Daily Archives: 14/04/2017

Dopamine system 

Dopamine (DA, contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, which is synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine is also synthesized […]

Cholecystokinin

Effects of cholecystokinin on the gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin is secreted by I-cells in the small intestine and induces contraction of the gall bladder, relaxes the sphincter of Oddi, reduces of gastric acid secretion, increases bile acid production in the liver, delays gastric emptying, and induces digestive enzyme production in the pancreas. Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; […]

Prostaglandin

Group of physiologically active lipid compounds E1 – Alprostadil I2 – Prostacyclin The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from fatty acids. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, […]

How does the opioid system control pain, reward and addictive behavior?

EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY      The opioid system controls pain, reward and addictive behaviors. Opioids exert their pharmacological actions through three opioid receptors, mu, delta and kappa whose genes have been cloned (Oprm, Oprd1 and Oprk1, respectively). Opioid receptors in the brain are activated by a family of endogenous peptides like enkephalins, dynorphins and […]

Endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, consisting of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors. Known as “the body’s own cannabinoid system”,[1] the ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and […]