Exit Strategy for COVID-19 Lockdown

Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

On 24th March 2020, Government of India implemented a nationwide lockdown for 21 days in response to COVID-19 pandemic. Government of India is planning for a staggered approach to exit the lockdown across the country in order to restore normalcy while ensuring safety of the citizens of the country.

This document details an exit strategy considering the varying circumstances across the States. The first section details an objective mechanism to classify States based on the existing parameters and future vulnerabilities. It presents a mechanism to classify states into 4-stages. The second section draws up an exit plan for each of the four categories. Further, Appendix-1 presents sector wise strategies to tackle COVID-19 challenges and Appendix-2 illustrates the testing strategy suggested by ICMR on 4th April 2020.

4-STAGE CATEGORISATION OF STATES

a) Any State that corresponds to the criteria set based on the following parameters will be accordingly classified.

. i)  Three parameters are used: number of active cases in the past 7 days, spread of active cases, and density of cases.

. ii)  The categorisation of a State will correspond to the highest Stage obtained in one or more parameters.

. iii)  Spread of active cases =Number of districts having active cases*100 Total number of districts
States having 10 or more districts will be classified as ‘Large states’
and others will be ‘Small states’ .

. iv)  Density of active cases = Number of active cases per million population

. v)  If the State does not satisfy any of the below criteria and all the past
active cases have been resolved before a period of 21 days, it will indicate a scenario of ‘zero’ cases where the State being classified as Stage 0. Else any such state will be categorised as Stage I.

Criteria

Stage IV

Stage III

Stage II

Stage I

No. of active cases in the past 7 days

Greater than or equal to 50

Greater than or equal to 20 but less than 50

Less than 20 cases with new cases in the past 7 days

Less than 5 active cases with no new case in 7 days

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

Spread of active cases (%) – Large States

Greater than 40%

Greater than 30%

Up to 30% (more than 1 districts)

1 district

Spread of active cases (%) – Small States

Greater than 75% and affected major urban center

Greater than 50% and/or affected major urban center

2 or more districts, except district having major urban center

1 district, except district having major urban center

Density of active cases

2 or more

1 to 2

0.01 to 1

0.01 or less

. b)  Health infrastructure responsiveness criteria – Any State that falls under the Category of Aspirants/Achievers in NITI Aayog’s latest Health Index report will be reclassified to a higher stage than obtained as per Criteria (a). For an example, if an Aspirant/Achievers state corresponds to Stage III as per Criteria (a), it will automatically be reclassified into Stage IV. Exceptions for this include when a State is categorised as Stage IV or Stage 0 as per Criteria (a).

. c)  Urban clustering criteria- If any State has greater than 50% of its active cases in cities with greater than 5 million population, the State’s category will be reclassified to a higher category than obtained as per Criteria (a). Exceptions for this include when a State is categorised as Stage IV or Stage 0 as per Criteria (a).

. d)  International access criteria – If any State has direct air connectivity to COVID-19 affected countries as per the list provided by Government of India, the State’s category will be reclassified to a higher category than obtained as per Criteria (a). Exceptions for this include when a State is categorised as Stage IV as per Criteria (a). Even a Stage 0 State will be reclassified as Stage I according to this criteria.

EXIT PLAN

The following section details the exit plan for each category of states as per the above evaluation. The response plan is based on the following basic conditions:

a) All persons who have arrived into India after 15.02.2020, and all such persons who have been directed by health care personnel to remain under strict home/ institutional quarantine for a period as decided by local Health Authorities, failing which they will be liable to legal action under Sec. 188 of the IPC

b) Wherever exceptions to above containment measures have been allowed, the organisations/employers must ensure necessary precautions against

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

COVID-19 virus, as well as social distance measures, as advised by the

Health Department from time to time.
c) Inordertoimplementthesecontainmentmeasures,theDistrictMagistratewill

deploy Executive Magistrates as Incident Commanders in the respective local jurisdictions. The Incident Commander will be responsible for the overall implementation of these measures in their respective jurisdictions. All other line department officials in the specified area will work under the directions of such Incident Commander. The Incident Commander will issue passes for enabling essential movements as explained.

. d)  All enforcing authorities to note that these strict restrictions fundamentally relate to movement of people, but not to that of essential goods.

. e)  The Incident Commanders will in particular ensure that all efforts for mobilisation of resources, workers and material for augmentation and expansion of hospital infrastructure shall continue without any hindrance.

. f)  Any person violating these containment measures will be liable to be proceeded against as per the provisions of Section 51 to 60 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, besides legal action under Sec. 188 of the IPC.

STAGE IV States – Extreme Vulnerability

PLAN:

–  All essential services allowed on or before April 14, 2020 will continue to be allowed and the necessary permits for continuing such activities MUST be obtained.

–  Elderly population (above 65 years) must continue to remain at home and all essential services must be provided at home including delivery of groceries, medicines, health checkup, etc. Exceptions for medical professionals and those involved in scientific/pharmaceutical research, provided work from home is not feasible.

–  All inter-state passenger travel must be closed (including railways, roadways, airways, waterways, etc.).

–  Districts with positive COVID-19 cases (active or not) must be isolated and any inter-district movement with such districts shall be prohibited. In the rest of the state, inter-district movement can be allowed (including roadways, railways, airways, waterways). Passenger boarding/alighting must not be allowed in affected districts.

–  Unreserved tickets in railways shall not be allowed and reservation for bus/rail travel under reserved ticketing shall be done up to two-third capacity.

–  Industries, factories, mines can be opened (in unaffected districts), provided labour and employees of such establishments are available locally and no

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

inter-district movement of labour is required to facilitate the functioning of

such establishments.

–  Logistics movement shall be expanded to include non-essential goods
movement between states and such districts where no history of positive
COVID-19 cases have been found.

–  All logistics transport (both essential and non-essential goods transport) shall
avoid passing though affected districts when alternate routes are available, unless the destination for essential goods is the affected district. Further, only designated restaurants in highways (such as dhabas) will be operational in unaffected districts. Highway Patrol must ensure the effective implementation of the rule.

–  To facilitate agricultural harvests – transport of labourers from unaffected districts should be facilitated by the State.

–  In all transportation centres (such as bus stops, railway stations, airports, etc.) social distancing rules must be strictly followed. Crowd control and management techniques including staggered timings of transport services must be adopted.

–  Urban transit services (in affected districts) such as bus, metro rail, share autos shall continue to remain closed. In unaffected districts, public transit services can be permitted under lower capacity and following social distancing norms.

–  International airports can be opened for arrival and departure. All incoming passengers must be quarantined for at least 7 days. If any such passenger displays any COVID-19 symptoms during the quarantine period, they must be quarantined for another 14 days during which adequate testing is done.

–  All essential services including banks, government offices, PDS shops, APMC markets shall continue with minimal number of employees as provided in the notification for lockdown.

–  Places of worship will continue to remain closed and all forms of religious congregation will continue to be prohibited.

–  All commercial and private establishments shall continue to remain closed except for exceptions given under the lockdown notification.

–  All educational, training, research, coaching institutions etc. shall remain closed throughout the state except for the purpose of conducting important examinations (in both affected and unaffected districts).

–  All social/ political/ sports/ entertainment/ academic/ cultural/ religious functions / gatherings shall be barred throughout the state.

–  In case of funerals, congregations of not more than twenty persons will be permitted.

–  All public places and places of entertainment within the State including shopping centers, malls, cinema theatres, parks, beaches, lakes, tourist places, archaeological sites, shall continue to remain closed (irrespective of the district in which they are located)

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

–  Restaurants shall remain closed for dine-in services throughout the State and shall be open for delivery services (can be closed in affected districts). Employees for such establishments should be available locally and any form of inter-district travel to such restaurants is strictly prohibited.

–  Hospitality services such as hotels, homestays, lodges and motels shall be closed in affected districts and can be open in other districts provided all their employees are available locally.

–  Construction activity can be allowed in unaffected districts provided labour is available locally. No construction activity shall be permitted in affected districts.
STAGE III States – High Vulnerability
PLAN:

–  All essential services allowed on or before April 14, 2020 will continue to be allowed and the necessary permits for continuing such activities MUST be obtained.

–  Elderly population must continue to remain at home and all essential services must be provided at home including delivery of groceries, medicines, health checkup, etc. Exceptions for medical professionals and those involved in scientific/pharmaceutical research, provided work from home is not feasible.

–  All inter-state passenger travel will be prohibited via railways, roadways, waterways.

–  Domestic airline services can be operational between Stage-III and lower category states. On-board catering services shall not be permitted in domestic airlines, when either the origin or destination is a Stage-III state.

–  Districts with positive COVID-19 cases (active or not) must be isolated and any inter-district movement with such districts shall be prohibited. In the rest of the state, inter-district movement can be allowed (including roadways, railways, airways, waterways). Passenger boarding/alighting must not be allowed in affected districts.

–  Unreserved tickets in railways shall not be allowed and reservation for bus/rail travel under reserved ticketing shall be done up to two-third capacity..

–  Logistics movement shall be expanded to include non-essential goods movement between states and such districts where no history of positive COVID-19 cases have been found.

–  All logistics transport (both essential and non-essential goods transport) shall avoid passing though affected districts when alternate routes are

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

available, unless the destination for essential goods is the affected district. Further, only designated restaurants in highways (such as dhabas) will be operational in unaffected districts. Highway Patrol must ensure the effective implementation of the rule.

–  In all transportation centres (such as bus stops, railway stations, airports, etc.) social distancing rules must be strictly followed. Crowd control and management techniques including staggered timings of transport services must be adopted.

–  Urban transit services (in affected districts) such as bus, metro rail, share autos shall continue to remain closed. In unaffected districts, public transit services can be permitted under lower capacity and following social distancing norms.

–  International airports can be opened for arrival and departure. All incoming passengers must be quarantined for at least 7 days. If any such passenger displays any COVID-19 symptoms during the quarantine period, they must be quarantined for another 14 days during which adequate testing is done.

–  Industries, factories, mines can be opened (in unaffected districts), provided labour and employees of such establishments are available locally and no inter-district movement of labour is required to facilitate the functioning of such establishments

–  All essential services including banks, government offices, PDS shops, APMC markets shall continue with minimal number of employees as provided in the notification for lockdown.

–  To facilitate agricultural harvest – transport of labourers from unaffected districts to the necessary destinations should be facilitated by the State.

–  Places of worship will continue to remain closed and all forms of religious congregation will continue to be prohibited.

–  All commercial and private establishments shall continue to remain closed in affected districts except for exceptions given under the lockdown notification. In unaffected districts, phase-wise opening of private establishments can be allowed provided employees are available locally and only a minimum number of employees are employed.

–  All educational, training, research, coaching institutions etc. shall remain closed throughout the state except for the purpose of conducting important examinations (in both affected and unaffected districts).

–  All social/ political/ sports/ entertainment/ academic/ cultural/ religious functions / gatherings shall be barred throughout the state.

–  In case of funerals, congregations of not more than twenty persons will be permitted.

–  All public places and places of entertainment within the State including shopping centers, malls, cinema theatres, parks, beaches, lakes, tourist places, archaeological sites, shall continue to remain closed (irrespective of the district in which they are located)

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

–  Restaurants shall remain closed for dine-in services throughout the State and shall be open for delivery services (can be closed in affected districts as per State’s discretion). Employees for such establishments should be available locally and any form of inter-district travel to such restaurants is strictly prohibited.

–  Hospitality services such as hotels, homestays, lodges and motels shall be closed in affected districts and can be open in other districts provided all their employees are available locally.

–  Construction activity can be allowed in unaffected districts provided labour is available locally. No construction activity shall be permitted in affected districts.
STAGE II States – Moderate Vulnerability
PLAN:

–  All essential services allowed on or before April 14, 2020 will continue to be allowed and the necessary permits for continuing such activities MUST be obtained.

–  Elderly population must stay at home and all essential services must be provided at home including delivery of groceries, medicines, health checkup, etc. Exceptions for medical professionals and those involved in scientific/ pharmaceutical research, provided work from home is not feasible.

–  Inter-state passenger travel can be permitted via railways, roadways, waterways provided that either the transit route or the destination does not involve a Stage-IV or Stage-III state.

–  Domestic airline services can be operational between Stage-III and lower category states. On-board catering services shall not be permitted in domestic airlines, when either the origin or destination is a Stage-III state.

–  Districts with active positive COVID-19 cases must be isolated and any inter- district movement with such districts shall be prohibited.

–  Those districts which had a history of positive COVID-19 cases and have not reported any new cases for the past 28 days, can be permitted for inter- district movement along with the rest of the state. Inter-district movement can be allowed via roadways, railways, airways and waterways. Passenger boarding/alighting must not be allowed in those districts with active COVID-19 cases.

–  Unreserved tickets in railways shall be permitted. However, railways must take steps to prevent overcrowding in unreserved coaches. Further, reservation for bus/rail travel under reserved ticketing shall be done up to three-fourth capacity.

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

–  Industries, factories, mines can be opened (in unaffected districts), provided labour and employees of such establishments are available within the State and no inter-State movement of labour is required to facilitate the functioning of such establishments.

–  Logistics movement shall be expanded to include non-essential goods movement between states and such districts where no history of positive COVID-19 cases have been found.

–  All logistics transport (both essential and non-essential goods transport) shall avoid passing though affected districts when alternate routes are available, unless the destination for essential goods is the affected district. Further, restaurants in highways (such as dhabas) will be operational only in unaffected districts. Highway Patrol must ensure the effective implementation of the rule.

–  All essential services including banks, government offices, PDS shops, APMC markets shall continue to function with adequate number of employees as desired by the management provided employees are from unaffected districts.

–  To facilitate agricultural harvest – transport of labourers from unaffected districts to the necessary destinations should be facilitated by the State.

–  Places of worship will continue to remain closed and all forms of religious congregation will continue to be prohibited.

–  All commercial and private establishments shall continue to remain closed in affected districts except for exceptions given under the lockdown notification. In unaffected districts, all commercial and private establishments can be open provided adequate safety measures are adopted including prevention of mass congregation of employees.

–  All educational, training, research, coaching institutions etc. shall remain closed throughout the state except for the purpose of conducting important examinations (in both affected and unaffected districts).

–  All social/ political/ sports/ entertainment/ academic/ cultural/ religious functions / gatherings shall be barred throughout the state.

–  In case of funerals, congregations of not more than twenty persons will be permitted.

–  All public places within the State including parks, beaches, lakes, tourist places, archaeological sites, shall continue to remain closed (irrespective of the district in which they are located).

–  Places of shopping and entertainment such as malls, shopping plazas, street shopping centres, cinema theatres can be operational in unaffected districts.

–  Restaurants can be open for dine-in services in unaffected districts and shall be open for delivery services (can be closed in affected districts as per State’s discretion). Employees for such establishments should be available

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

locally and any form of inter-state travel to such restaurants is strictly

prohibited.

–  In all transportation centres (such as bus stops, railway stations, airports, etc.)
social distancing rules must be strictly followed. Crowd control and management techniques including staggered timings of transport services must be adopted.

–  Urban transit services (in affected districts) such as bus, metro rail, share autos shall continue to remain closed. In unaffected districts, public transit services can be permitted under lower capacity and following social distancing norms.

–  Hospitality services such as hotels, homestays, lodges and motels shall be closed in affected districts and can be open in other districts.

–  International airports can be opened for arrival and departure. All incoming passengers must be quarantined for at least 7 days. If any such passenger displays any COVID-19 symptoms during the quarantine period, they must be quarantined for another 14 days during which adequate testing is done.

–  Construction activity can be allowed in unaffected districts and in those districts with no active/new cases for the past 10 days, provided labour is available locally. No construction activity shall be permitted in affected districts.
STAGE I STATES – Low Vulnerability
PLAN:

–  All essential services allowed on or before April 14, 2020 will continue to be allowed. No permission required to operate such essential services.

–  Elderly population must stay at home and all essential services must be provided at home including delivery of groceries, medicines, health checkup, etc. Exceptions for medical professionals and those involved in scientific/ pharmaceutical research, provided work from home is not feasible.

–  Inter-state passenger travel can be permitted via railways, roadways, waterways provided that either the transit route or the destination does not involve a Stage-IV or Stage-III state.

–  Domestic airline services can be operational between Stage-III and lower category states. On-board catering services shall not be permitted in domestic airlines, when either the origin or destination is a Stage-III state.

–  Those districts which had a history of positive COVID-19 cases and have not reported any new cases for the past 28 days, can be permitted for inter- district movement along with the rest of the state. Inter-district movement can be allowed via roadways, railways, airways and waterways. Passenger

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

boarding/alighting must not be allowed in those districts which report

any active COVID-19 cases.

–  Unreserved tickets in railways shall be permitted. However, railways must
take steps to prevent overcrowding in unreserved coaches. Further, reservation for bus/rail travel under reserved ticketing shall be done up to full capacity.

–  Industries, factories, mines can be opened (in unaffected districts), provided labour and employees of such establishments are available within the State and no inter-State movement of labour is required to facilitate the functioning of such establishments.

–  Logistics movement shall be expanded to include non-essential goods movement between states and such districts where no history of positive COVID-19 cases have been found.

–  All essential services including banks, government offices, PDS shops, APMC markets shall continue to function with adequate number of employees as desired by the management provided employees are from unaffected districts.

–  To facilitate agricultural harvest – transport of labourers from unaffected districts to the necessary destinations should be facilitated by the State.

–  Places of worship can be opened provided mass congregation is avoided.

–  All commercial and private establishments can be open provided adequate safety measures are adopted including prevention of mass congregation of
employees.

–  All educational, training, research, coaching institutions etc. can be open
provided adequate safety measures including prevention of more than 50 persons within rooms are avoided. Further, staggered inflow and outflow within campuses must be ensured to prevent mass contact.

–  All social/ political/ sports/ entertainment/ academic/ cultural/ religious functions / gatherings of more than 50 persons shall be barred throughout the state.

–  In case of funerals, congregations of not more than fifty persons will be permitted.

–  All public places within the State including parks, beaches, lakes, tourist places, archaeological sites, can be open for public use provided mass congregation is avoided.

–  Places of shopping and entertainment such as malls, shopping plazas, street shopping centres, cinema theatres can be operational.

–  Restaurants can be open for both dine-in services and through online delivery platforms. Employees for such establishments should be available within the State and any form of inter-state travel to such restaurants is strictly prohibited.

–  In all transportation centres (such as bus stops, railway stations, airports, etc.) social distancing rules must be strictly followed. Crowd control and

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

management techniques including staggered timings of transport

services must be adopted.

–  Urban transit services such as bus, metro rail, share autos shall be made
operational. All transit service providers must regularly sanitise the vehicles
and adopt social distancing norms.

–  Hospitality services such as hotels, homestays, lodges and motels can be
made operational.

–  International airports can be opened for arrival and departure. All incoming passengers must be quarantined for at least 7 days. If any such passenger displays any COVID-19 symptoms during the quarantine period, they must be quarantined for another 14 days during which adequate testing is done.

–  Construction activities are permitted provided labour is available within the State.

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

APPENDIX 1: SECTOR WISE SPECIFIC STRATEGIES (BROAD GUIDELINES)

1. AIRPORTS

–  There should be no movement of any passenger to high risk cities/districts as mentioned in the exit plan.

–  In non-high risk category cities, the following precautions should be taken:
FOR AIRLINE GROUND STAFF:

–  Thermal scanning at the time of check in.

–  A webinar to be conducted by the airlines for the staff (before sending the
staff for duty), about the adequate precautions to be maintained while working. As the nature of duties of the ground staff is known, they can be briefed about the sector specific precautions.

–  Adequate number of masks, gloves be made available to the staff who handle the luggage that comes from the outside

–  Transportation vehicles like tractors, pulley, aircraft tugs should be sanitised daily with 1% hypochlorite solution. Their working will be restricted to the sanitised area of the airport where unscreened passenger entry is not allowed.

–  The staff should wear masks all the time while working.

–  Catering staff should also adhere to these guidelines and the food should
come in sealed containers; however, catering should be advised against until the situation has normalised.
FOR AIRLINE CREW MEMBERS & CAPTAIN

–  Similar webinar like that of the airline ground staff should be conducted

–  At the time of check in of the captain and crew members, thermal scanning
should be done

–  Masks should be used at all times

–  A mechanism of reporting should be created if any crew member or captain
develops symptoms after a flight has taken off.
FOR CISF PERSONNEL

–  The personnel manning the security should be trained in thermal scanning.

–  They should be entrusted with segregation of the people who come to the
airport, based on body temperatures.

–  They should also be given adequate training by MHA, MoCA on virus
preventive measures

–  They should use the masks at all times.

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

FOR PASSENGERS

–  Separate boarding, security check, entry areas should be there for the elderly, children and pregnant women.

–  Regular announcements in local language, Hindi and English on precautions to be taken.

–  Passengers should be advised to wear masks and maintain social distancing while in queues

–  Printing of boarding passes should be stopped at the counters, passengers should be advised to have e-check in and display e-boarding passes.

–  Incentives should be given by the airlines to those passengers who have:

–  E-boarding passes

–  No checked in luggage

–  These incentives can be in the form of future discounts in air travel, flying
points, priority check-in to ensure less queuing happens at the check-in
counters.

–  The entry of passengers to airports should not be allowed 3 hours prior to
flight departure.

–  Trolleys should not be allowed beyond a point, as transmission of virus by
fomites can happen. These trolleys should be disinfected before reuse.

–  Compulsory packing of suitcases have to be mandated by airlines and the price should be included in tickets.This packaging can be done at the entry point by airline staff by luggage wrapping machines and the number of points for such packaging should be enhanced. This will ensure the virus on the luggage does not come in contact with any other surface or airline staff. The luggage then should be directly sent for check in and no contact with
passengers should happen at any point of time.

–  Any violation of social distancing in airports should be fined/warned. The
method of providing circles for such movements can be adopted.

–  If international travel by airport is postponed, then international terminals can
also be used to stagger the domestic traffic.
AT AIRPORTS

–  Regular sanitation of the premises to be done by the staff members

–  The points of frequent contacts to be identified and regular cleaning by
disinfectants to be done.

–  Provision of temporary hand washing to be placed after the entry into the
airports so that anyone who enters the airport compulsorily washes their hands. This should be done without exception for passengers, staff, CISF Personnel. These washing points can be installed before the security check counters also.

–  Passengers must be re-sanitized after security check at the point where boarding pass is stamped to ensure less possibility of virus(if any) to enter into the airport. For e-boarding passes, a mechanism of QR Code scanning can be adopted by CISF instead of stamping the boarding pass.

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

–  Separate detentions for further examinations of passengers who are suspected to be carriers of virus and who show symptoms.

–  Food courts, lounges, shops should ensure adequate social distancing and other aseptic precautions.

–  While final boarding happens, the passengers can be given hand sanitisers by the airline staff.

–  After completion of every trip, the aircraft(specially the cabin luggage space and seats) to be sanitised.
2. RAILWAY STATIONS

– Passenger Trains should not stop in category 3,4 states.

IN STAGE 1, 2 STATES:

–  Thermal scanning at every railway station should be done

–  Multiple entry points to stagger the crowd can be created.

–  High prices of platform tickets should be sustained and repeated checking of
defaulters should be done.

–  Social distancing at ticket counters.

–  Temporary wash basins should be provided at platforms.

–  As an initial measure, middle berth bookings should not be allowed in trains
to allow for more space for social distancing, this should be done for trains
destined to or originating from Stage 3 states or high risk districts.

–  A course on identification of COVID-19 patients be given to TTE. Non- invasive infrared thermometers be given to TTEs to detect any patient on
trains which are moving.

–  Initially the Unreserved segment of trains will be avoided to prevent
overcrowding in trains and reserved segments of trains be run.

–  During Pit line examination, complete cleaning and sanitisation of trains to be
done.

–  TTE and other staff should be given masks.

–  While booking the tickets from PRS, fresh masks can be provided as per the
number of passengers on PNR, masks can be of any type, price of masks can be added to the tickets. For e-tickets, the masks can be provided by coach attendants when the passenger boards on showing the ticket to TTE. The tickets should have a QR code which can be scanned at the entry gate where security check of luggage is being performed and/or the other option of masks can be given by the TTE.

–  https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/03/not-wearing-masks-protect- against-coronavirus-big-mistake-top-chinese-scientist-says and various other researches have shown wearing masks prevent droplets.

–  Parcel handling staff should be given gloves and masks.

–  The cardboard packing should be recommended as the virus stays the least
on cardboard surfaces. Packers and movers usually use cardboard packing,
however other options can also be explored.

–  For passengers, pouches of alcohol based sanitisers can be given and
adequate presence of soap with good lather can be placed in toilets.

 

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

–  During the journey, 1% hypochlorite solution can be used to clean the regularly touched surfaces like the door knobs.

–  Gates of trains need to be strictly closed and regular monitoring by RPF staff needs to be done. No unwanted passenger should be allowed to board and this needs to be strictly and vigilantly maintained when a train passes or stops at stations for operational reasons in category 3, 4 states.

–  Spitting in station premises should be fined and violators should be booked under relevant provisions of law.
3. ROADWAYS
BUSES

–  There should be no restriction of bus movements in Stage 1 states (within city and intercity) except if there have been new cases.

–  Bus once back to the depot should be properly sanitised.

–  Protective gear to be given to the bus conductor and driver.

–  As far as possible tickets to be issued by digital payment

–  If possible routes in cities should be streamlined and routes should be
created such that major areas(railway station, inter state bus depot, airport, offices, shopping areas, residential colonies-major ones) get covered. In these new routes the existing buses should be put so as to increase the frequency of buses so that there is no overcrowding in buses.
METRO RAIL

–  Metros also need to increase their operational frequency to reduce rush.

–  Security check counters should be increased

–  Frequent announcements on COVID-19 precautions in local language and
English

–  Any violator of social distancing norm must be strictly punished

–  Sanitisation of all passengers prior to security check

–  All employees must be duly briefed on COVID-19 precautions
INTER-STATE TRANSPORT

–  Transport of essential items, trucks carrying these items and other pass holder vehicles through National Highways only as far as possible (for Stage 4 and 3 states). For Stages 1 and 2, other vehicles also to be allowed on National Highways only.

–  Designated stoppage points with health and safety precautions on National Highways

–  Toll collection must continue to be discontinued until normalcy is restored. In case of toll collection, congestion on the tolls to be avoided through temporary excess RFID lanes. Sanitisation of toll booths and toll workers.

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Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

–  SMS alert to registered all India permit holder trucks and vehicles about the routes and stoppage points.

–  Designated entry and exit points for a district on the national highways.
INTRA-STATE TRANSPORT

–  For Stage 4 and Stage 3 states, transport of only essential goods and services to be permitted as far as possible in affected districts.

–  District borders locked down in case of high incident rates and high vulnerability.

–  State transport to be opened gradually with 50% of the tickets of the carrying capacity sold to prevent crowding in Stage 3 and 4 states.

–  Private mass transport should be kept on hold for these states as the sale of tickets cannot be controlled.

–  Private mass transport in Stage 1 and Stage 2 states should be given guidelines for stoppage points, sanitisation, managing crowds, etc.

–  Incentivising good practitioners of the private sector with future exemptions from toll for a stipulated time or exemption from one time license fee, etc.
4. COURIER AGENCIES

–  Private courier agencies in Stage 3 and Stage 4 states to be allowed only for essential goods. Even then, the contact of courier services with high impact districts to be avoided.

–  In Stage 1 and 2 states, 100% contactless courier services to be encouraged. Online training modules of the HR heads of major courier services can be organised. (Clue to be taken from the food delivery segment)
5. COURTS AND JUDICIARY
IN STAGE 4 AND STAGE 3 STATES

–  To be opened only for matters of constitutional importance (For High Courts) and for highly sensitive, time bound cases.

–  Dates of other ongoing cases to be delayed, given in a staggered manner, so as to reduce the number of hearings on a particular day.

–  Use of Online systems and e-courts, to complete procedural matters and hearings such as adjournments, etc.

–  Work from Home for non-essential, administrative court staff with the use of e-courts.

–  No new cases of civil nature to be accepted at the lower judiciary levels for immediate hearings, unless the matter is of utmost importance.

–  For the criminal justice system and regular visits of the police authorities for custody, etc, use of online medium as long as possible.

16

Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

– Offices of notaries, stamp vendors, etc. in the court premises to remain close and emergency notary, stamp, services to be made available either at the post office or at a few designated vending places to avoid congestion.

IN STAGE 1 AND 2 STATES

–  Courts must function normally, but a revision of the time table should be undertaken to mark and eliminate dates with extra congestion. More hearings and plans should be made to reduce the load on those days.

–  Courts to start online work and use of e-courts for non-essential, procedural matters to reduce the load on the infrastructure in future.

–  Routine hearings for adjournments to be avoided and should be either done online or the lawyers should be conveyed beforehand about the non- availability of any adjournment, except in emergency situations.

–  Offices of notaries, stamp vendors, etc. to be outside the court premises and sufficient distance after it. Timings of these offices can be increased to avoid rush in a small time.
6. AGRICULTURE
FOR MAJOR MARKET AND AGGREGATION PLACES

–  To be avoided (unless they are major APMC markets) in Stage 3 and Stage 4 states. Will be opened in Stage 1 states and can be opened with segregation in Stage 2 states.

–  Sanitisation of the marketplace, equipment and the people involved to be the responsibility of the market committee.

–  Segregation of the marketplace can happen based on products or based on the geography. Eg. District wise breakdown of a common marketplace. (For Stage 2 states)

–  Use of e-NAM and APGRAMS to avoid community gathering in market places. Online Introduction and induction sessions to be conducted at the gram Panchayat/taluka level by the district authority.
FOR VENDORS

–  Complete ban on door to door sale of vegetables and milk, etc. in Stage 3 and 4 states by private vendors.

–  Vegetable market should be open for multiple days in a week to avoid rush on a single day. Ideal practices of safe distancing, Marking boxes on the roads(as seen in Kerala) to be followed by the Nagar Panchayats and Gram Panchayats.

–  For villages without a regular market, the state transport services can be temporarily used to transport vegetables and fruits. Routes can be charted on an Intra-tehsil basis, using existing infrastructure. This will avoid the convergence of people from various villages at a common place.

17

Desai Neha Diwakar, IRTS; Dr.Sagar Chahar, IRTS; S. Rishi Raghav, IRTS

APPENDIX -2 ICMR TESTING STRATEGY

On 4th April 2020, Indian Council of Medical Research(ICMR) suggested the use of Rapid Antibody based Blood Test in order to test for COVID-19 symptoms. The process of testing is illustrated below. Anybody displaying Symptomatic ILI within the perimeter must be tested on a war footing.

Link to advisory : https://icmr.nic.in/sites/default/files/upload_documents/ Advisory_Antibody_Testing_04042020.pdf

 

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