the subject was done by educating the Medical Officers and the Para Medical Staff. Free literature on mental illness and drug abuse was distributed.

The hallmark of the sucess of this satellite project:- was Very regular visits, travelling by the roadways bus, free medicines and mental health awareness program. This Program was appreciated by NIMHANS, Bangalore and this Karnal Satellite Clinic was listed in the Bangalore Community Psychiatry News letter. (Page No. 242)

The project was highly appreciated by the local public and is still remembered by them now even after a gap of 42 years. I can still recall one patient travelled for approximately 500 Kms for consultation.

It was very refreshing and a satisfactory experience to serve the patients in this mode. I used to feel as it I am visiting a religious place Findings and results of this project were presented at National and International levels.

241

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

(i) “A novel method of Psychiatric services to the masses with minimum number of Psychiatris.” Presented at Annual National Conference of the Indian Psychiatric Society, 6th 7th January 1993, at Lucknow.

(ii) Technique to honor Geneva Declaration in mental health for rural masses in a country like India. Presented at (“Innovation in Community Psychiatry”), on 24.3.1994, at the University of York, Manchester.

Dr. Vidya Sagar presented an excellent example of community psychiatry as he used to work at least three times the ordinary sincere doctor without any break. Though the name of the community psychiatry was hardly used at that time. That’s why he used to say at times in hilarious mood that he has an experience of 150 years in the field of psychiatry.

COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY MEANS:

i. To Reach the Unreached

ii. To serve maximum number of patients with

limited number of mental health professionals

Respected Dr. Vidya Sagar Started the work on community psychiatry in the early 1950 at Amritsar when nobody on the earth dreamed of it :

i. Hospital In tents has been appreciated at international level.

ii. Workingregularlythroughoutlife3to4timesthananordinarydoctortogive

services to maximum possible mental patient.

iii. Weekly visit to various districts to examine patients and to lecture the public

to create mental health awareness.

iv. Public lectures on every alternate evening during whole working time at Rohtak.

v. He had trained himself to sleep less than 5 hours per day throughout his life.

vi. He availed of only one causal leave in the whole life for the sake of mental patents.

242

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Abstract of Paper accepted by the University of York Manchester (UK)

243

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COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NEWS

In this issue REACHING THE UNREACHED

Reports from different centres

ISSUE NOS. 6 & 7 JAN.-JUNE 1987

ICMR Centre for Advanced Research on Community Mental Health NIMHANS, Bangalore.

ICMR Training in Community Mental Health, August 10-22, 1981. Trainees with the faculty pose with Mr. A.K. Abdul Samad, Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of Karnataka.

244

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

245

Letter from Sh. J.N. Chaudhary to founder chairmans of VIMHANS to Dr. JC Bathla

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Dr. Vidya Sagar Kaushalya Devi Memorial Trust

PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSTIC HEALTH CENTER

B-9/22, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi – 110 057 | Ph. 608822

Appreciation award by VIMHANS to Bathla Psychiatric Hospital, Karnal 246

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

Dr. Pradeep Singhal Prof. Lesley Southgate And Prof. Janet Grant. All Visited this Hospital along with the faculty from VIMHANS

247

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248

Letter from Coordinator School of Mental Health VIMHANS

18

Books

Compiled by

Dr J C Bathla

to create Awareness

in

Mental Health

249

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ekufld LokLF; tkx:drk gsrq fofHkUu iqLrqdksa dk izdk’ku ,oa fu%’kqYd forj.k

1

l¡Ldj.k frfFk

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Hkk”kk

vxzasth fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh fgUnh

lkbZt

*1st Nov.

*2nd Feb.

*3rd April

*4th Feb.

*5th Sep.

*6th March

*7th Oct.

*8th Dec.

*9th July

*10th May

*10th Oct.

*11th Jan.

*12th March *13th Nov. 2020

Present Edition

(1000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (2000) (3000) (3000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (300)

13×8″ 12 13×8″ 12 13×8″ 12 13×8″ 14 13×8″ 28 13×8″ 30 13×8″ 36 13×8″ 46 13×8″ 76 13×8″ 126 13×8″ 128 13×8″ 128 13×8″ 130 9.5×7.25″ 130

10&11&2020

(MkW- fo|k lkxj dk tUefnu 10 uoEcj)

ekufld LokLF; iqfLrdk

i`”B l¡[;k

1982 1984 1985 1988 1992 1994 1995 1996 1998 2000 2001 2004 2008

(Re print)

250

23

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

ekufld jksx 32 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk vc rd 11-11-22 rd 2,25,000 izfr;ka Ni dj forj.k gks pqdh gSa

4

251

fnekxh fcekfj;ksa dh dforkvksa ds :i esa 60 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk 30-01-2018 rd 2000 izfr;ka Ni dj forj.k gks pqdh gSa

5

[kCr 24 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk vc rd

ekpZ 2011 rd 6000 izfr;ka (2 ,sfM’ku) Ni dj forj.k gks pqdh gSa

ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh 24 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk (3 laLdj.k) 8000 iqLrdsa Ni pqdh gSa

6

th dh thoudFkk

7

vU/kfo’okl ,oa euksjksx 230 i`”B dh iqfLrdk vc rd

‘kjkc 20 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk (7 laLdj.k) uoEcj 2014 rd 23000 izfr;ka Ni dj forj.k gks pqdh gSa

8

9

/kqeziku 46 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk (2 laLdj.k) flrEcj 2017

252

vQhe] MksMs 16 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk (4 laLdj.k) tqykbZ 2010 (10,000 iqLrdsa )

10

11

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

bl iqLrd esa fexhZ jksx ds ckjs esa laf{kIr fooj.k rFkk bZykt dk fooj.k Hkh fy[kk tkrk gS

12

13

253

bl pkj ist dh fooj.kk esa O;k;ke djus ds ykHk rFkk O;k;ke djus ds fu;e fn, x, gSa

fVIl Qksj LVwMsUV (4 i`”B dh y?kq iqfLrdk)

(3 laLdj.k) 1-02-2019

14

th dh thoudFkk

Øks/k 72 i`”B dh iqfLrdk nwljk laLdj.k 15&05&2018

15

fgEer 80 i`”B dh iqfLrdk

254

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

16

;g iqLrd iatkch esa MkW- ‘;ke lqUnj nhIrh (izksQslj emeritus community medicine, Amritsar Medical College, Amritsar) }kjk fy[kh xbZ FkhA ftldk fgUnh esa vuqokn vkSj izdk’ku MkW- ts-lh- cByk }kjk djok;k x;k vkSj bldk forj.k Hkh fu%’kqYd gS

17

112 i`”B dh iqfLrdk dk igyk laLdj.k

255

(ekuuh; fMIVh deh’kuj Ï”.k eksgu }kjk 13-04-1986 foekspu fd;k x;k iz/kku MkW- ts-lh- cByk)

/kqiziku

/kqeziku iqfLrdk dk foekspu fMIVh deh’kuj Jh nfoUæ flag }kjk

30-05-2002

Dr. Vidya Sagar & Dr. JC Bathla

Jh eqds’k vgqtk foHkUu iqLrdksa dk foekspu

vkbZ-,-,l- vfrfjDr fMIVh deh’kuj] djuky }kjk ekufld LokLF; iqfLrdk ekufld

LokLF;

dk foekspu fu;ekoyh

WHO fnol ij 1986&1987

vkbZ-,e-,- djuky }kjk

izdkf’kr Lekfjdk

Øks/k iqfLrdk dk foekspu djuky dh es;j Jherh jsuw ckyk }kjk vkbZ-,e-,-] djuky dh ekfld ehfVax esa fd;k x;k

30&09&2018 dks tosYl gksVy djuky esa ,l-vkj-,e-,p- dh okf”kZd lEesyu esa fnYyh ds ofj”B ekufld fpfdRld MkW- vkj-lh- ftyksgk }kjk

fgEer iqfLrdk dk foekspu fd;k x;kA

256

la[;k

iqLrd dk uke

i`”B l¡[;k iqLrd dk uke i`”B

BATHLA PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL, KARNAL

Kunjpura Road, Near Hospital Chowk, KARNAL

On First Road, After Hospital Chowk to connect Kunjpura Road with Mughal Canal Market

Dr. J.C. BATHLA (Psychiatrist)

lEidZ lw=%

0184-4021508 94661-86999

M.B.B.S. FMHS (ICMR), FISCD Ex HCMS-1

Ex. Registrar Dr. Vidyasagar Psychiatric Wing Med. College, ROHTAK (10/75 to 12/78)

Ex. Psychiatrist Civil Hospital, KARNAL (12/78 to 5/91)

200 10- nkSjs&fexhZ 16 32 11- v/;;u fcUnq foojf.kdk 4 60 12- O;k;ke foojf.kdk 4

13- ijh{kk Hk; foojf.kdk 4 14- Øks/k 72 15- fgEer 80 16- ukStoku ,oa lsDl leL;k,a 134 17- u’kk (,d f’k{kkizn iqLrd) 112 18- MkW- fo|klkxj (thoudFkk) 256

Guide map of Bathla Psychiatric Hospital, Karnal

1- ekufld LokLF; iqfLrdk

2- ekufld jksx

3- fnekxh fcekfj;k¡ (dforkvksa ds :i esa)

4- [k+Cr 24

5- ekufld LokLF; fu;ekoyh 24

6- euksjksx ,oa vU/kfo’okl 230

7- ‘kjkc 20

8- /kqeziku 36

9- MksMs] HkqDdh] vQ+he] lqYQ+k] Vhds vkfn 16

VIDYASAGAR INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH, NEURO AND ALLIED SCIENCES

No.1, Institutional Area, Nehru Nagar, South Delhi, Just Off The Ring Road, Midway Between Lajpat Nagar & Aashram Chowk, Behind P.G. D.A.V. College, New Delhi-110005 (INDIA)

Vice Chairman

Dr. S.N. CHAUDHARY

(M): 9818797291

AIIMS

22.4 Km. App.

Lajpat Nagar

Nehru Nagar

Aashram

I TO

RAJ GHAT

3.7 Km. App.

18.7 Km. Appr.

ISBT

Ph.29802980

E-mail: vimhans@vimhans.com

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