Lessons from the deaths of doctors and nurses from Covid-19 worldwide. An analysis, and a tribute.

Dr Rajeev Jayadevan 29.4.20

Note: This document is not meant for the general public. It is created exclusively for healthcare workers and policy makers, to make the healthcare system a safer place for themselves, for patients and for the community. While adopting strategies to reduce COVID-related deaths among healthcare workers, it must be noted that there are no randomised controlled trials, published papers are few, and the information available in public domain is frequently incomplete.

As a tribute to the fallen, I have included photographs and available detail of healthcare workers who gave up their life fighting this virus till today. Although not classifiable as Level 1 evidence, some of their stories provide a clue about how others can stay safe during the pandemic, and afterwards. The first few pages contain the summary of this 173-page document. The 137 references listed in the end, along with links and commentary expand the scope of this article by providing a global perspective.

Contents, with page numbers

1. Why is the topic important? (2)

2. Summary: 35 lessons learned from deaths of
healthcare workers (4-10)

3. Doctors deaths, by specialty (11)

4. WHO publication: pandemic prevention for health
workers (13)

5. The 10 checks to maximise individual survival:
ultrashort summary (14)

6. Covid-19 incidence and death risk in various age
groups (15-17)

7. Lessons from Italy about PPE use (18)

8. Checklist for a Covid-proof hospital (19)

9. Comparison between flu vs. Covid-19

10. Doctordeaths,Italy(21)

11. ViolentdeathsinCovid-19(27)

12. Doctordeaths,Brazil(28)

13. Covid-19 in Vietnam (30)

14. Doctordeaths,Serbia(32)

15. Doctordeaths,UK(33)

16. Nurse and other HCW deaths, UK (43)

17. Message from Royal College of Nursing (67)

18. MessagefromUK’schiefnurseRuthMay(68)

19. SurveyaboutPPEbyRoyalCollegeofNursing(69)

23. Doctordeaths,Turkey(77)

24. DoctordeathsIran(79)

25. DoctordeathsPakistan(87)

26. DoctordeathsEgypt(89)

27. DoctordeathsSpain(91)

28. DoctordeathsAfghanistan(94)

29. DoctordeathsPhilippines(96)

30. DoctordeathsBangladesh(99)

31. DoctordeathsIndonesia(100)

32. DoctorsandnursesfromUS(103)

33. Summary of Covid-19 in US healthcare workers

34. DoctordeathsNigeria(129)

35. DoctordeathsGermany(131)

36. DoctordeathsAustralia(132)

37. DoctordeathsIndia(133)

38. DoctordeathsOman(138)

39. DoctordeathsChina(138)

40. HCWdeathsCanada(145)

41. Alphabetical list of deceased (146)

42. References(161-174)

20. Do death data show racial disparity?
21. AfricanAmericansseverelyaffectedintheUS(73) 22. Doctordeaths,France(75)

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Why is it important to study this topic?

1. Health workers are at increased risk to get Covid-19 by the nature of their work. In the SARS outbreak of 2003, caused by a similar virus called SARS-Cov, one-fifth of the cases were healthcare workers. The new Corona virus, also called SARS-Cov-2, is more contagious than its predecessor.

2. Deaths from Covid-19 occur not only among older people, but also among those in the twenties and thirties. The deaths of Narjes Khanalizadeh, a 25-year-old nurse from Iran, and Dr Osama Riaz, the 26-year-old doctor from Pakistan are examples (72, 91). British nurses Areema Nasreen and Aimee O’Rourke died in their thirties.

3. Infection of multiple healthcare workers can occur following surgery on a Covid-19 patient, as was documented following a hernia operation at the SMS Medical College Jaipur (108).

4. A large number of the infections that occurred among healthcare workers are from preventable factors. Being safe from the virus involves much more than wearing a mask and gown. Several administrative, academic and engineering measures are often overlooked.

5. Those who get infected with the virus need not always develop symptoms. Such people become a source of spread of virus to unsuspecting colleagues through repeated interactions in closed spaces. Such incidents have been reported in India and elsewhere.

6. They may inadvertently spread disease to patients and bystanders. Hospitals have been a source of spread of Covid-19 in almost all countries.

7. When healthcare workers get sick, they either go into quarantine or get admitted to hospital. The total number of healthcare workers and hospital beds are finite. The system gets stressed due to smaller remaining number of workers taking on greater volume of work. This workload includes the sick healthcare workers themselves as well as the patients whom they infected. This increases the infection risk among the remaining healthcare workers, setting off a vicious cycle.

8. When healthcare workers get sick, hospitals might get shut down, increasing the strain in the system. Healthcare workers cannot be replaced easily. It is not easy to train a new worker to do the same task.


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Photo from The Independent, about healthcare workers who died from Covid-19 in the UK

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The 35 lessons learned from all the healthcare

worker deaths: a summary.

1. Being caught unawares is by far the biggest mistake that has happened to healthcare workers all over the world. That is, by realising late that the patient under their treatment had Covid-19. Often, a patient would get admitted with respiratory symptoms, and the diagnosis of the SARS-Cov2 virus would be made only several days later. By then, several healthcare workers and others would have become infected. A recent incident at NRS Medical College West Bengal highlighted this continuing problem (115).

2. Underestimating the pandemic is a universal mistake. The extent of local spread has been consistently underestimated in Spain, Italy, US and UK, resulting in a vicious cycle of healthcare workers getting infected and passing on to colleagues and patients.
Although this might seem rather elementary, being in the habit of seeing patients without sufficient precautions is a major factor that caused infection, as can be seen from the stories of the departed (see below). Healthcare workers at Singapore, on the other hand adhered to standard precautions and have had no outbreak among healthcare workers (83). Standard precautions are protective even if there is unexpected exposure to aerosol (107). In the present scenario, it is safer to treat every patient as Covid-19 till proven otherwise (55).

3. Implementation of IPC (Infection control precautions) even after a delayed diagnosis has effectively prevented further spread of infection in such cases (52). This shows that following standard precautions at all times is an effective preventive tool.

4. In Italy, the pandemic arrived at the same time as the annual flu season. Reportedly, many GP’s continued to see patients casually, thinking it was only a minor flu. Over 150 doctors have died in Italy alone from Covid-19. Ignorance about the extent of local spread contributed to deaths. In addition, some of the reported Covid deaths in healthcare workers could also be non-work related.

5. In Spain, doctors were not informed early of the extent of spread, hence did not take adequate precautions. In China, the early spread of Covid-19 to healthcare workers occurred because patients went to see doctors in local clinics who had no knowledge of such an outbreak, and saw these patients without precautions (103).

6. Asymptomatic spreaders. Many healthcare workers still believe that only sick-looking people could give them the virus. They remain unaware of the large segment of asymptomatic spreaders, and let their guard down while in the company of apparently healthy people.

7. Lack of testing facilities, denial and underreporting of the pandemic contribute to this ignorance among healthcare workers. Unfortunately, without widespread testing, it is impossible to contain the spread of the virus in a region (60). Several countries are still unable to test adequate numbers of their population due to multiple reasons.

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Germany on the other hand, was proactive in preparing as early as January with testing facilities. Prof. Dr Christian Drosten and team, Institute of Virology, Hospital Charite of Berlin developed the PCR testing kit early, and immediately shared the technology with other labs (89).

8. Periodic surveillance of healthcare workers by testing is necessary to detect infected people early and to isolate them (111). As infection does not always result in symptoms, waiting for fever or cough to appear before testing is the wrong strategy in the healthcare worker setting.
It must be noted that surveillance testing is different from diagnostic testing. Surveillance testing of healthcare workers during a pandemic is done to protect the hospital and the community—by identifying and isolating infected individuals early. Example of diagnostic testing is when it gets ordered for a patient who is admitted with severe pneumonia, where it is primarily for documentation of the diagnosis.
The virus has already affected healthcare workers in major hospitals in India, while the status of the vast majority of other hospitals is still unknown because surveillance testing is not being done yet (67, 68,69). When hospitals unknowingly start spreading the virus to visiting patients, the disease penetrates deeper into the community and the pandemic gets worse.

9. Shortage of PPE has been blamed in all nations including US, Italy, Iran and UK. This requires customised solutions according to each nation’s circumstance and policy. Inappropriate and excessive use of PPE could also lead to wastage of resources, eventually causing shortage. Hence, judicious use of PPE must be promoted, according to scientific guidelines rather than by perceived risk or excessive fear of infection. Hoarding of precious resources such as N95 masks by those who don’t need it, must be discouraged.
In Italy, the death of 67-year-old Dr Roberto Sello is said to have occurred after he continued to see patients after PPE ran out (12). A large number of healthcare worker infections in Iran– up to 41% of the Covid-19 cases–are reportedly attributed to PPE shortage (100).

10. Those healthcare workers taking care of sick relatives at home must be careful not to bring the virus to the workplace. If a family member is sick with fever, coming to work could be risky to colleagues—in the setting of a pandemic.

11. Self-quarantine (self-isolation) is an important aspect of prevention. It refers to keeping a potential virus carrier from infecting the healthy community around. Therefore, it applies to healthcare workers who had significant contact with a Covid-19 patient. The local protocols and the logic behind them must be repeatedly emphasised to all healthcare workers.

However, overzealous quarantine strategies can lead to a depleted workforce. In Singapore and Hong Kong, quarantine is advised only for those who had close contact by definition, and they are able to preserve their healthcare worker workforce as a result (83).

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12. Reverse quarantine must be practised where applicable. Reverse quarantine refers to protecting the vulnerable from others who might give them the disease (62). The Covid-19 related death of an 85- year-old doctor who had reportedly had pre-existing cardiac morbidity in Mumbai, soon after the visit of his grandson from the UK, highlights the need to reverse quarantine the elderly and vulnerable.
Every effort must be made to prevent the entry of the virus into the households where such individuals are living (62). The report that other family members also tested positive suggests that the visitor’s earnest efforts at self-quarantine were not enough to stop the virus from infecting others in the household (82).

13. Housekeeping, laundry and biomedical waste disposal departments play a major role in disinfection and prevention. They must be involved in infection control meetings. Guidelines for disinfection have been published (105, 106).
Diluted household bleach solution (1% Sodium hypochlorite) is effective for most non-metallic, non- fabric surfaces. It is economical and easily made by mixing two tablespoons of bleaching powder in one litre water.

14. Unauthorised reuse of PPE increases infection risk, and is an expected outcome of shortage. The death of Dr Frank Gabrin in New York is an example (75). CDC has published a new guideline on reuse of N95 mask during times of shortage (113, 58).

15. Wrong use of PPE is widespread among healthcare workers. Putting on and removing PPE requires special training. Mask and glove use are commonly done wrong. These errors can be easily remedied by supervision and training programs (90).


17. Substandard PPE has been implicated, as manufacturers cut corners to improve their profits.

18. Longer working hours and fatigue contribute to risk of infection.

19. Every hospital must have a strong and efficient IPC (Infection prevention committee) that decides local policy based on established guidelines, trains personnel and audits the outcome. Even in developed nations, compliance is never a 100%, hence the need for continuous monitoring. The hospital administration must take these recommendations seriously. Lack of IPC has been blamed as a major factor in healthcare worker deaths.

20. Efficient triage of patients before they reach the reception is an important step in reducing the spread of virus at the facility. Patients who are visiting can be counselled in advance of handwashing, sanitising, mask use and be provided a route map.

Emergency intubation. Healthcare workers are often exposed to a high viral load in the casualty or

ICU before standard PPE could be worn for emergency intubation procedures (77). Those who work

in these settings must therefore anticipate being in such positions and take sufficient preparation.

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The flow of patients and staff through the hospital must be planned to minimise spread of infection. This can be achieved through administrative and engineering controls. Also called TCB or Traffic Control Bundling, such measures have effectively prevented healthcare worker infections at hospitals (110).

21. Cohorting of staff prevents the mingling of those who work in high risk areas with those who work in other parts of the hospital. This reduces risk of infecting colleagues.

22. When procedures are done that are high risk for aerosol, the number of staff present in the room must be minimised. The air flow in such rooms must follow strict engineering controls.

23. Speech and masks, an important update. The role of everyday speech in transmitting the SARS-Cov- 2 virus in the form of really tiny invisible droplets was discussed in my article published on 10 April (52). In the April 15 issue of NEJM,

In a study published by the CDC team in NEJM on April 24, the role of asymptomatic transmission as the Achilles heel of community spread of Covid-19 has been discussed (83,120). This means that healthcare workers could get infection from a well-looking colleague or patient or bystander simply through conversation.

Taken together, these findings have significant role is devising preventive strategies. Limiting conversation in closed spaces, maintaining universal social distancing and asking all patients to wear a mask before entering the room or facility are simple, economical yet evidence-based measures that can be easily practised. Wearing of masks has been a shifting topic. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India has asked the general public to wear mask while stepping out. (122).

24. Periodic multidisciplinary meetings with all stakeholders within a hospital will help make the place safer for everyone. Such meetings must involve those who work in engineering, maintenance, pharmacy, microbiology, lab, nursing, housekeeping, human resources, doctors and administration.

Healthcare workers who are over 65 or otherwise vulnerable may therefore be assigned to non- clinical areas of work, where the risk of contracting the virus is lower (55). Such measures will reduce overall healthcare worker mortality risk. A substantial number of doctors and nurses have died after coming back from retirement to serve on the frontlines. In France, Dr Jean-Jacques Razafindranazy, 67 came back after retirement to help the ER, and died of Covid-19 (91). In Cardiff, Wales, 65-year old nurse Gareth Roberts had a similar fate. Dr Alfa Saadu, 68, returned from retirement to help out at a local hospital in the UK (123).

Anfinrud et al from NIH have demonstrated how speech

generates tiny droplets, that are effectively blocked by wearing a cloth mask (121).

25. All ages are not equal. Covid-19 related mortality increases over age 65, and also among those with

associated conditions such as diseases of the heart, lung, kidney and liver, cancer, obesity and


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26. Keep the volume down. Doctors who see extraordinarily large volume of patients are exposed to greater viral loads. It is unclear whether repeated exposures lead to more severe infection. The death of 62-year-old Dr Shatrughan Panjwani of Indore, who dutifully saw patients from slum areas, raises the question of limiting patient numbers in clinics.

Introducing engineering controls to promote social distancing, wearing of masks by all patients and bystanders, and improving natural ventilation in busy outpatient clinics are related topics. Infection control precautions are not easy to implement in such settings.

27. Ignorance is a killer. Underestimating the ignorance of individual healthcare workers is a mistake that happens to policy makers. It is commonly assumed that those at the grassroots level will completely understand, remember and carry out instructions. In reality, this does not happen. Besides, it is difficult to find out how many people did not understand instructions. Apart from an audit, there is no reliable method to measure the level of ignorance and non-compliance (53). For instance, even in well-equipped settings, faulty use of PPE is common, resulting in spread of infection.

Being vigilant and taking proactive steps will help prevent complications that are a natural outcome of ignorance (107). Unfortunately, as a group, healthcare workers are at greatest risk when the prevailing level of ignorance is high.

Ignorance is not necessarily the fault of the healthcare worker. Faulty public health policies where health education as well as data collection are done without foresight can result in the collective blinding of entire communities. Delay in recognising the community spread of the virus in Italy and Spain cost many healthcare workers their lives. Older doctors and nurses with chronic illnesses returning from retirement to serve on the frontline is not a model of ideal workforce deployment. Declaring an area to be safe without adequate testing is yet another example of collective ignorance; this can be dangerous to a large number of people.

In a pandemic, media play a major role in dispelling ignorance. Imposing penalty for fake news helps prevent misinformation, which is another contributor to ignorance. Methods of health education require substantial customisation for the population intended. Ignorance of policy-makers represents a larger problem, as has been documented in several nations.

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This dark quote by Suzy Kassem, Egyptian-American poet could not be more relevant.

Among all risk factors, ignorance appears to be the most dangerous as well as the most remediable from the viewpoint of a healthcare worker facing COVID-19. No one is an exception–regardless of their designation, education or nationality.

Ignorance is the elephant in the room that no one wants to talk about.

28. Checklists to eliminate errors, pre procedural briefing, post procedural debriefing, team-based simulation and training are helpful in intensive care settings (90).

29. Lying patients. Patients are known to conceal their high-risk travel or contact history, and this has been implicated in the deaths of doctors (81). Hence, there is no substitute to taking standard precautions with all patients, however impractical it might seem.

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30. All healthcare workers are vulnerable. The risk applies not only to nurses and doctors, but also to pharmacists, technicians, physiotherapists, receptionists, paramedics, attenders, ambulance drivers and other staff. All healthcare workers therefore require training and protection according to their level of exposure to the virus.

The deaths of 35-year old pharmacist Ismail Durmus in Turkey, 33-year-old UK pharmacist Pooja Sharma, 28-year-old Calire Marie

Infection of staff working in high traffic areas such as the pharmacy was documented at SMS Medical College Jaipur

(108). Two young attenders Oscar King Jr and Elbert Rico, also known as porters in the UK, died at John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (123).

Fuqua, a receptionist in a pediatrician’s office in Louisiana, US

show that the virus does not discriminate by age, type of clinical work or gender.

31. Doctors working with the airway such as dentists, otorhinolaryngologists, and anaesthesiologists are

especially at risk for COVID-19 infection. In a study, this group comprised 12% of all doctor deaths

from Covid-19 (101).

32. Psychiatrists make up 3% of deaths among doctors (6 deaths out of 198). This suggests the risk from

prolonged exposure to aerosol by conversation in a closed environment (59, 101, 121).

33. With their hands-on experience with Covid-19, Mirco Nicoti et al from Italy are advising a massive

deployment of outreach services. They assert that pandemic solutions are required for the entire

population, not only for hospitals. Home care and mobile clinics may be used for less ill patients.

These measures release pressure from hospitals, preserve PPE, beds, ventilators, decrease

contagion, thus protecting patients and health care workers (102).

34. Mortality or CFR Case Fatality Rate of Covid-19 is not a fixed number. It depends on quality of care

available. If healthcare systems are overwhelmed, the mortality increases up to 5-fold (103). This

directly applies to healthcare workers working in these areas. It is therefore important to take

widespread measures for the entire population to preserve valuable resources, as discussed in 33


35. Recognising work-related stress and seeking help early is important. Violent deaths related to

Covid-19 have been reported in several countries (39, 129, 137).

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Audit of reported COVID-19 related doctor deaths all over the world till 5 April (1)

GP/ER doctors make up 40% cases followed by 6% Medicine, 5% dentistry, 4% Cardiology, 4% Ophthalmology, 4% ENT, 3% Respiratory, 3% Psychiatry, and 3% Anaesthesia, 3% Gen Surgery, 3%Obstetrics/Gynaecology. N=198c

Physicians working in the airway such as dentists, otorhinolaryngologists, and anesthesiologists are especially at risk for COVID-19 infection and this group comprised 12% of all physician deaths. N=198

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Anyone who works in healthcare is at risk.

In addition to doctors, nurses and other clinical staff, infection is also known to occur among non- clinical personnel within a health-care setting. Focus and terminology should therefore shift from “health-care workers” to “health workers”, thus encompassing drivers, cleaners, security guards, burial teams, community-based workers and all others who are at risk while performing health services (45).

In the SARS 2003 epidemic, a study published in NEJM showed 136 patients being infected as a result of one patient admitted to ICU. The infection spread to 20 doctors, 34 nurses, 15 other health workers, 16 medical students and 53 patients who happened to be at the hospital at the same time, in spite of the use of PPE. Aerosol-generating procedure using a jet nebuliser was the likely cause of this spread (50).

In Toronto, multiple risk factors were identified among healthcare workers who got infected at the workplace with SARS in 2003. These were 1) Faulty use of PPE, including faulty donning and doffing 2) Lack of formal training (IPC, infection control protocol) and 3) Fatigue (51).

Hospitals turning into virus hotspots

Graph from The Hindu, April 13, showing spread of infection among healthcare staff in the hospitals of Mumbai. The numbers are climbing every day. Currently, there is no active screening of hospitals in India, hence there will be underreporting.

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When there is a pandemic, healthcare workers are at high risk. In Ebola: healthcare workers were 100 times more likely to get infected than general population (44)

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The 10 essential checks to minimise COVID death risk for a health worker

Dr Rajeev Jayadevan 29.4.20, written as part of the article on why doctors and nurses die from COVID

This is an easy-to-use checklist specifically written to assess the individual risk of death by a healthcare worker. It is the personalised version of the available evidence from the deaths of healthcare workers all over the world till 29.4.20. Details are available in the 34-point summary at the beginning of the article, as well as in the 137 references in the end.


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Death risk in each age group, Italy

April 20, 2020


Covid-19 cases by age group, India

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Death rates by country from Covid-19.

Rates seem artificially higher when testing is selectively done among the sickest

patients. Death rate may also seem low in countries that do more surveillance

testing of contacts and asymptomatic people.

European nations have greater percentage of people over age 65. For instance,

in Italy, 23% people are over 65 years, compared to 6% in India. As the chance of

dying from Covid-19 is greater among those who are over 65, this pushes up the

overall death-rate.

Incomplete reporting of deaths and wide variation in testing protocols makes direct

comparison between countries irrelevant. Hypothetically, a country that does not do

any testing will naturally report the lowest incidence of Covid-19, and the lowest

mortality rate.

April 29, 2020 (c) statista.com

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Lessons from Italy about the use of PPE

Excerpts from a paper published in Anaesthesia on 27 March (90), Sorbello et al from Italy:

“Such a large-scale outbreak has resulted in a shortage of personal protective equipment for healthcare providers. Consequently, frontline healthcare staff, including physicians and nurses, have become infected or exposed and thus quarantined. This shortage of PPE and experienced clinicians has meant that less experienced doctors and residents have been recruited for clinical care.”

“Treating patients with coronavirus meant hard work for staff who had to repeatedly put on and take off protective equipment. In addition, they said, working in unfamiliar wards, difficulty communicating in masks and changes to normal practice created extra risks”.

Regular team briefings and training with the use of checklists are also advised.

“Airborne‐level protection should include: helmets, covers or hoods; FFP3 or FFP2/N95 masks, goggles or face shields (if no helmets); hazmat suits or long-sleeved fluid‐resistant gowns; double gloves (possibly different colours); and overshoes. Whenever possible, the maximum available

“Tracheal intubation is associated with the greatest risk of exposure to healthcare professionals.

Patient triage based on expected prognostic outcomes has become increasingly important. Thus,

early tracheal intubation is encouraged, as late or emergency tracheal intubation in rapidly

deteriorating patients may be associated with greater risks, both to patients and healthcare


protection level should be used, especially for aerosol‐generating procedures.

Donning and doffing of PPE should be practiced and when performed clinically, an external observer should supervise its meticulous performance in accordance with checklists. In our experience, PPE donning and doffing presents the greatest challenge to daily working. In particular, doffing of PPE, especially when clinicians are tired and cognitively overloaded, is associated with the greatest risk of contamination. Team members should doff PPE individually and one at a time. Cycles of thorough

hand disinfection must be undertaken and supervised, and meticulous waste disposal must be completed”.

Pre‐procedural briefing and post‐procedural debriefing are mandatory to review errors and

determine improvements for future practice. Team‐based simulation and training remains critical

throughout the evolution of this pandemic, involving any level of healthcare professionals. The

development of local protocols and checklists, development and adoption of dedicated early

warning scores, and accounting for regional variation in practice, is strongly recommended given the

number of clinicians involved, as well as the risks to healthcare professionals”.

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Easy checklist for a Covid-proof hospital:

Basic precautions for preventing the spread of SARS-Cov-2 virus among staff and patients at clinics and hospitals. Written as part

of the article on worldwide deaths of healthcare workers, Dr Rajeev Jayadevan 29.4.20


1. Triage of all patients before they reach the reception, so that older patients and those with chronic diseases will

not be exposed to those who might be carrying the virus. Cohorting of staff is also necessary, so that those who

work in high-risk areas will not mingle with those in low-risk zones.

2. Masks may be given to all who enter the facility, including patients, bystanders. This is to prevent droplet and

aerosol spread to others.

3. Utilise only the minimum number of healthcare staff to interact with each individual patient throughout the

visit. By reducing the total number of personnel exposed, this also will help prevent depletion of workforce if and

when quarantine measures become necessary.

4. Crowd control measures in all departments and floors, to promote universal social distancing.

5. Designated isolation room in case a known or suspect Covid19 patient is identified. Larger hospitals may use a

separate block and team for exclusive Covid-related work.

6. Regular multidisciplinary meetings and close supervision by the hospital’s infection prevention committee in all

departments, especially in the aerosol generating zones.

7. Frequent, repeated briefing of staff by the hospital’s infection prevention co-ordinator. Ignorance and poor

compliance of staff with standard precautions is a universal problem. This can be dangerous to the hospital, and

the community.

8. Meticulous supervision of PPE use by staff members, especially donning and doffing of PPE. This is significantly

error-prone, and wrong use could lead to spread of infection.

9. Steps to avoid wastage of PPE from inappropriate and excessive use. PPE must be treated as a precious

resource, to be used by guidelines only. Orders and supply measures to be pursued to keep the supply coming

long term, from reliable manufacturers.

10. Emergency intubation protection at E.R., ICU and floors. Healthcare workers who arrive to intubate in an

emergency must be given appropriate PPE prior to intubation.

11. Laboratory testing facility for staff or patients who are suspected to have Covid-19.

13. Rotation of staff schedule, so that they will not be depleted if quarantine is required.
14. Staff over age 65 or those with significant comorbidity may be designated to non-clinical administrative work.

15. Hospitals to have their own COVID19 protocols in OT (theatres) and other procedure rooms.

12. Surveillance of staff members with periodic testing to make sure no one is already infected and is spreading

infection to others. This “stitch in time” policy will help prevent Covid-related closure of hospitals in the long-

term. Staff members who work in high traffic areas must be given priority for surveillance testing.

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Covid-19 is more dangerous than the flu.

Calling it “just another flu” was a common

mistake that lead to bad policy decisions.

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Doctor deaths, Italy


Dr. Giuseppe Maini

Dr. Antonio Maghernino

General Practitioner

Medical Continuity Doctor



Among the deaths include that of Roberto Mileti, a gynaecologist from Rome, Guido Riva, a general

practitioner (GP) from Bergamo in Lombardy (the region worst-hit by the outbreak), and Gaetana

Trimarchi, a GP from Messina. All three doctors reportedly died on the same day.

Nearly all of the initial doctor deaths were in northern Italy, where the virus was first reported in the country. Around a third of the doctors who died were reported to be GPs, including four in Bergamo

and another four in Lodi, a town near Bergamo.

Two of the doctors were reported to have been working in nursing homes. Most of the clinicians who died were in their 60s and 70s, while one was 90-years-old, the federation confirms.

The death toll in Italy also includes several pulmonologists, an anesthesiologist, an epidemiologist, an ophthalmologist, a medical examiner and dentists, including one who was 49 and another who was 55 years old (18)

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Dr. Abdulghani Makki Dr. Gianpaolo Sbardolini Dentist, Italy General Practitioner, Italy


Dr. Ivano Garzena Dentist, Italy

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Dr Marco Lera Dentist, Italy

Dr Marcello Natali GP, Italy

Dr Marcello Natali, 58, died of Covid-19 after apparently being forced to work without gloves in Italy,

in Codogno, a suburb of Milan and one of the worst-hit areas in the country. After several days of patients pouring in, the hospital apparently ran out of gloves.

However, dedicated to serve people, he went on doing his job. Ultimately, he caught the virus and passed away. He had discussed the shortage of supplies around a week ago in a TV interview, where he had also said: “We certainly weren’t prepared to face such a situation. Especially those of our generation, that of the post-antibiotic era, who grew up thinking that a pill against the disease was enough”

according to media reports. He worked


Dr. Calogero Giabbarrasi General Practitioner

Dr. Gaetana Trimarchi General Practitioner Italy

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General Practitioner Italy


Dr. Raffaele Giura Dr. Mario Giovita Pulmonologist, Italy General Practitioner, Italy

Dr. Giulio Titta

Dr. Renzo Granata General Practitioner Italy


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Dr. Vincenzo Leone General Practitioner, Italy

Dr. Mario Luigi Salerno, Physiatrist, Italy


Dr Eyad al-Deqer, 32

In Italy, more than 11,000 medical personnel have been infected — just under 10% of the official total. Significantly, not all the doctors who died were working in hospitals. Many were general

Dr. Carlo Alberto Passera

General Practitioner, Italy



practitioners or dentists, who were believed to have been exposed via respiratory droplets.

Palermo, the doctors’ union head, said a key reason for the high contagion rate among general practitioners was that flu was raging at the same time in the early part of the year.

“The epidemic was superimposed on top of the normal course of influenza, which didn’t allow us to discriminate between the two,” he said. “A patient with a fever or cough or unspecific symptoms would go to his doctor, who would see him at home or in his office, and that’s where the contagion happened. That’s why there are so many family doctors who are infected.”

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Dr Roberto Stella, 67
had his own general medicine practice in a town outside of Milan. He was also heavily involved in national medical associations. He recently published in the BMJ about Covid-19. Dr Stella was the first to die in Italy from Covid-19.

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Violent deaths related to Covid-19

In China, several healthcare workers apparently died from road accidents attributed to exhaustion during the course of Covid-19 treatment. In Italy, there were two suicides and a homicide. In the US, Dr Lora Been, an ER physician with no known history of mental illness committed suicide on 26 April.

Dr Lora Been, 48 Medical director of the emergency department at New York-Presbyterian Allen Hospital, died in Charlottesville, Va, US. The cause of death was suicide (137).



Dr Lorena Quaranta, 27, Italy was murdered by her nurse boyfriend upon false suspicion that she gave him the SARS-Cov-2 virus.

Two nurses have committed suicide in Italy after becoming infected (39).

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Rn Viviane Rocha of Luiz Nurse, Brazil

Dr. Hermes Roberto Radtke, Radiologist, Brazil


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Viviane Albuquerque, Physiotherapist, Brazil


Rima Haider Imran, 44, Nurse Al-Basel Hospital, Tartpus, Syria

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Vietnam’s reported testing rate is 2119 per million, having done 206,253 tests for its population of 90 million as of 24 April

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Dr. Goran Ivankovic, 57 Urologist, expired in Serbia

Dr. Biljana Natic Ljumovic

Obs-Gynaecologist, expired in Serbia

Dr Nestrovic, Serbian pulmonologist stirred

up a controversy when he called the Corona

virus a joke and “absolute nonsense”. He

even asked Serbian women to go ahead and

shop in Italy, to prove his point. The

President of Serbia was also present during

his statement. The doctor later defended his

“I can’t believe that the people who survived the sanctions, the bombings, all the harassment, are scared of the funniest virus in human history that exists on Facebook”

declared since March 15.

statements in a recent interview. This is just

one example of the ignorance that affects

even those who are educated policy makers.

In Serbia, 8042 people have been affected

and 156 deaths in spite of emergency


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Dr Adil el-Tayar, a transplant surgeon, died in Western London. He was originally from Sudan.

The Sudanese doctor had been working at Hereford Hospital, which is where his family believe he caught the virus. The 63-year-old died at West Middlesex University Hospital in Isleworth, west London, on March 25, working as a locum surgeon before his death.


Dr Habib Zaidi, 76, a veteran GP in UK, originally from Pakistan

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Dr Amged El-Hawrani, a 55-year-old ear, nose and throat specialist at University Hospitals of Derby and Burton NHS Foundation Trust (UHDB),Queen’s Hospital Burton in Derbyshire in the East Midlands of England was the first frontline NHS hospital worker to die after testing positive for coronavirus, according to NHS England (University Hospitals Derby and Burton) He died at the Glenfield Hospital in Leicester on March 28.

Dr Alfa Saadu, 68 who had returned to work from retirement, died on April 6 at the Whittington Hospital in north London. Earlier this week, a retired NHS doctor, 68-year-old Dr. Alfa Saadu from Nigeria who moved to the U.K when he was 12, was reported to have died after being infected. He was ill for two weeks.

Dr Amged El-Hawrani, ENT surgeon, UK.

He was originally from Sudan.


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Dr Craig Wakeham passed away from Covid-19, he was 59. He was the sixth GP to have succumbed to Covid-19 in the UK, till 22 April.

Dr (Mr) Jitendra Rathod, surgeon was a highly-regarded associate specialist in cardio-thoracic surgery at the University Hospital of Wales, Dr (Mr) Rathod died on April 6.


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Dr Anton Sebastianpillai, originally from Sri Lanka, had a long association with Kingston Hospital in south-west London. The consultant geriatrician died on April 4, four days after being admitted to the intensive care unit and two weeks after completing his final shift on March 20, according to Kingston Hospital in south-west London. A doctor who specialised in treating the elderly has died after testing positive for Covid-19. The consultant geriatrician, who qualified as a doctor in Sri Lanka in 1967, finished his last shift on March 20.

Dr Syed Haider Family doctor, UK

Dr Syed Haider, GP, UK, originally from Pakistan.
The family doctor worked in Dagenham, east London, and died in hospital on April 6. He was in his eighties. Details at the link below. https://pakobserver.net/second-british-pakistani-doctor-loses-life-to-coronavirus/



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Dr Yusuf Patel, 61, GP died in the UK.
He had survived pancreatic cancer earlier


Dr Manjeet Singh Riyat, 52, died on Monday at the Royal Derby Hospital, where he worked. An accident and emergency consultant who was “hugely respected” nationally has died after contracting coronavirus. University Hospitals of Derby and Burton (UHDB) said Mr Riyat – who was the UK’s first Sikh A&E consultant – was widely respected across the NHS. The trust’s chief executive said “was instrumental in building the Emergency Medicine Service in Derbyshire over the past two decades”.

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Dr Edmond Adedeji, 62, worked as a locum registrar in the emergency department of Great Western Hospital in Swindon, Wiltshire, and died on April 8. He was born in Syria.


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Dr Abdul Mabud Chowdhury, consultant urologist, UK was born in Bangladesh. He was 53 and had no underlying health condition. He wrote a Facebook post asking Prime Minister Boris Johnson to urgently provide every NHS worker with PPE just five days before he died on the night of April 8.

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Dr Rajesh Kalraiya was a paediatrician in the UK, originally from Nagpur, India. He passed away on April 15 .

Dr Sami Shousha, histopathologist died in UK at age 79, with no history of having treated patients. He was a consultant histopathologist and research fellow at Charing Cross Hospital and Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London. He was of British-Egyptian origin.

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A senior partner at Violet Lane Medical Practice, Dr Arora had been a GP in Croydon for 27 years. He died on April 15 after testing positive for the virus. Dr Krishan Arora is the 50th confirmed healthcare worker to have died. He had followed national guidance and self-isolated at home when he developed symptoms and was not in work at the time of his death. Dr Agnelo Fernandes, GP borough lead for Croydon, said: “We are all greatly saddened by the death of Dr Krishan Arora. “Krish was extremely well-liked and worked tirelessly to care for his patients and improve services for everyone in Croydon”.

Dr Sadeq Elhowsh, 58, Orthopedic surgeon, worked at St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust in Merseyside, Wales as a surgeon for 17 years before he died at Whiston Hospital. He was born in Tripoli, Libya.


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Dr Peter Tun, Reading, UK

Dr Peter Tun, 62, associate specialist. Dr Peter Tun was remembered as a ‘superhero dad’ by his children. The father-of-two was born in Myanmar and worked as an associate specialist in neurorehabilitation at the Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading, UK for more than 21 years. Dr Tun, who died in the intensive care unit at the hospital on April 12, was called a “superhero dad” by his two sons in a tribute. He had reportedly requested for adequate supply of PPE at work.


UK Graph showing the increasing proportion of healthcare workers (orange) among the number of new cases diagnosed everyday (49). In a major hospital in Wales, UK, over half the doctors and staff have been infected (77).

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Nurses, UK


Areema Nasreen, 36

Nurse, UK

Areema Nasreen, a 36-year-old nurse, died from the virus after being placed on a ventilator at Walsall Manor Hospital where she worked in the acute medical unit, BBC reports. It is not known where she contracted the virus, but Ms Nasreen is thought to have had no underlying health conditions. Ms Nasreen was a staff nurse at an acute medical unit at Walsall Manor Hospital in the West Midlands and had worked in the NHS for more than 16 years.

Ms Nasreen, also a mother of three, died in the early hours of this morning at Walsall Manor Hospital in the West Midlands, where she worked as a staff nurse at an acute medical unit. Her parents are from Mirpur, Pakistan.

Upon completing her registration as a nurse, Ms Nasreen had said: “I just wanted to be able to look after people, particularly those who are elderly and vulnerable. “I cry every morning because I am so happy that I have finally realised my dream of becoming a nurse.”

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Maureen Ellington, healthcare assistant, UK

Maureen Ellington, healthcare assistant. Mrs Ellington, who was in her early 60s, Healthcare Assistant at Southmead Hospital in Bristol and passed away on April 12. She had worked for the NHS for over 25 years at both Frenchay and Southmead hospitals. Her family said: “She would light up any room she entered. She will always be in our hearts.”


Elbert Rico was a hospital porter who died in the UK

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Amarante Dias, endoscopy techn UK

Mr Amarante Dias who worked at the Weston General Hospital as endoscopy decontamination technician, has died after contracting coronavirus, as the number of NHS deaths continues to rise. Amarante Dias worked at Weston General Hospital, in north Somerset, and was described as a ‘valued and much-loved colleague’. He went to school in Maharashtra. He was 53.

Amor Gatinao, 50 Nurse, UK

Amor Gatinao, nurse is reported to have died on the morning of April 10, having worked at St Charles Hospital, west London.




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Aimee O’Rourke, nurse

Aged 39, the nurse and mother died at the Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Hospital (QEQMH) in Margate, Kent, where she worked, on April 9.

Ms Nasreen, also a mother of three, died in the early hours of this morning at Walsall Manor Hospital in the West Midlands, where she worked as a staff nurse at an acute medical unit.

The death of Ms O’Rourke, who joined the acute medical unit at the hospital as a newly qualified nurse in 2017, has left the hospital team “devastated”, said ward manager, Julie Gammon.Ms Gammon added: “She was such a kind and caring nurse, and she had a really special relationship with her patients and colleagues.

“Nursing was something she had always wanted to do, although she came to it relatively late after raising her girls.”

The ward manager added that Ms O’Rourke was a “really valuable part of our work family and would always offer to help if she could”.

“She was really growing and developing in her skills and confidence and I know she would have gone on to have a great career,” added Ms Gammon.

When Ms O’Rourke was first brought into the hospital with symptoms of Covid-19, she asked for Ms Gammon, who was able to sit with her in the emergency department. One the same day, Areema Nasreen died at Walsall Manor hospital.

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Mr Ade Raymond, first year nursing student at Middlesex University and healthcare assistant at Barnet, Enfield and Haringey Mental Health NHS Trust. Having worked for a number of years with Barnet, Enfield and Haringey as a health care assistant, Mr Raymond joined the university in September 2019 to become a registered mental health nurse. “This tragic news has had a deep impact on the students who knew Ade and the staff who taught him,” said the spokesperson.

Mr Ade Raymond, nursing student

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Mary Agyeiwaa Agyapong, NHS nurse who died on April 12 after testing positive for Covid-19 earlier in the month. She was pregnant. David Carter, CEO at Bedfordshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, said: “Mary worked here for five years and was a highly valued and loved member of our team, a fantastic nurse and a great example of what we stand for in this Trust.”

Josiane Zauma Ebonja Ekoli, an agency nurse at Harrogate District Hospital, died after contracting Covid-19 (Family handout/PA)

Her daughter said: “It meant everything to be a nurse, she’s been doing it for as long as I remember – more than 30 years.”

Mary Agyeiwaa Agyapong, nurse

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Josiane Ekoli, nurse, UK

Josiane Zauma Ebonja Ekoli, an agency nurse at Harrogate District Hospital, died after contracting Covid-19. Her daughter said: “It meant everything to be a nurse, she’s been doing it for as long as I remember – more than 30 years.” Jill Foster, chief nurse at Harrogate and District, described Ms Ekoli – who she said was known as Josie – as a “much-valued” agency nurse who had worked for the trust for the past two years across a number of different wards and departments and various shifts.

“Josie will be sadly missed by all her friends and colleagues at Harrogate District Hospital and our thoughts are with her family at this difficult time,” added Ms Foster.

Mother-of-five Ms Ekoli, 55, was said to have been admitted to Leeds General Infirmary last Tuesday and died on Bank Holiday Monday.

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Margaret Tapley, 84 Nurse, UK

Great-grandmother Margaret Tapley was working as an auxiliary nurse at the age of 84 and hailed as ‘a legend on the ward’, and passed away.

Michael Allieu, 53 Acute Care nurse, UK


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Joanna Klenczon, 34, Domestic supervisor Northampton, UK


Cheryl Williams, ward housekeeper, UK

Cheryl Williams, ward housekeeper, Housekeeper Cheryl Williams, who died after contracting Covid- 19 (Middlesex University Hospital NHS Trust. North Middlesex University Hospital said Ms Williams would be remembered as a “much-loved colleague”. Ms Williams, who worked as a housekeeper on an elderly patient ward at the hospital in Edmonton, north London, died on April 12.

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Donald Suelto, nurse, UK

Donald Suelto, who worked on a chemotherapy ward at Hammersmith Hospital, died at his home in London on Tuesday 7 April, aged 51. Mr Suelto had not been tested for the virus but had been told to self-isolate after coming into contact with a patient who had tested positive for Covid-19. Four days into his isolation he began to develop symptoms including a sore throat, fever and a cough,



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Plaster technician Kevin Smith who died after contracting Covid-19 (Doncaster and Bassetlaw Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust/PA) Doncaster Royal Infirmary confirmed the death of plaster technician Kevin Smith on April 12, following a “brief, but courageous, battle with Covid-19”. He worked at the hospital for more than 35 years and was “renowned for his warm personality, diligence and compassion”, the trust said.

Kevin Smith, Plaster technician, UK

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Mr Maganga and Ms Penfold NHS Nurses, UK

NHS staff nurse Mr Maganga, who died aged 56, was a mental health nurse at Hurst Place, a rehabilitation unit for men with severe mental illness and complex needs in Ashton-under-Lyme, Greater Manchester. Having gained his registration in 2009, he had worked at the unit since it was first established 10 years ago.

NHS staff nurse Julie Penfold has died aged 53. Ms Penfold – known to her friends as Jules – joined the trust in 2003 starting out as a healthcare assistant at the outpatients department at Arrowe Park Hospital before training to be a nurse. She worked at the trust after qualifying before moving to Wirral Community NHS Trust for three years. She then came back to Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation, where she worked on Ward 25 before returning to outpatients at Arrowe Park. Ms Penfold – who had underlying health conditions and had been on a career break due to ill- health – was a patient at Arrowe Park when she died.


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Gerallt Davies, 51, is the first paramedic in Wales to die after suffering COVID-19. He had been awarded an MBE in 2009 for his work as a national operations officer for St John Cymru Wales. He was based at Cwmbwrla Station in Swansea and had worked for the ambulance service for 26 years.

Amrik Bamotra, 63 Radiology support worker UK

Amrik Bamotra, a radiology support worker at the King George Hospital in Ilford, east London, died aged 63, Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust (BHRUT) confirmed.


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Sophie Fagan, who arrived from India in 1961 aged 16 to begin her nurse training, died on Sunday morning in the hospital she had spent years working in. She was not on the frontline fighting coronavirus but still worked at the Homerton liaising with people in her role supporting carers. She had worked in healthcare in Hackney for more than 50 years.

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46-year-old Khulisani Nkala, was the first staff member at Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust who died from the virus. Dr Sara Munro, chief executive of the trust, said: ‘Khuli was a well- respected and selfless professional nurse who ‘always put the patient first’ and will be greatly missed by his colleagues.’

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Liz Shale, 61, an NHS administration worker from Leeds died two days after she was rushed to hospital. The grandmother-of-eight worked for the NHS for more than 20 years and spent the last decade working in palliative care in Bradford. Her son, Danny, said: ‘She was funny, loving and crazy, she would do owt (anything) for a laugh. She was definitely a character. ‘She was always cracking jokes to make them all laugh and keep them motivated. Basically, she’s now just seen as another number – a statistic – and it shouldn’t be that way. People should know who she was, not see her as another person who died.”

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The 58-year-old, who had two sons, one of whom was due to be married this year, was described as kind and generous by colleagues. “We are sad to announce that Vivek Sharma, our clinical falls lead, died on Friday,” a statement issued on Monday by Kent-based Medway Community Healthcare said. He had been isolating as a vulnerable member of staff due to underlying health conditions, and became ill with coronavirus. “Vivek was married with two sons, one due to marry this year. He was a


valued member of MCH staff and an occupational therapist by background, and most recently worked in the falls team at Walter Brice Centre. “He was a member of EMF (our employee forum), passionate about being a voice and advocate for staff and always happy to help.

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Pooja Sharma, 32, Pharmacist, UK dies. Family hit by double tragedy as Heathrow immigration officer, 61, dies from coronavirus – followed by his pharmacist daughter, 32, the next day

Pooja Sharma, 33 and her father, Sudhir Sharma, 61 died of COVID-19 on successive days

Sudhir Sharma died on Wednesday before Pooja suffered same fate the next day
The father, from Hounslow, west London, ‘had underlying health problems’.
His daughter Pooja who worked in Sussex hospital passed away after three days of care.

Pooja Sharma, Trust Pharmacist

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List of healthcare worker deaths, UK

1. John Alagos, nursing assistant at Watford General Hospital, West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust

2. Melujean Ballesteros, nurse at St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, Imperial College Healthcare NHS

3. Ate Wilma Banaag, nurse at Watford General Hospital, West Hertfordshire Hospitals NHS Trust

4. Gilbert Barnedo, nurse at a South East London care home

5. Elvira Bucu, healthcare assistant and care worker

6. Donna Campbell, healthcare support worker at Velindre Cancer Centre, Velindre University NHS

7. Lourdes Campbell, healthcare assistant at Bolton NHS Foundation Trust

8. Jenelyn Carter, healthcare assistant at Morriston Hospital, Swansea Bay University Health Board

9. Linda Clarke, midwife at Royal Albert Infirmary, Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Foundation

10. Glen Corbin, bank healthcare assistant at Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust

11. Leilani Dayrit, nurse at St Cross Hospital, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust

12. Ade Dickson, Mental health nurse at Barnet, Enfield and Haringey Mental Health NHS Trust

13. Josiane Zauma Ebonja Ekoli, agency nurse at Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust

14. Maureen Ellington, healthcare assistant at Southmead Hospital at North Bristol NHS Trust

15. Chrissie Emerson, healthcare assistant at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Kings Lynn NHS Trust

16. Amor Padilla Gatinao, nurse and continuing healthcare assessor at North West London Clinical
Commissioning Group

17. Janice Graham, healthcare support worker in the district nursing and evening services team at
Inverclyde Health and Social Care Partnership

18. Thomas Harvey, healthcare assistant at Goodmayes Hospital, North East London NHS Foundation

19. Patrick McManus, nurse at Stafford’s County Hospital, University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS

20. Brian Mfula, lecturer in mental health nursing at Swansea University

21. Gladys Mujajati, community mental health nurse at Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust

22. Gladys Nyemba, nurse at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust

23. Steven Pearson, community mental health nurse at Cumbria, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS
Foundation Trust

24. Barbara Sage, palliative care nurse with Marie Curie

25. Rahima Bibi Sidhanee, nurse and former midwife at Grennell Lodge Nursing Home in Sutton, London

26. Lynsay Coventry, midwife. Princess Alexandra Hospital in Harlow, Essex, announced the death of the

54-year-old – the first involving a serving NHS midwife after testing positive for the virus – on April 5. Lynsay had tested positive for Covid-19 and died on Thursday. She followed national guidance and self-isolated at home when she developed symptoms, and was not at work in the time before her death.

27. Emily Perugia, care worker. A care co-ordinator in Hillingdon, north-west London, Ms Perugia was aged just 29 at the time of her death, which was confirmed on April 5. She was described by a colleague as a “lovely woman, who never said no to any requests”. Her mother, sister, brother and fiance all work for the same NHS trust she represented.

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28. Glen Corbin, nurse. The 59-year-old had worked at the Park Royal Centre for Mental Health in Harlesden, north-west London, for more than 25 years and his Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust announced his death on April 4.

Lourdes Campbell, healthcare assistant

Known as “Des” to her colleagues, the healthcare assistant was remembered as “diligent and compassionate” by the Bolton NHS Foundation Trust.

In a statement on April 16, chief executive of the trust Fiona Noden said Ms Campbell died in the critical care unit at Royal Bolton Hospital after contracting the virus.

Andy Treble, theatre assistant
The 57-year-old, a theatre assistant at the Wrexham Maelor Hospital in North Wales, died on April

15 after testing positive for the disease.

His sister, Maria Molloy, described her brother – who had worked at the hospital for almost 40 years, as a “kind man” who dedicated his life to his profession and “always had a smile on his face”.

Brian Darlington, porter

Mr Darlington, a porter with Mid Cheshire Hospitals, was known for handing out sweets to his colleagues.

His wife of 46 years Ava said: “He was dedicated to the trust, and as a family we are grateful for and appreciative of all of the kind words and messages we have seen and received.”

Brian Darlington was a porter for Mid Cheshire Hospitals (Mid Cheshire Hospitals Foundation Trust/PA)

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Linnette Cruz, dental nurse

The 51-year-old senior head nurse at the Brynteg dental practice in Sketty died on April 14 having been admitted with Covid-19 in March, according to NHS Wales. Brynteg practice owner Nik Patel said: “She brought love, light and joy to everyone around her and will be sadly missed by all.”

Brynteg practice owner Nik Patel said: “She brought love, light and joy to everyone around her and will be sadly missed by all.”

Donna Campbell, support worker
Described by colleagues as “beautiful and kind-hearted”, the healthcare support worker from the

Velindre Cancer Centre in Cardiff passed away at the University Hospital of Wales on April 10.

Julie Omar, nurse

Aged 52, the trauma and orthopaedics nurse at Redditch’s Alexandra Hospital, in Worcestershire, died at home while self-isolating with symptoms on April 10.

Sara Dee Trollope, nurse

A 51-year-old matron for older adult mental health services in Hillingdon, west London, Mrs Trollope died at Watford General hospital on April 10 after testing positive for the virus. The mother-of-four was described as “an example to every one of us” by her daughter.

Oscar King Jr, hospital porter

Aged 45, Oscar King Jr, a Filipino porter at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, passed away on April 11. He was said to have worked for the hospital for more than a decade, “always doing his job with great enthusiasm and joy”.

Elbert Rico, hospital porter

A colleague of Mr King Jr at John Radcliffe, Mr Rico worked as a porter there since moving to the UK from the Philippines in 2004 “and loved the work that he did”, according to a fundraising page

published by his family.

Leilani Medel, nurse

Mrs Medel, who worked as an agency nurse in south Wales, was described as a “wonderful and caring person”. Her employers, Cardiff-based Hoop Recruitment, said: “The nursing profession has lost a warm-natured and beautiful nurse who cared for so many vulnerable people during her nursing career.”

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Melujean Ballesteros, nurse

The “dedicated and very caring” Filipino nurse, 60, died at St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington, London, on April 12, just two days after being admitted.

Amor Gatinao, nurse

The nurse is reported to have died on the morning of April 10, having worked at St Charles Hospital, west London.

Alice Kit Tak Ong, nurse

Alice Ong worked across two Barnet general practices, died at the Royal Free Hospital in London on Tuesday – two weeks after being admitted.

The 70-year-old, originally from Hong Kong, died on April 7 after 44 years of working for the NHS. She was described by her daughter Melissa as “generous to everyone else before herself”.

An inspiring primary care nurse who was still working full-time at 70 years old has died after contracting coronavirus. Ms Ong worked in Barnet practices for more than 20 years and was most recently based across Colindale and Greenfield medical centres. The death of Ms Ong follows that of nurses Areema Nasreen, Aimee O’Rourke, Liz Glanister and Rebecca Mack, midwife Lynsay Coventry, and healthcare assistants John Alagos, Glen Corbin and Thomas Harvey, who had all tested positive for Covid-19.

Elsie Sazuze, care home nurse

Mrs Sazuze, who worked for Wolverhampton-based agency Totallycare, died on April 7 at Good Hope Hospital in Sutton Coldfield, according to the BBC, who spoke with her husband Ken.

Liz Glanister, staff nurse

Aintree University Hospital said the staff nurse died on April 3, with her family describing the loss as “simply beyond words”. Liz Glanister, a long-serving staff nurse at Aintree University Hospital, sadly passed away at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital on Friday after being tested positive for Covid-19. The death of Ms Glanister follows that of nurses Areema Nasreen and Aimee O’Rourke,

midwife Lynsay Coventry, and healthcare assistants John Alagos, Glen Corbin and Thomas Harvey, who had all tested positive for Covid-19.

Rebecca Mack, nurse

Rebecca Mack, 29

The 29-year-old died on April 5, after going into self-isolation with symptoms. Her friend Sarah Bredin-Kemp said she was an “incredible nurse”.

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Ms Mack was believed to have picked up Covid-19 while at a training course for her new job in Derby. Her mother, Marion, told local newspaper Chronicle Live that she was woken by police officers on Sunday night who told her that her daughter had been found dead.

The newspaper reported that Ms Mack had phoned for an ambulance and left the door unlocked, but when paramedics arrived it was too late. Tests later confirmed she had contracted coronavirus, according to Chronicle Live. Ms Bredin-Kemp said Ms Mack’s family wanted to “pass on a message to the general public to stay home, don’t do unnecessary journeys, stay as safe as you can” to help protect nurses.

Janice Graham, nurse

The 58-year-old healthcare support worker from NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC) became the first nurse in Scotland to die as a result of the coronavirus pandemic on April 6.

Janice Graham, 58 Nurse, Scotland, UK

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It is “inevitable” more health workers will die from coronavirus, the UK’s largest nursing union has said. Theresa Fyffe, director of the Royal College of Nursing in Scotland, was speaking after the deaths of nurses Aimee O’Rourke and Areema Nasreen, who had both tested positive for the virus. She said the circumstances of both deaths had to be reviewed and protocols for frontline staff examined.

England’s chief nurse Ruth May has also raised fears over more deaths.

It comes amid reports that up to 30 nurses are off sick with coronavirus at Southend Hospital in Essex.

Ms Fyffe said there were still concerns about whether staff had the personal protective equipment (PPE) they needed “not just in the NHS – in the communities, in the care homes, in the hospices, wherever care is being provided”.

The Department of Health and Social Care said a hotline was available for ordering PPE.

During the government’s daily briefing on Saturday, Cabinet Office Minister Michael Gove said seven healthcare professionals have now lost their lives.


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England’s Chief Nurse Ruth May fears more nurses will die

Ms Fyffe said nurses were unable to keep a safe distance from patients, adding: “People have forgotten that when you are a nurse… you are working with patients who are actually up close and personal. “I do believe, sadly, it is inevitable we will see more nurses and other healthcare professionals die.” During Friday’s government briefing, nursing chief Ms May paid tribute to Ms O’Rourke and Ms Nasreen, who were both mothers-of-three in their 30s and worked on the frontline in facilities in Margate and Walsall.

She added: “I worry there’s going to be more [deaths].”

‘Working round the clock’

Dame Donna Kinnair, chief executive of the Royal College of Nursing (RCN), said nurses were treating patients with coronavirus without any protection at all and putting themselves, their families and their patients at risk.

“We will not accept anything less than aprons, gloves and masks for all staff, in all settings,” she added. “But that is a minimum.” She said the RCN had written to Prime Minister Boris Johnson at the end of March asking him to intervene.

A spokeswoman for the Department of Health and Social Care said: “We are working round the clock

to make sure that our heroic frontline healthcare staff feel safe, and the full weight of the government is behind the effort to make sure PPE is reaching the frontline.

“We are working closely with industry, the NHS, social care providers and the Army.
“If staff need to order more PPE there is a hotline in place and Public Health England recently updated PPE guidance in line with World Health Organisation advice to make sure all clinicians are aware of what they should be wearing.”


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Half of nursing staff have felt pressure to carry out their work without the levels of personal protective equipment set out in official guidance, according to the Royal College of Nursing.

This includes those working in high-risk environments, where patients with or suspected of having

Covid-19 are being treated on ventilators, said the college. The findings are from the RCN survey of close to 14,000 nursing professionals from across the UK provides a snapshot of PPE shortages over the Easter weekend.

Almost a third of nursing staff treating Covid-19 positive patients not on ventilators report an immediate lack of face and eye protection.

Only half of nursing staff believed they had enough alcohol hand rub and one in 10 nurses were relying on face or eye protection they have bought or homemade.

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Of the respondents, 88% were registered nurses or midwives and 5% were nursing support workers. The survey will be run again to collect data of PPE issues across the UK and overtime.

In addition, the RCN said the results would be shared directly with associated government agencies and regulators, including the Health and Safety Executive.

The RCN findings (see PDF attached below) were also released the day after controversial new coronavirus guidance recommending the reuse of certain items of PPE in the event of severe supply shortages.

But, of those treating possible or confirmed Covid-19 patients in high-risk areas, 51% of survey

respondents said they were already being asked to reuse PPE marked as ‘single use’ by manufacturers.

Of those treating Covid-19 patients elsewhere, 39% of respondents said they were being asked to reuse this equipment.

Dame Donna Kinnair

Chief Executive and General Secretary of the Royal College of Nursing, feels nurses must be given protection

Dame Donna Kinnair, chief executive and general secretary of the RCN, said: “These figures unmask

the gut-wrenching shortages nursing staff are dealing with in all health care settings. “It is little wonder they are in such fear for their own safety and that of their patients,” she said. “This crisis is taking the lives of nursing staff, and their colleagues feel they’ve been left exposed.”

She added: “All decision makers involved here need to get an urgent grip on the situation. Nursing staff just want to do their jobs – they must be given protection in order to do so.”

Helen Whyley, director RCN Wales, added: “The results are clear. Nursing staff in all healthcare settings across Wales are dealing with horrifying shortages of equipment.

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“Nurses and health care support workers in care homes, the community and in hospitals are working long hours, under great stress and are risking their own health to protect others. “The lack of PPE is creating a burden of immense distress and heightened anxiety for our nursing staff members and the patients they care for,” she said.

The RCN said it was planning to repeat this survey on a regular basis to assess how PPE and infection control are changing over time during the Covid-19 pandemic. The survey findings are the latest evidence to inform the ongoing shortages of sufficient PPE for health and social care staff facing coronavirus. They build on anecdotal evidence of widespread shortages of PPE that has been an ongoing problem for staff, which the government has been increasingly criticised for over recent weeks. In addition, a smaller poll of the 220 nurses, revealed at the start of April, found three- quarters of respondents were lacking in three key bits of equipment. Around 73% of respondents said they had no long-sleeved disposable gown, FFP3 respirator and eye protection – either goggles

or a full-face visor. In addition, 63% had no fluid-repellent face mask.

This FaceBook page is dedicated to the ‘Global Medical Heroes of Covid-19’ and is continuously updated.

The Guardian runs a web page that attempts to list all American healthcare workers who died

fighting Covid-19, click on the link.

Page | 71

Do the UK and US Covid-19 death data show a racial disparity?

Analysis of 119 healthcare worker deaths in the UK by Drs Tim Cook, Emira Kursumovic and Simon Lenanne revealed the following:

1) Among the 18 doctors who died, the specialties involved were surgery (five cases), general practice

(four), emergency medicine and medicine (each two), and one each from histopathology, geriatrics,

neurorehabilitation, paediatrics, and psychiatry. There were no anaesthetists or intensivists


2) the proportion of overall healthcare worker death is the same as in the general population

3) Black and ethnic minority appears over represented among those who died, the percentages being

71% of the nurses, and 94% among the doctors

4) Conventional high-risk specialties such as anaesthesia and critical care doctors or nurses are not

among those who died, this could be the result of their superior knowledge of using PPE

5) As the disease is widespread, it is difficult to ascertain whether they acquired the infection from the

workplace or the community

6) Preponderance of women among the dead could be the result of a higher proportion of women

among the healthcare workforce in certain sectors.

7) Among the 35 nurses who died, none were listed as intensive care (113).


Analysis of the deaths of 119 healthcare workers, UK

Tim Cook et al (113)

Page | 72


Page | 73

African-Americans more affected by Covid-19

US data indicate that African Americans are disproportionately affected by Covid-19. Stated

reasons are several, including worse baseline health status, socioeconomic, educational and

healthcare access disparity, lower-paying jobs that involve interacting with multiple persons,

crowding, and the tendency to live in multigeneration households where the old may die from the

virus that was brought home by someone young. Attendance at group gatherings is another

factor. For instance, the small town of Albany, Georgia, US became a hotspot for Covid-19 after

two funerals acted as superspreading events with 490 patients and 29 deaths within a short

interval (117, 118). Such factors could play a role in how Covid-19 affects communities in other

parts of the world.

Page | 74


The first doctor to die from Covid-19 in France was Dr Jean-Jacques Razafindranazy, a 68-year-old emergency doctor from Compiègne in the Oise department of eastern France where one of the first clusters of cases were reported.

Two other doctors, a 66-year-old gynaecologist-obstetrician and a 60-year-old GP, were also reported to have died after being infected, the government confirmed last month. They worked in the Haut-Rhin and Moselle departments of eastern France.

A 70-year-old doctor also died at a hospital in Colmar of eastern France, while another 68-year-old doctor passed away in the Trevenans commune of northeastern France, health officials confirmed.

Dr Jean-Jacques Razafindranazy, Emergency Doctor, France


Dr Jean-Jacques Razafindranazy, Emergency Doctor, France 67 year-old retired doctor came back to the emergency ward of Compiègne hospital, 84 kilometres north of Paris, to give his colleagues a hand. L’Oise department was the epicentre of the coronvirus outbreak in France. The first patient, a 60 year-old teacher ,was first hospitalised there. According to France Info, Dr Razafindranazy was hospitalised himself on 4 March in Lille, where he tested positive for Covid-19.

His health deteriorated quickly 10 days later. He died on Saturday 21 March, without being able to say good bye to his family.

Page | 75


Diane Bahun 45,


ICU Nurse



Dr. Sylvain Welling,60

GP, France



Dr Jean-Marie Boegle,

Dr Sami Abdelreda, 63 GP, France

Gynaecologist, France

Page | 76


Ismail Durmus, 35 year old pharmacist who died in Turkey

Dr Saif Titi, New Jersey, US




Dr. Cemal Özkan 74,

retired Urologist and

Dr. Yavuz Kalaycı,

family doctor, Turkey

Dr. Nihat Durali,

Urologist, Turkey

Page | 77

Dr. Cemil Tascioglu 67 Professor of Medicine, Istambul, Turkey

Dr Carlos Fabian, 33 Colombia


Dr George Dimitroff, 68 Psychologist, Canada


Page | 78


Last month, Iranian doctor Mehdi Variji, was reported to have shared a video of himself before he died where he said he is not feeling well, Iranian Labour News Agency (ILNA) reported.

“Unfortunately, I am feeling unwell… the fever will not let up,” he said in the video. He reportedly appeared to have difficulty breathing as he spoke in the video.

Earlier last month, Vahid Monsef, an Iranian doctor at the Gilan Medical Sciences University in the Gilan province, was reported to have died in the hospital where he worked after being infected.

He was said to have spent weeks attempting to save the lives of infected patients poured into his poorly equipped hospital ward.

Page | 79

A 25-year-old nurse also from the Gilan province, Narges Khanalizadeh, was said to have died just days after Iran first confirmed the outbreak in February.

Narjes Khanalizadeh, one of the first nurses in Iran to fall victim to the outbreak, was also from Gilan. The 25-year-old Khanalizadeh died in February after contracting the coronavirus from patients she had been treating in a hospital in the city of Lahijan.

“We are in desperate need of N95 masks right now, and we ran out of them yesterday,” the head of the Gilan Nursing Organization, Mohammad Delsuz, told the reformist Shargh daily on March 9.

“[Nurses] are now using masks that have been made at home and are not safe,” Delsuz said, adding that masks and latex gloves were among the most pressing needs of nurses and other medical workers in Gilan.

“There is numerous more medical staff who are infected because they have not had access to adequate preventive medical equipment, i.e. masks, at any point during the outbreak and their immune systems have been run down by heavily increased work pressure and stress.

Mehdi Hosseini-Nejad, the head of the Industry and Mines Organization in the Province of Kerman, said that 41% of coronavirus cases there were the medical staff who did not have access to “face masks, alcohol, and gloves”.

While the general director of the Nursing Organization told IRNA on Monday that “shortages of face masks, gloves, and protective garb” is a “cause of concern” and puts medical staff at risk.

Of course, it is the medical personnel, who are risking their lives to treat patients, who originally brought this up. There are numerous videos on social media of medical staff lamenting the lack of appropriate equipment.


Page | 80

One nurse in Razi Hospital, Rasht, was filmed saying that medical staff are underequipped and lack the appropriate levels of standard protection suits, disinfectants, alcohol, and medicine” from Iranian Media

While several staff members at Amini Hospital in Langrood, Gilan Province, posted on their Instagram profiles to ask for “urgent help”.

They wrote:“If the medicalstaff continueto serve without adequate and standard protective equipment, soon, no one would certainly remain to take care of the patients in Amini Hospital of Langrood and all the nurses would contract the virus.”

Maryam Rajavi, the President of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), hailed the medical staff and extended her condolences to the families of the victims. She said the doctors and nurses were a source of “honor and pride” for the Iranian people. (Excerpts from Iranian media reports)


Page | 81

Photo of Dr Shirin Rouhani, GP from Iran who died from Covid-19. She is seen in this photo at work, while on IV Fluids, and would not stop working because she had to treat a large number of patients.

Page | 82

Photo from Iran Human Rights Monitor, showing nurses and doctors who died from Covid-19 in


Page | 83

1. Dr. Hamid Lotfi, orthopedic specialist from Someh Sara county

2. Dr. Siamak Diushli, pediatrician and physician from Anzali city, Beheshti hospital

3. Dr. Mostafa Samadi, GP from Babol city

4. Dr. Mohammad Ali Rabiee, GP from Shaft city

5. Dr. Mohammad Mohammadi, GP from Rasht city

6. Dr. Seyed Mozaffar Rabiee, anesthesiologist from Babol city

7. Dr. Musa Fathabadi, emergency medicine specialist from Tehran city

8. Dr. Vahid Monsef, emergency medicine specialist from Rasht city

9. Dr. Farid Nirouei, surgeon from Babol city

10. Dr. Habibollah Peiravi, subspecialty vascular surgery from Tehran city

11. Dr. Saeed Azizi, ophthalmologist from Zabol city

12. Dr. Iraj Ebrahimnejad, GP from Babol city

13. Dr. Samad Babazadeh, GP from Babol city
14. Dr. Taghi Aharchi Farshi, pediatrician from Tabriz city
15. Dr. Gholam Ali Manavian, GP from Sari city
16. Dr. Shirin Rouhani Rad, GP from Pakdasht city, Masih Daneshvari hospital
17. Dr. Mehdi Variji. GP from Tehran city
18. Dr. Soheil Kianfar, urologist from Rasht city
19. Dr. Abbas Tusan, ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist from Babol city
20. Dr. Iraj Ebrahimi Nejad, GP from Babol
21. Dr. Afshar Amiri, psychiatrist from Tehran city
22. Dr. Vahid Irvani, psychiatrist from Tehran city
23. Dr. Sorena Mirmirani, psychiatrist from Amol city
24. Dr. Ardeshir Shiran, GP from Isfahan
25. Dr. Ismail Yazdi, jaw and face surgeon from Tehran
26. Dr. Seyed Yousef Mousavi, GP from Golestan province
27. Dr. Mohammad Bakhshali Zadeh, GP from Rasht city
28. Dr. Raola Ragotham, Indian physician
29. Dr. Keyvan Yaghmaei, dermatologist from Tehran city
30. Dr. Abdullah Abbasi, infectious diseases specialist from Gorgan city
31. Dr. Morteza Vajdan, physician from Mashhad city
32. Dr. Ali Mahmoud Khan Shirazi, GP from Shiraz city
33. Dr. Hamidreza Mahini, GP from Pakdasht city
34. Dr. Niloufar Ismail Beigi, general emergency physician from Tehran, Moheb-e Kosar hospital 35. Dr. Arastoo Rostamnejad, GP from Pakdasht city
36. Dr. Hossein Johari, ENT specialist from Qom city

37. Dr. Misor Baalbaki, anesthesiologist from Tehran city, Laleh hospital 38. Dr. Vahid Yahyawi, blood subspecialty from Bojnourd city
39. Dr. Amir Majid Sajjadi, dentist from Tehran
40. Dr. Majid Farhad, GP from Kashan city

41. Dr. Mir Abbas Hashemi, anesthesiologist from Azarshahr city 42. Dr. Seyed Hossein Ahmadi Miri, GP from Karaj city
43. Dr. Mojtaba Abedian, GP from Neka city
44. Dr. Hamid Reza Hajaran Tusi, GP from Tehran city

45. Dr. Hamidreza Zeinali, Pharmacist from Tehran city
46. Dr. Abdul Shakur Hojiramiri, Pharmacist from Rasht city

Page | 84

47. Dr. Hamid Reza Davoodi, Pharmacist from Mazandaran province 48. Dr. Mohammad Ali Pourhashem, Pharmacist from Tehran city 49. Dr. Saeed Momeni, laboratory science specialist from Rudsar city 50. Tehreh Esmaili, nurse from Qom city, Beheshti hospital

51. Ahmad Salimabadi, healthcare worker from Qom city, Kamkar hospital 52. Mohammad Ghadr in Nowruz Mehr, healthcare worker from Rasht city 53. Amir Rezaharankar, physiotherapist from Tehran city
54. Jamshid Mohaddesi, health network employee from Ramsar city

55. Dariush Pishroo, healthcare employee from Gilan province
56. Zabihullah Kaviani, employee of health center from Broojen county 57. Iman Moinzadeh, nurse from Astaneh Ashrafieh city, Kowsar hospital 58. Gharban Ali Hosseinzadeh, nurse from Kashan city

59. Tehibi Adibi, nurse from Anzali city
60. Reza Poursaki, nurse from Abadan city
61. Reza Rousta, healthcare worker from Tehran city
62. Haniyeh Adalati, healthcare worker from Takestan, Shafa hospital
63. Nosheh Bekian, midwife from Rasht city
64. Javad Jalali Nia, anesthesiologist from Babol city, employee of University of Medical Sciences 65. Mohsen Khadem, operating room expert from Kashan city
66. Roghayeh Ronaghi, healthcare worker from Someh Sara county
67. Azmat Mousavi, midwife from Sari city, Health Center
68. Nahid Navshad, nurse from Gilan province
69. Gholam Hassan Ghorbani, healthcare worker from Shaft city
70. Shahrooz Karimian, nurse from Tehran city, Fayyaz Bakhsh hospital
71. Hassan Arbab, healthcare worker from Mashhad city, Kamyab hospital
72. Mrs. Khoshkftar, healthcare worker from Fuman city
73. Ismail Bakhshipour, healthcare worker from Rasht city, Razi hospital
74. Mr. Zehtab, healthcare worker from Rasht city
75. Mr. Seydal Hosseini, healthcare worker from Rasht city, Golsar hospital
76. Ms. Izadpanahi, nurse from Shiraz city
77. Moloud (Mahrokh) Jafari, nurse from Tehran city, Fayyaz Bakhsh hospital
78. Ali Sheikh Moradi, nurse from Rasht city
79. Shahrbanoo Jafari, healthcare worker from Eshkur city
80. Ramin Azizifar, nurse from Tehran city, Baharlou hospital
81. Gholamreza Vosoughi Kia, nurse from Rasht city
82. Mohammad Kazem Golrsan, laboratory expert from Yazd province

83. Saadat Shakibaei, nurse from Yasouj city, Jalil hospital
84. Ashraf Molmali, healthcare worker from Tehran city
85. Nader Hosseinpour, healthcare worker from Lahijan city, Pirouz hospital
86. Kamran Bayat Firoozabadi, employee of operations room from Tehran city
87. Mahmoud Shams Al-Dini, healthcare worker from Yazd city, Sadoughi hospital
88. Mohammad Yar Ahmadi, healthcare worker from Saqqez city
89. Ali Asghar Rahban, healthcare worker from Babol city
90. Manouchehr Sadati, employee from Babol city, University of Medical Sciences
91. Majid Ardashiri, employee from Babol city, University of Medical Sciences
92. Marzieh Hosseini Nejad, employee from Babol city, University of Medical Sciences

Page | 85

93. Mahdi Afshari, health network employee from Malayer city
94. Rashid Sheikh Aghaei, healthcare worker from Bukan city
95. Ali Akbar Nazeripoor, healthcare worker from Semnan province 96. Reza Fath Ali, emergency employee from Tehran city
97. Asadullah Sheikh Jaberi, healthcare worker from Zanjan province 98. Ms. Sigarudi, midwife from Sari city, Health Center
99. Majid Tajik, nurse from Tehran city, Kian hospital

100. Mohammad Vosoughi Kia, nurse from Rasht city, Aria and Poursina hospitals

101. Reza Kouchakiania, physician from Astaneh city

102. Mehdi Fath Abadi, hospital chairman from Tehran city

103. Zahtab Hosseini, healthcare worker from Rasht city, Golsar hospital

104. Kourosh Goodarzipour from in Tehran city, Mofid hospital

105. Mohammad Ebrahimi from Gilan province

106. Fariba Izadpanahi, nurse from Shiraz city, Beheshti hospital

107. Ali Akbar Pouyan from Varamin county

108. Tahmineh Adibi, an emergency department’s nurse from Anzali city

109. Anousheh Bikian, midwife from Rasht city, Al-Zahra hospital


Heroes of Iran

The above are photos of doctors and other healthcare workers who died in Iran from Covid-19.

1. Dr. Farid Nirouii from Babol

2. Dr. Mostafa Samadi from Babol

3. Dr. Siamak Diosheli from
Bandar Anzali Hospital

4. Dr. Ardeshir Shiran from Isfahan

5. Dr. Hamid Lotfi from Someh-Sara

6. Dr. Reza Kouchekinia, the director of Medical Center No. 1 in Astaneh

7. Ali Sheikh Moradi

8. Narges Khanalizadeh

9. Ramin Azizifar

Page | 86



Dr. Osama Riaz died after testing positive for the virus last month, a health official in the country’s northern Gilgit province of Pakistan, Dr Shah Zaman, told Reuters. He was reported to have been screening pilgrims who have recently returned to Pakistan after traveling to Iraq and Iran. Dr Riaz was part of a 10-member team of the doctors tasked with screening patients returning from Iran via Taftan. He later started providing services to the suspected patients in isolation centres established for them in Gilgit. Reports from Pakistan claimed that Dr Riaz, after treating his patients went to bed

Dr Usama Riaz, Physician, Pakistan

on Friday, but couldn’t wake up the next day. He was first rushed to a military hospital and then to district hospital, where a CT scan machine was out of order. He was put on ventilator and died on Sunday.

An unverified video, purportedly of Dr Riaz speaking about ensuring medical treatment for “We will see what the issue is. If the pilgrims need further treatment, they will be shifted to district hospital, but if they can be treated here, we will provide treatment to them here.” With the exception of a bare mask, he had no other protective equipment on.

Page | 87


Sadaf Jameel, 38 Nurse, Pakistan. She had served on a Covid isolation ward.


Prof. Dr Muhammad Javed ENT surgeon

Page | 88



On March 28, The Egyptian Veterinarian Syndicate announced that veterinarian Mohamed Negm

passed away in Saudi Arabia because of COVID-19 infection after he had entered the intensive care

unit (ICU).

As the outbreak spreads in Egypt, the Arab world’s most populous country, the news that 17 health care workers tested positive for the virus at the National Cancer Institute raised fears of what the virus might do to the country’s hospital system. Maggie Mousa, an anesthesiologist at the institute, tweeted that one of her close friends was infected. She accused top officials of negligence for not imposing restrictions after the first case was detected more than a week ago. “They refused to take any measures to protect her and isolate the institute,” she said. Several doctors took to social media to criticize the institute’s leadership for not taking restrictive measures earlier. Cairo University said it has established a fact-finding mission to investigate the measures taken by the institute to prevent the virus from spreading.

Dr Ahmed al-Lawah, 57

Professor of Clinical Pathology

Cairo, Egypt

Dr Ahmed al-Lawah died of coronavirus (COVID-19), Monday according to Egypt’s ministry of Health.

He was

Professor of Clinical Pathology. Dr

Lawah, 57 years old, is believed to be first Egyptian doctor

who dies of COVID-19 infection according to the ministry. Spokesperson Khaled Megahed said in

statement that Lawah’s health condition was relatively stable; however, he witnessed sudden

deterioration on Sunday.

Page | 89


Dr Elisa Amaya, 44, Family doctor, Mexico


Page | 90


Spain’s Health Ministry reported 18,324 infected health workers, representing 15% of the total number of infections in the country.

Italy and Spain, with combined deaths of more than 25,000 and nearly a quarter-million infections, have reported a high percentage of infections among health care workers.

Carlo Palermo, head of Italy’s hospital doctors’ union, fought tears as he told reporters in Rome of the physical risks and psychological trauma the outbreak is causing, noting reports that two nurses had committed suicide.

“It is an indescribable condition of stress. Unbearable,” he said. “I can understand those who look death in the eye every day, who are on the front lines, who work with someone who maybe is infected, then a few days later you see him in the ICU or die.”

Spain’s health workers claim they were left “naked against the virus”. They have been contracting the COVID-19 virus at a faster rate than any other country, with around 15% of its almost 125,000 total cases being doctors, nurses and other medical staff. Its health workers have been exposed to contagion due to a shortage of medical supplies, with nurses and doctors being forced in some cases to patch together makeshift protection suits using plastics such as garbage bags (38).

Page | 91


Dr Sara Bravo Lopez, 28 General Practitioner Spain


Dr. Jose Ramon Izquierdo Sanz, General Practitioner, Spain


Page | 92

General Surgery Spain


Dr Isabel Munoz General Practitioner Spain

Dr Jose Manuel Sanchez Ortega



Page | 93


Dr. Gualberto Reyes, Emergency Medicine Physician, Mexico



Page | 94


Dr Afghanistan

Dr Hanifulla Haneef, 42 Family doctor Afghanistan

Iqbal Omari, 35,

Pediatric surgeon

Afghanistan’s population is 31·6 million, most of whom live in rural areas. The absence of local laboratories to do diagnostic tests for COVID-19 creates considerable delays in treating and isolating patients in hospitals in distant parts of the country. Another concerning issue is the shortage of health-care workers. As of March 25, 2020, the International Organization for Migration reports that approximately 136,400 Afghans have returned from Iran with a high risk of having COVID-19. Lancet, 12 April (125). The healthcare situation on the ground is summed up in two news articles (126, 127).

Page | 95



Dr. Francisco Lukban Cardiologist Phillipines


Page | 96


Dr. Dennis Tudtud Oncologist Philippines


Dr. Rosalinda Pulido Oncologist Philippines


Page | 97


Nurses who died in the Philippines

Page | 98




The Dhaka Tribune, quoting the (BDF), wrote on April 26

At least 400 other healthcare

Bangladesh Doctors’ Foundation

that the

total number of infected doctors

stands at 352, almost a six-fold

increase from just 54 on April 14.

professionals are infected, and 15

hospitals have been closed (133)



Dr Ratih Purwarini, 45 Doctor

Dr Iwan Dwi Prahasto, 58 Professor of Pharmacology Indonesia


Page | 99

Mr Adarul Anam, 25 Nurse, Indonesia


Page | 100

Translation from Indonesian: “They left because of the pandemic”

Page | 101

The following 25 Indonesian doctors have died from Covid-19

1. Prof. Dr. Iwan Dwi Prahasto (Guru Besar Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada)

2. Prof. Dr. Bambang Sutrisna (Guru Besar Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia)

3. Dr Bartholomeus Bayu Satrio (IDI Jakarta Barat)

4. Dr. Exsenveny Lalopua, M.Kes (Dinas Kesehatan Kota Bandung)

5. Dr. Hadio Ali K, Sp.S (Perdossi DKI Jakarta, IDI Jakarta Selatan)

6. Dr Djoko Judodjoko, Sp.B (IDI Bogor)

7. Dr. Adi Mirsa Putra, Sp.THT-KL (IDI Bekasi)

8. Dr. Laurentius Panggabean, Sp.KJ (RSJ dr. Soeharto Herdjan, IDI Jaktim)

9. Dr. Ucok Martin Sp. P (Dosen FK USU, IDI Medan)

10. Dr. Efrizal Syamsudin, MM (RSUD Prabumulih, Sumatera Selatan, IDI Cabang Prabumulih)

11. Dr. Ratih Purwarini, MSi (IDI Jakarta Timur)

12. Dr. Laksamana (Purn) dr. Jeanne PMR Winaktu, SpBS di RSAL Mintohardjo. (IDI Jakarta Pusat)

13. Prof. Dr. Nasrin Kodim, MPH (Guru besar Epidemiologi FKM UI)

14. Dr. Bernadetta Tuwsnakotta Sp THT meninggal di RSUP Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo (IDI Makassar)

15. Dr. Lukman Shebubakar SpOT (K) Meninggal di RS Persahabatan (IDI Jakarta Selatan)

16. Dr Ketty di RS Medistra (IDI Tangerang Selatan)

17. Dr. Heru S. meninggal di RS Pusat Pertamina (IDI Jakarta Selatan)

18. Dr. Wahyu Hidayat, SpTHT meninggal di RS Pelni (IDI Kabupaten Bekasi)

Six dentists have died in Indonesia:

19. Dr. Umi Susana Widjaja

20. Dr. Yuniarto Budi Santosa

21. Dr. Amutavia P. Artsianti

22. Dr.RoselaniWidajatiOdang

23. Dr.GunawanOentaryo

24. Dr. Anna Herlina Ratnasari

The Star, Indonesia reports that Hospitals across the archipelago of Indonesia are chronically ill- equipped, lacking beds, medical staff and intensive care facilities, forcing some doctors to fashion makeshift gear, using raincoats and their own masks.

Page | 102




RN Freda Ocran Psychiatric Nurse New York, US


RN Freda Ocran was originally from Ghana

Page | 103


Dr. James T. Goodrich, a pediatric neurosurgeon known for successfully separating conjoined twins in a complicated and rare procedure, died on Monday at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx. He was 73. The cause was complications of the coronavirus, according to Montefiore, where he was the director of pediatric neurosurgery and had spent more than 30 years of his career.

Dr James T. Goodrich, 73 Pediatric neurosurgeon, Bronx, NY, US

Page | 104


John Schoffstall, 41. Firefighter, Indiana, US


Dr. Ricardo Castaneda, 64, Psychiatrist,
New York, US

Page | 105

Dr Leo Dela Cruz

Age: 57. Occupation: Geriatric psychiatrist. Place of Work: Christ Hospital and CarePoint Health in Jersey City, New Jersey. Date of Death: April 8, 2020

Dr. Leo Dela Cruz was nervous about going to work in the weeks before he died, his friends said. Like many in the region, Christ Hospital had an influx of COVID-19 patients and faced a shortage of ventilators and masks. Dela Cruz was a geriatric psychiatrist and didn’t work in coronavirus wards. But he continued to see patients in person. In early April, Dela Cruz, who lived alone, complained only of migraines, his friends said. Within a week, his condition worsened, and he was put on a ventilator at a nearby hospital. He died soon after. Friends said he may have been exposed at the hospital. (In a statement, hospital representatives said he didn’t treat COVID-19 patients) (74)



“My babies are too young to read this now. And they’d barely

recognize me in my gear. But if they lose me to COVID, I want them

to know Mommy tried really hard to do her job”.


Page | 106 Dr Cornelia Griggs, 36 Pediatric surgery resident, NY

Rose Harrison

Age: 60
Occupation: Nurse
Place of Work: Marion Regional Nursing Home in Hamilton, Alabama Date of Death: April 6, 2020

(courtesy: The Guardian)

Rose Harrison, 60, lived to serve others ― her husband, three daughters, grandchildren and the residents of the nursing home where she worked.

Williams was not wearing a mask when she cared for a patient who later tested positive for COVID- 19 at Marion Regional Nursing Home in Hamilton, Alabama, her daughter said. She later developed a

cough, fatigue and a low-grade fever, but kept reporting to duty all week. Officials from the nursing home did not return calls for comment.

On April 3, Williams drove her mother to a hospital. The following evening, Harrison discussed the option of going on a ventilator with loved ones on a video call, agreeing it was the best course. Williams believed that her mother fully expected to recover. She died April 6.

Page | 107

Debbie Accad

Age: 72
Occupation: Clinical nursing coordinator
Place of Work: Detroit VA Medical Center in Detroit, Michigan Date of Death: March 30, 2020

Mark Accad, 36, who lives across the street from his parents, said his mother had diabetes, a risk factor for serious complications from COVID-19. In her last phone call with him, he said, she was preoccupied with her family’s health more than her own. But he could hear in her voice that she was worried.

“It’s just terrible that we all couldn’t be there for her,” he said.
Mark Accad said he believes his mother was exposed by infected co-workers, though that hasn’t


been confirmed. She was a nursing supervisor who often stepped in to care for patients, he said.

The Department of Veterans Affairs is facing serious shortages in protective equipment for its health care workers, according to internal memos obtained by The Wall Street Journal. Mark Accad said he doesn’t know whether his mother had adequate protective gear. In a statement, the Detroit VA Medical Center declined to comment on Accad’s case.

She first signaled she was sick on the evening of March 16, telling relatives she had a fever and loose stool. On March 19, she reported feeling better by taking Tylenol. But the following day, she was hospitalized with pneumonia, a complication of COVID-19. She told her family in the Philippines that she had tested positive for the disease caused by the coronavirus and asked them to pray for her and to spread the word to local pastors.

Page | 108

Jeff Baumbach

Age: 57
Occupation: Nurse
Place of Work: St. Joseph’s Medical Center in Stockton, California Date of Death: March 31, 2020

Jeff Baumbach, 57, was a seasoned nurse of 28 years when the novel coronavirus began to circulate in California. He’d worked in the ER, the ICU and on a cardiac floor.

Karen said her husband was notified that he may have been around a co-worker who tested positive for the coronavirus. Jeff would need to wear a mask. On March 23, he called in sick. The next day, he was told to get a COVID-19 test. Jeff’s test was positive. Soon after, so was Karen’s. The couple hunkered down together at home, Karen with body aches and congestion and Jeff with a fever and cough. Karen took Jeff to the emergency room on March 26, where he was diagnosed with pneumonia, but chose to recuperate at home. On March 31, he collapsed in an upstairs bathroom.

“It was just like that,” Karen said. “It went downhill really fast.”

Karen called 911 and went with him to Adventist Health Lodi Memorial, the hospital where she worked. She sat in her car getting updates by phone. Kaila waited in another car.

The ventilator Jeff was connected to had little effect and he remained unresponsive.

“We both sat here all those days with him getting worse before my eyes and me not seeing it,” she said. “The doctor reassured me that several times people have seemed to be OK and then they just fall off and then it’s just too late.”

Karen returned home alone, still in quarantine.

Page | 109

Daisy Doronila

Age: 60
Occupation: Nurse
Place of Work: Hudson County Correctional Facility in Kearny, New Jersey Date of Death: April 5, 2020

Doronila, 60, died April 5, two weeks after testing positive for the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Daisy Doronila had a different perspective than most who worked at the Hudson County Correctional Facility (Prison), a New Jersey lockup 11 miles from Manhattan. The jail has been hit hard by the virus, with 27 inmates and 68 staff members having tested positive. Among those, another nurse, a correctional officer and a clerk also died, according to Ron Edwards, Hudson County’s director of corrections.

The jail is the site of a major outbreak. According to published reports, another nurse and a correctional officer who worked there have died. More than 40 staffers and 20 inmates or

immigration detainees had tested positive for COVID-19 as of April 6.

Hudson County and jail officials did not respond to calls or emails with updated numbers.

Doronila fell ill before the scope of the jail infections were known. She was picking up extra shifts in the weeks before, her daughter said, and planning on a trip to Israel soon with friends from church.

That plan began to fall apart March 14, when someone at the jail noticed her coughing and asked her to go home and visit a doctor.

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Doronila, of Nutley, New Jersey, went to her doctor and a local hospital in the coming days but was told she had strep throat, so she wouldn’t get a coronavirus test. Then she was told her fever wasn’t high enough to merit a test.

Edwards, the jail chief, said Doronila offered to come back to work after she started feeling ill, not wanting to let him down. He told her to stay home and rest.

“She was one of my hardest workers,” he said, describing her as sophisticated, intelligent and compassionate. “Daisy could handle herself. If someone got obnoxious with her, she’d put them in their place and call for help if she needed to.”

As days went by in March, her condition got worse. Feeling breathless, she went to an urgent care

center on March 21.

Her oxygen saturation level was 77 ― far below levels that should be close to 100 — so she was sent by ambulance to the hospital. The next day, she was transferred to the ICU, where she was put on a ventilator, never to talk to her family again.

On her fifth day in the hospital, she went into cardiac arrest and was revived. On Day Nine, she was put on dialysis.

By Day 14, it was futile.

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Alvin Simmons

Age: 54
Occupation: Environmental service assistant
Place of Work: Rochester General Hospital in Rochester, New York Death: March 17, 2020

Simmons began developing symptoms shortly after cleaning the room of a woman he believed was infected with the novel coronavirus. “Other hospital employees did not want to clean the room because they said they weren’t properly trained” to clean the room of someone potentially infected,

she said. “They got my brother from a different floor, because he had just started there,” she said. (In an email, a hospital spokesperson said they had “no evidence to suggest that Mr. Simmons was at a heightened risk of exposure to COVID-19 by virtue of his training or employment duties at RGH.”)

On March 11, he visited the emergency room at Rochester General, where he was tested for COVID- 19, Wilcox said. Over the next few days, as he rested at his girlfriend’s home, his breathing became more labored and he began to cough up blood. He was rushed to the hospital on March 13, where he was later declared brain-dead. Subsequently, he received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Simmons died on March 17.

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Vianna Thompson

Age: 52. Occupation: Nurse. Places of Work: VA Sierra Nevada Health Care System and Northern Nevada Medical Center in Reno, Nevada. Date of Death: April 7, 2020 (KHN news)

Before she died, Thompson was working two jobs: full time in the ER at the VA Sierra Nevada Health Care System in Reno, and part time in the ICU at Northern Nevada Medical Center.

In the ICU, she tended to a fellow VA health care worker who had fallen ill with COVID-19, according to nurse Underhill. Two days later, on March 29, Thompson arrived at work with a cough.

“She came to work sick, and we were all very concerned,” Underhill said. “Call it intuition, call it ‘Spidey sense,’ but I knew that moment that she was coughing that this was not going to end well.”

Underhill said Thompson already had a slight smoker’s cough, so she may have overlooked the fact that her cough was a classic symptom of COVID-19. “She was in denial that she was taking care of

this high-risk population,” Underhill said. And she was reluctant to miss work.

That Sunday shift would be Thompson’s last. Over the next four days, she wrestled with fever, weakness and shortness of breath. The following Thursday, she texted her husband from the bedroom: “Call the ambulance, I can hardly breathe.” She was taken to the VA hospital where she worked and immediately sedated and put on a ventilator.

The next Tuesday, her organs were failing and it was time to remove life support, her husband said. They connected him on FaceTime to say goodbye, and a nurse held her hand as she died.

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J. Ronald Verrier

Age: 59. Occupation: Surgeon. Place of Work: St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx, New York Date of Death: April 8, 2020

Dr. J. Ronald Verrier, a surgeon at St. Barnabas Hospital in the Bronx, spent the final weeks of his audacious, unfinished life tending to a torrent of patients inflicted with COVID-19. He died April 8 at Mount Sinai South Nassau Hospital in Oceanside, New York, at age 59, after falling ill from the novel coronavirus. Verrier led the charge even as the financially strapped St. Barnabas Hospital struggled to find masks and gowns to protect its workers — many nurses continue to make cloth masks — and makeshift morgues in the parking lot held patients who had died.

Verrier helped steer the hospital’s efforts to increase — by 500% — the number of critically ill patients it could care for, an effort he worked on until he became ill. “He was at the hospital every day,” Shabsigh said. “This was a nonstop effort, day and night.”

Verrier discovered he was infected in early April. After developing symptoms, he worked from his

Woodmere, New York, home.

Undaunted, he did not want to talk about being sick. “He has this personality that, ‘Everything is going to be OK,’” said Pardo.

Shabsigh spoke with him the day before his death. “He understood the coronavirus, he understood the pandemic,” he said. “He still maintained a high morale and hope that he would recover.”

When his condition worsened suddenly, according to Pardo, Verrier was taken by ambulance to a nearby hospital where he died.

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US Doctors who succumbed to Covid-19


Kevin Graiani, 56 Nurse Practitioner NJ, US

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Lisa Ewald, a 53-year-old long-time registered nurse with Henry Ford Health System, died in her Dearborn home. It is reported that 734 employees of the Henry Ford Health system have been infected. “She believed she caught the virus from someone who came in with chest pains so she was denied the chance to wear a mask, after that she asked twice to be tested and was refused testing until she started showing symptoms,” Standifer Farmer, her niece said. “She also had asthma.”


Dr Burton Rose, 77 Nephrologist, US

Creator of UpToDate

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Diedere Wilkes, 42

Radiology technician, US

Diedre Wilkes, 42 was mammogram technician at Coweta County, Georgia, hospital. Her body was found in the living room of her home in the Atlanta area, with her four-year old child by her body.


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Paramedics William D. Martin, US and Charlie Goodwin, UK

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Kious Kelly was only 48, worked as a nurse at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, died from Covid-19. His death has been discussed in the media as an outcome of inadequate supply of PPE. Several nurses who spoke to the tabloid pinned Kelly’s death on a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as masks and gowns. They said a lack of supplies prompted them to reuse the ones they had even after treating patients infected with COVID-19. See link below. https://www.businessinsider.in/international/news/nurse-dies-in-new-york-hospital-where- workers-are-reduced-to-using-trash-bags-as-protective-medical- gear/articleshow/74828410.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_ca mpaign=cppst


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After Kious Kelly’s death, this FB post of nurses using garbage bags as PPE was later deleted, but published by the NY Post. Kelly’s photo can be seen in the insert.

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US Nurses protested in front of the White House to call attention to health care workers nationwide who have become infected with COVID-19 and to highlight the shortage of personal protective equipment their industry is facing. (Fox News) The New York State Nurses Association filed three lawsuits against the New York State Department of Health and two hospitals, Montefiore Medical Center and Westchester Medical Center, for failing to protect the health and safety of nurses treating COVID-19 patients (USA Today News)

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Dr Frank Gabrin died of Covid-19 in the US. As an ER doctor, he had warned about PPE shortages and the lack of sufficient testing facilities in hospitals before he got sick. He said he wore the same mask over and over again, for four days at a stretch. A week later, he developed symptoms and suddenly deteriorated while self-quarantining at home. He had been treated for testicular cancer in the past, and had survived a murder attempt by a patient in the ER once.

The following link provides details of US-based healthcare worker deaths.


The following link is about nurses who passed away in New York state.

Dr Frank Gabrin ER doctor, US



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Dr SD Khanna, Surgeon, NJ, US

Dr Bansal, Psychiatrist PA, US


Dr. Mark Respler, Urologist, US

Family Practitioner New Jersey, US

Dr. Amedeo Scolamiero, 71


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Dr. Tomas Pattugalan

Dr. Arthur Turetsky, 71




Connecticut, US

William “Bill” Murdoch, 63,

MRI technologist, Florida, US


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Summary of Covid-19 in US healthcare workers: CDC report (130)

As of April 9, 2020, a total of 9,282 U.S. HCW with confirmed COVID-19 had been reported to CDC. This is likely an underestimation. Of these, 90% were not hospitalized, 8%–10% were hospitalized, 184 (2%–5%) were admitted to an ICU, and 27 (0.3%–0.6%) died. Although only 6% of HCW patients were aged ≥65 years, 10 (37%) deaths occurred among persons in this age group.

Of the 315,531 cases reported in the US, 3% (9,282) were among HCP; however, some states reported higher percentages of reported cases. Ohio state has declared that HCW make up 22% of all the positive 5878 cases

Severe outcomes, including 27 deaths, occurred across all age groups; deaths most frequently occurred in HCW aged ≥65 years. 92% HCW patients reported having at least one symptom among fever, cough, or shortness of breath, the remaining 8% did not report any of these symptoms.

Median age was 42 years, 73% were female, note that the healthcare workforce is predominantly female in the US. Where data was available, 72% were white, 21% were black, 5% were Asian, and 2% were other or multiple races.

Known contact with Covid-19 patient in a health care setting was reported by 55%; 27% reported contact only in a household setting; 13% reported contact only in a community setting; 5% reported contact in more than one of these settings.

Suggested solutions: “Measures that will likely reduce the risk for infected HCP transmitting the virus to colleagues and patients include screening all HCP for fever and respiratory symptoms at the beginning of their shifts, prioritizing HCP for testing, and ensuring options to discourage working while ill. Given the evidence for presymptomatic and asymptomatic transmission, covering the nose and mouth (i.e., source control) is recommended in community settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.

Assuring source control among all HCP, patients, and visitors in health care settings is another promising strategy for further reducing transmission.

Even if everyone in a health care setting is covering their nose and mouth to contain their respiratory secretions, it is still critical that, when caring for patients, HCP continue to wear recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., gown, N95 respirator [or facemask if N95 is not available], eye protection, and gloves for COVID-19 patient care). Training of HCP on preventive measures, including hand hygiene and PPE use, is another important safeguard against transmission in health care settings” (130).

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Dr Emeka Chugbo, 60 died of the Corona virus pandemic in Lagos State Teaching Hospital, Nigeria on Wednesday 15th April, 2020. He is the first Nigerian doctor to have died of the covid-19 and the second death in Lagos at large. “He have contracted the disease from one of the patients he was treating in his facility and before he was rushed to the hospital, he already had severe case” Mr Ayeni, a fellow doctor in LUTH said.

Confirming the news to agbaclassicmedia, Medical Director of LUTH; Prof
Chris said late Emeka was rushed to the hospital and symptoms of covid-19 was obvious on and the firm had nothing much to do as the deceased was rushed late to the hospital.

In his words Prof Chris said: “He was brought in late so there was no much we could do. He was a staff in LUTH years back before he went to join the private sector. We learnt he had COVID-19 patients in his facility that he was treating. He may have been exposed to the virus from there. His death has shown what health workers are exposed to in the course of treating COVID-19 patients. Our hearts are with his

family in this trying time. It is a sad development for us.”

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Germany has 12 reported deaths among healthcare workers, which is low, and in line with its overall low case fatality rate.


According to a report from Robert Koch institute Berlin Germany, 7,293 cases with a SARS-CoV-2 infection have been notified among healthcare workers till 19 April.

The median age was 42 years. Hospitalisation was reported for 298 of 6,823 cases among staff working in medical facilities with information available (4%). There were 12 COVID-19 related deaths among staff working in medical facilities. The proportion of cases reported as working in medical facilities among all cases increased over time from at least 4% in Week 12, 5% in Week 13, 5% in Week 14, 7% in Week 15 and in Week 16, 2020. Due to missing data on occupation over 40% of cases, the true proportion of cases working in medical facilities may be higher.

A total of 139,897 cases and 4294 deaths are reported. Among these, 72% were female and 28% male. 86% of deaths, but only 18% of all cases, occurred in persons aged 70 years or older (7)

Dr Michael Ziekursch, 68 Family doctor, Germany

Page | 131


This essay by a young doctor describes what it is like to be on Covid duty in Australia




Page | 132



Dr Biplab Kanti Dasgupta, 64 Asst. Director of Health Services, West Bengal


Dr Om Prakash Chauhan from Madhya Pradesh’s Indore died of the coronavirus on Friday. This comes just a day after Dr Panjwani in Indore succumbed to the disease. Dr Om Prakash Chauhan, Ayurveda doctor was treating multiple patients at his private clinic. Dr. Chauhan was found having symptoms of the coronavirus, following which he was rushed to Suyash Hospital, but his condition continued to deteriorate. He was later taken to Aurobindo Hospital where he succumbed.

Dr Om Prakash Chauhan

Ayurveda doctor Indore, India

Photo from News18.com

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Dr Lakshmi Narayana Reddy, orthopaedic surgeon from Nellore Andhra Pradesh passed away at the age of 60 on 13 April.

Dr Lakshmi Narayana Reddy, orthopaedic surgeon

AP, India


Dr Shatrughan Panjwani

Indore, India

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Dr Shatrughan Panjwani, 62, a general physician, had tested positive for Covid-19 has succumbed to the illness in Indore on 8 April. This is the first case in India where a doctor has died of the virus. However, he was not treating Coronavirus-infected patients, his colleague said.

He died in Sri Aurobindo Hospital, where he was admitted after being diagnosed to have COVID-19. He is survived by his wife and three sons, all of whom are in Australia.

His colleague, Dr D. Natwar, said Panjwani’s patients included mostly from the slum colony.

Dr Panjwani was not treating Covid-19-infected patients. Most of his patients came from lower- income groups, one of his relatives said. He said the deceased doctor had waived his fee if the patient couldn’t afford it. The doctor had been running two clinics for the past 40 years in the city, said a representative of a pharmaceutical firm. “Recently a family whose member tested positive for the disease later had visited him for consultation,” she said, according to The Hindu, 9 April.


Dr Abidin Bahrainwala, 86 Passed away in Mumbai of Covid-19. He apparently got it after his relative visited from the UK. His son and four other family members have also tested positive (82).


Page | 135


Dr Simon Hercules, neurosurgeon died following COVID19 infection in Chennai.

Dr Simon Hercules, Chennai, India


Dr John L Sailo Ryntathiang

Shillong, India


Dr John L Sailo Ryntathiang, the 69-year-old founder of Bethany Hospitals, Shillong, Meghalaya

passed away from Covid-19. Six members of his family, including his wife, tested positive for the



Page | 136


Dr KM Ismail Hussain, a 76-year-old doctor from Karnool Andhra Pradesh succumbed to coronavirus. A few weeks ago, the doctor had taken ill and stopped going to work. Only after his death, it was revealed that he died of coronavirus infection.

Dr Ismail had completed his MBBS and MD degrees from Kurnool Medical College (KMC). He taught and served as superintendent at the medical college for many years before taking voluntary retirement to serve the medical college and hospital for over two decades. Later, he opened a nursing home in Karnool. Dr Ismail is survived by his wife, three daughters and a son, who have tested positive for COVID-19, and are under quarantine.

“He had always been so accessible and popular, that patients who were used to going to him started queueing up outside his house. He would never refuse to see a patient for any reason. So after a week, out of compulsion, he went back to work at the hospital,” his friend, Shafath Ahmed Khan, told media.

On April 14, Dr Ismail breathed his last. The next day, his test results revealed that he had died from COVID-19. Authorities said that while he hadn’t come in contact with any known COVID-19 patients, he could have been infected through anyone, as he had been working in a COVID-19 red-zone.

On April 19, a 69-year old Unani practitioner who owned a popular hospital in Kurnool, AP reportedly died of Covid-19 (114). Further details are not known.

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Dr Rajendran Nair, 66

Dr Rajendran Nair, 66, veteran general surgeon died of Covid-19 in the sultanate. Dr Nair ran his own clinic, Hani in Ruwi. He was hospitalized for few weeks, and later succumbed to coronavirus infection. He has been in Muscat for the last 40 years and was popular among all the communities in the country. He was popularly known as ‘common man’s doctor’.



Dr Liang Wudong, 60, ENT

first doctor to die from C19

General Surgeon, Oman


surgeon in China was the


Dr Liang was the first doctor to die from Covid-19. He director of the Department of

Otorhinolaryngology of Hubei Province Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine

Hospital (Xinhua Hospital) He had a history of atrial fibrillation. He died on January 25, 2020.

Page | 138


Dr Li Wenliang, 34, ophthalmologist was the first to raise alarm about the virus. He later died

Dr Li Wenliang, 34, an ophthalmologist with the Central Hospital of Wuhan, stuck to his post on the frontline regardless of the risk of infection and caught COVID-19. He passed away on Feb. 7.

from the infection.

Following his death, Dr Li became the face of growing anger at the Communist Party’s controls over information – with complaints that officials lie about disease outbreaks or conceal them altogether.

The 34-year-old ophthalmologist, who worked in Wuhan, had raised the alarm about the coronavirus on 30 December – urging alumni of his medical school to wear protective clothing.

Dr Li told them seven patients from a local seafood market had been diagnosed with a SARS-like illness and were quarantined in hospital.

A screenshot of the message went viral on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter, and Dr Li was accused of “rumour-mongering” by Wuhan police who tried to silence him. The doctor was told to sign a letter that accused him of “making false comments” that had “severely disturbed public order”. In an unusual admission of error, the ruling Communist Party’s top disciplinary body has now revoked its earlier decision – and sent a “solemn apology” to Dr Li’s family and disciplined two police officers for

their role in the incident.

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Dr Mei Zhongming, 57, Ophthalmologist also died from the infection

Wuhan Ophthalmologist Mei Zhongming, 57, a doctor who worked with whistle-blower Li Wenliang died after contracting coronavirus. He is said to have been infected after working long hours treating patients.


Dr Jiang Xueqing, 55,

head of thyroid and

breast surgery at the

hospital, also died from

the infection

Page | 140


Dr Peng Yinhua
29 yr old Pulmonary and critical care doctor, China

Dr Peng Yinhua, a 29-year-old respiratory and critical care doctor, was among the youngest doctors

to die in China back in February. He worked at the Jiangxia district People’s No 1 Hospital in Wuhan.

Peng was reported to have postponed his wedding, which was planned to take place over the Lunar

New Year holiday, to help treat COVID-19 virus patients, The South China Morning Post reported.

Dr Xia Sisi, 29 Gastroenterologist China

Dr Xia Sisi, a 29-year-old gastroenterologist working at the Union Jiangbei Hospital in Wuhan, also passed away in February after contracting the virus (18).

Page | 141


“According to reports, since the “closing the city” in Wuhan on January 23, Wu Yong has fought on the front line of epidemic prevention and control, devoting himself to the investigation of “four types of personnel”, fully enclosed management of the community, transfer of patients to treatment, and resolution Contradictions and disputes, helping the needy, and other tasks, persisted for 60 days until giving up precious lives, and interpreted the vow of “the epidemic comes first, Han police first” with action” (ChinaNews)

The Joint Mission learned that, among the Healthcare worker infections, most were identified early in the outbreak in Wuhan when supplies and experience with the new disease was lower. Additionally, investigations among HCW suggest that many may have been infected within the household rather than in a health care setting. Outside of Hubei, health care worker infections have been less frequent (i.e. 246 of the total 2055 HCW cases). When exposure was investigated in these limited cases, the exposure for most was reported to have been traced back to a confirmed case in a household.

Mr Wu Yong, 51, a police officer in Qiaokou District, Wuhan, worked in the community fighting the epidemic for 61 days on end and died on March 22.

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In a study of 24 healthcare worker deaths from China, thirteen (54.2%) cases died of COVID-19

infection, 8 (33.3%) suffered from sudden death including cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and

other non-confirmed diseases, and 3 died in traffic accidents during work time or after work (129)

Fourteen people who died on the frontline of fighting the novel coronavirus in central China’s Hubei Province, have been identified as the first batch of martyrs, said the provincial government in a statement.

The 14 martyrs were Wang Bing, Feng Xiaolin, Jiang Xueqing, Liu Zhiming, Li Wenliang, Zhang Kangmei, Xiao Jun, Wu Yong, Liu Fan, Xia Sisi, Huang Wenjun, Mei Zhongming, Peng Yinhua and Liao Jianjun. They were described as excellent representatives of role models among frontline medics and epidemic prevention workers. Martyrs are the highest honorary title which the Party and state award to citizens who bravely sacrifice their lives for the nation, society and the people.

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A brief introduction of the 14 martyrs declared by China:

1. Wang Bing was a 72-year-old female doctor working in a clinic of western medicine in Hongshan District, Wuhan. She was infected with the novel coronavirus at work and died on Feb. 18.

2. Feng Xiaolin, 65, was a rehired doctor of traditional Chinese medicine with the People’s Hospital in Huangpi District, Wuhan. He was infected with the novel coronavirus at work and died on Feb. 27.

3. Jiang Xueqing, 55, a consulting doctor with the Central Hospital of Wuhan, died of COVID-19 on March 1.

4. Liu Zhiming, 51, president of Wuchang Hospital in Wuhan, was infected with COVID-19 at work and died on Feb. 18.

5. Li Wenliang, 34, an ophthalmologist with the Central Hospital of Wuhan, stuck to his post on the frontline regardless of the risk of infection and caught COVID-19. He passed away on Feb. 7.

6. Zhang Kangmei, a 67-year-old female doctor rehired at the health service center of the Baofeng
Street community in Wuhan, died of COVID-19 on Feb. 14.

7. Xiao Jun, 49, a general surgeon at the Wuhan Red Cross Hospital, was infected with COVID-19 at
work and passed away on Feb. 8.

8. Wu Yong, 51, a police officer in Qiaokou District, Wuhan, worked in the community fighting the
epidemic for 61 days on end and died on March 22.

9. Liu Fan was a 59-year-old female senior nurse working at a community health service center of
Wuchang Hospital in Wuhan. She died of COVID-19 on Feb. 14.

10. Xia Sisi, 29, a gastroenterology physician, contracted COVID-19 while working at the Union Jiangbei
Hospital of Wuhan. She passed away on Feb. 23 despite doctors’ efforts.

11. Huang Wenjun, 42, an associate consulting doctor of respiratory medicine, became infected while
working on the frontline of the COVID-19 outbreak at the Central Hospital of Xiaogan City. He died
on Feb. 23 after medical efforts failed.

12. Mei Zhongming, 57, an ophthalmologist at the Central Hospital of Wuhan, died on March 3 after
contracting COVID-19 while treating patients.

13. Peng Yinhua, a 29-year-old doctor at the First People’s Hospital of Jiangxia District, Wuhan, died on
Feb. 20. He became infected while doing his uttermost to save the lives of COVID-19 patients.

14. Liao Jianjun, 49, was deputy director of a neighborhood committee in Qiaokou District, Wuhan. He
contracted COVID-19 during work. He died on Feb. 4.


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Partial list of COVID-related healthcare worker deaths

Courtesy Medscape. Please click on links provided, to see details of each person. A

Isaac Abadi, MD, 84, Founder, Professor of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Escuela de Medicina Luis Razetti, Hospital Universitario de Caracas, Miami, Florida
Musa Fath Abadi, age unknown, Emergency Medicine Specialist, Tehran, Iran
Abdullah Abbasi, age unknown, Infectious Disease Specialist, Gorgan, Iran

Ashraf Abdo, 60, General Practitioner, New York City
Mojtaba Abedian, age unknown, General Practitioner, Neka, Mazandaran, Iran
Luigi Ablondi, 66, Epidemiologist, Former General Manager of the Crema Hospital, Cremona, Italy
Lúcia Dantas Abrantes, 66, Physician, Fortaleza, Brazil
John Abruzzo, 62, Registered Nurse, Huntington, New York
Jacques F. Acar, 88, Professor Emeritus of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
Divinia Accad, 72, Registered Nurse, John D. Dingell Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan
Labeja Acellam, 69, Physician, University Hospital Lewisham, London, England
Divinia “Debbie” Accad, 72, Registered Nurse, John Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan
Edmond Adedeji, 62, Emergency Medicine Physician, Great Western Hospital, Swindon, England
Tahmineh Adibi, age unknown, Nurse, Bandar-e Anzali, Iran
Elisabeth Rolande Adjibodou, 43, Nursing Assistant, EHPAD Korian, Mulhouse, France
Ashraf Adly, 60, Consultant of Cardiology, Head of CCU, Qena General Hospital, Qena, Egypt
Ajit Agarwal, 68, Cardiology, United Kingdom
Guillermo Aguilar, age unknown, General Practitioner, College Professor, Centro Regional Universitario de San Miguelito, San Miguelito, Panama
Mary Agyeiwaa Agyapong, 28, Nurse, Bedford, England
Abdel Sattar Airoud, 74, General Practitioner, Piacenza, Italy
Quen Agbor Ako, 53, Nursing Home Nurse, Randallstown, Maryland
Ricardo A. Alcivar Zambrano, 67, Pediatrician and Neonatologist, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Seyyed Al Hosseini, Hospital Staff, Rasht, Iran
Ahmed Al-Lawah, 54, Clinical Pathologist, Port Said, Egypt
Ahmed Al-Louah, age unknown, Biologic Specialist, Algiers, Algeria
John Alagos, 24, Nursing Assistant, Watford General Hospital, Watford, England (presumed)
Tamajin Ali, 49, Nursing Supervisor, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Hadio Ali K, 49, Neurologist, Public Hospital South, Jakarta, Indonesia
Lori Alioa, 56, Healthcare Social Worker, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Narjes Khan Alizadeh, 25, Nurse, Iran
Michael Allieu, age unknown, Acute Care Nurse, Homerton University Hospital, London, England
Hector Alvarez, age unknown, Physician, Novaliches District Hospital, Novaliches, Philippines
Luiz Alves de Brito, 48, Licensed Practical Nurse, Nursing Technician, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Vincenza Amato, 65, Medical Director Responsible UOS Hygiene Public Health of the Department of Hygiene and Health Prevention, Bergamo, Italy
Elisa María Amaya de la Cruz, 43, Medical Doctor, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Coahuila, Mexico Afshar Amiri, age unknown, Psychiatrist, Tehran, Iran
Abdulshakur Hazhir Amiri, age unknown, Pharmacist, Rasht, Iran
Carlo Amodio, age unknown, Radiologist, Former Radiology Chief, Italy
Carlos de Aragón Amunárriz, 65, Primary Care Physician, La Puebla de Montalbán, Toledo, Spain
Adharul Anam, S.Kep, 25, Nurse, Jakarta, Indonesia
Roberto V. Anastacio, 79, Cardiologist, Makati, Philippines
Larrice Anderson, 46, Nurse, New Orleans East Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana
Gennaro Annarumma, age unknown, Italy
Hassan Arbab, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Mashhad, Iran
Sonia Abdel-Azim Aref, 64, General Medicine, Egypt


Page | 146

Alberto Cordero Aroca, Physician, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Krishan Arora, 57, General Practitioner, Violet Lane Medical Practice, Croydon, London, England
Yousef Aryoubi, age unknown, Public Hospital Doctor, Kabul, Afghanistan

Yaw Asante, age unknown, Registered Nurse, NYC Health+Hospitals/Lincoln, New York City Malik Ashtar, 50, Nursing Staff, Gilgit, Pakistan
Juraci Augusta da Silva, 70, Nurse, Hospital Municipal do Tatuapé, São Paulo, Brazil Gaetano Autore, 68, General Practitioner, Naples, Italy

Ernane Avelar Fonseca, 72, Orthopedist, Hospital Life Center, Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Madhvi Aya, 61, Physician Assistant, Emergency Medicine, Woodhull Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York Fayez Khalid Ayache, 77, General Practitioner, North Clacton Medical Group, Clacton-on-Sea, England Luiz Eduardo Ayres Ramos, 49, Nursing Technician, Santos Central Emergency Unit, São Paulo, Brazil Saeid Azizi, age unknown, Ophthalmologist, Zabol, Iran
Ramin Azizifar, age unknown, Nurse, Tehran, Iran

Samad Babazadeh, age unknown, General Practitioner, Babol, Iran
Israel Bactol, 34, Cardiologist, Philippine Heart Center, Metro Manila, Philippines
Abidin Bahrainwala, 86, Urologist, Mumbai, India
Diane Wilson Bahun, 45, ICU Nurse, Paris, France
Earl Bailey, 45, Registered Nurse, Broward County, Florida
Mohammad Bakhshalizadeh, age unknown, General Practitioner, Rasht, Iran
Melujean Ballesteros, 60, Nurse, London, England
Amrik Bamotra, 63, Radiology Support Worker, King George Hospital, Goodmayes, London, England
Ate Wilma Banaag, Nurse, Watford General Hospital, Watford, England
Celia Yap Banago, 65, Registered Nurse, Research Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas
Evandro Barbosa, 55, Nurse, Hospital Getúlio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Domenico Bardelli, 75, Dentist, Lodi, Italy
Gilbert Barnedo, 48, Nurse, London, England
Manuel Barragan, 63, General Practitioner, Cordoba, Spain
Jenni Claire Bartolome, 45, Registered Nurse, Emerson Health and Rehabilitation Center, Emerson, New Jersey Alex Bass, 53, Physician Assistant, Brooklyn, New York
Doug Bass, 64, Medical Director, Drug and Alcohol Treatment, New York City
Don Batayola, 41, Physical Therapist, New Jersey
João Batista Marangoni, 65, General Practitioner and Pediatrician, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Jeffrey Baumbach, 57, Resident Nurse, St. Joseph’s Medical Center, Stockton, California
Cenover Nicandro “Nicko” Bautista, 33, Physician, Mandaluyong City Medical Center, Manila, Philippines Kamran Bayat, age unknown, Surgical Technician, Tehran, Iran
Nilufar Esmail Beigi, age unknown, General Practitioner, Tehran, Iran
Anusheh Beikian, age unknown, Obstetrician, Rasht, Iran
Enrique Emilio Benites Quintero, 70, Otolaryngologist, Boy Scout, Clínica Milenium, Guayaquil, Ecuador Andres Benitez, age unknown, Food and Nutrition Services, Holy Name Medical Center, Teaneck, New Jersey Angeline Bernadel, 52, Nurse, West River Healthcare Center, Milford, Connecticut
Luis Felipe Bernett, 73, Neonatologist and Pediatrician, Panama
Gianbattista Bertolasi, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Niloofar Esmail Beygi, 34, Physician, Moheb Kowsar Hospital, Tehran, Iran
Diego Bianco, 47, Paramedic, Lombardy, Italy
Altamir Bindá, 75, Physician, Manaus, Brazil
Billy Birmingham, 69, Emergency Medical Technician, Kansas City, Missouri
Jean-Marie Boegle, 66, OB-GYN, Mulhouse, France
Dorothy Boles, 65, Registered Nurse, Greenwood, Mississippi
Héctor Bornes, 56, General Practitioner, Hospital Angel Marzetti, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Massimo Borghese, 63, Specialist in Otolaryngology and Phoniatrics, Naples, Italy
Giuseppe Borghi, 64, General Practitioner, Lodi, Italy
Massimo Bosio, 68, General Practitioner, Pompiano, Italy
Sean D. Boynes, 49, Pharmacist, Greenbelt, Maryland


Page | 147

Kenneth Bradshaw, 64, Director of Facilities (retired), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee
Elvira Bucu, 50, NHS Care Worker, United Kingdom
Emilio Brignole, age unknown, Hospital Surgeon, Italy

Araceli Buendia Ilagan, 63, ICU Nurse, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida Kevin Bundy, 33, Paramedic, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby Borough, Pennsylvania Antonio Buonomo, 65, Medical Examiner, Naples, Italy
Antonino Buttafuoco, 66, General Practitioner, Bergamo, Italy

Jesus Antonio Cabrales, 68, General Surgeon, Cali, Colombia
Óscar Miguel Cabrera, 28, Third-Year Oncology Resident, Internet personality on the YoMedico blog, Hospital Eugenio Espejo, Quito, Ecuador
Patrick Cain, 52, ICU Nurse, Flint, Michigan
Luis Caldera-Nieves, 63, OB-GYN, Miami, Florida
Mario Calonghi, 55, Dentist, Brescia, Italy
Giulio Calvi, 72, General Practitioner, Bergamo, Italy
Donna Campbell, age unknown, Healthcare Support Worker, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, Wales
Lourdes Campbell, age unknown, Healthcare Assistant, Bolton NHS Foundation Trust, Bolton, England Ludmila Caraion, 65, Family Doctor, Soroca, Republic of Moldova
John P. Careccia, age unknown, Chief and Training Director, Woodbridge Township Ambulance & Rescue Squad, Woodbridge, New Jersey
Andrea Carli, 69, General Practitioner, Lodi, Italy
Evelyn Caro, Nurse, 69, Holy Cross Hospital, Silver Spring, Maryland
Jenelyn Carter, 41, Healthcare Assistant, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, Wales
Monica Echeverri Casarez, 49, Surgical Technician, Dearborn, Michigan
Ricardo Castaneda, 64, Psychiatrist, New York City
Isaura Castermans, 30, Nurse, Genk, Belgium
Gaily Catalla, age unknown, Nurse, Maidstone, Kent, England
Sandra Luz Cazares Jimenez, 54, Hospital Laundry Service, IMSS Hospital General Zona 20 de La Margarita, Puebla, Mexico, Mexico
Rosary Celaya Castro-Olega, 63, Registered Nurse (retired), Cedars Sinai Hospital, Los Angeles, California André Charon, 73, Family Physician, Saint-Louis (Haut-Rhin), France
Om Prakash Chauhan, 65, Ayurvedic Doctor, Indore, India
Marino Chiodi, 70, Ophthalmologist, Bergamo, Italy
Mary Virginia Howell Christopher, 97, Registered Nurse, Army Nurse during World War II, New Orleans, Louisiana
Abdul Mabud Chowdhury, 53, Urologist, Homerton Hospital, London, England
Marcello Cifola, age unknown, Otolaryngologist, Italy
Daniel Leglisse Cisneros, age unknown, Internal Medicine, Hospital ISSSTE Tacuba, Mexico City, Mexico Esequiel “Zeke” Cisneros, 64, Psychiatric Registered Nurse, Eastern State Hospital, Medical Lake, Washington John Cofrancesco, 52, Nursing Home Administrator, Family of Caring at Montclair, New Jersey
Roy Coleman, 64, Emergency Medical Technician, Shreveport, Louisiana
Albert Coll Nus, 63, Family Physician, lleida, Spain
Francesc Collado, 63, Family Physician, Barcelona, Spain
Francesco Counselor, age unknown, Medical Examiner, Italy
Aurelio Maria Comelli, 69, Cardiologist, Bergamo, Italy
Benedetto Comotti, 74, Hematologist, Bergamo, Italy
Hernán Milton Cóndor Beraun, age unknown, General Practitioner, IMSS Bienestar Delegational Coordinator, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico
Giovanni José Coppiano Campoverde, 55, Radiology Technician, Clown, Hospital de niños Dr. Roberto Gilbert Elizalde, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Glen Corbin, 59, Mental Health Assistant, Park Royal Centre for Mental Health, Brent, London, England Emilio Úcar Corral, 58, Medical Director, Hospital Universitario Santa Cristina, Madrid, Spain
Francesco Cortesi, 59, Specialist in General Surgery and Oncology, Rome Italy
Lynsay Coventry, 54, Midwife, Princess Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust, Harlow, Essex, England


Page | 148

Linnette Cruz, 51, Dental Nurse, Sketty, Wales
Marcellano Cruz, 73, Dermatology, East Avenue Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines
María Elisa Amaya Cruz, 44, Family Medicine, IMSS Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 9, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico
Clemencia Cuadra, age unknown, Nurse, Junta de Beneficencia de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador

Antonio Tadeu Pinto da Fonseca, 66, Orthopedist, Rio Claro, Brazil
Adelita Ribeiro da Silva, 38, Lab Technician, Goiânia, Brazil
Edson Francisco da Silva, 45, Nurse, Barretos, Brazil
Francesco Dall’Antonia, 82, Former Primary of Surgery I of Vicenza, Vicenza, Italy
Janette Dancel-Liban, age unknown, Physician, FEU-NRMF Medical Center, Quezon City, Philippines Jeannie Danker, 60, Director of Radiology, OSU Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio

Huy Hao Dao, 44, Public Health Physician, Montreal, Canada
Brian Darlington, age unknown, Hospital Porter, Mid Cheshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cheshire, England
Emma Davis, 37, Nurse, University Hospital Southampton, UK
Bishop Bruce Edward Davis, 57, Shift Leader/Central State Hospital Forensics, Milledgeville, Georgia
Jenniffer Davis, age unknown, Care Center Nurse, Meramec Bluffs Care Center, Ballwin, Missouri
Hamidreza Davoudi, age unknown, Pharmacist, Babol, Iran
Nihat Dayanıklı, 70, Urologist, Izmir, Turkey
Leilani Dayrit, 47, Nurse, Rugby, England
Siamak Dayushli, age unknown, Pediatrician, Bandar-e Anzali, Iran
Francesco De Alberti, age unknown, Former OMCeO President, Lecco, Italy
Adelia Maria Araujo de Almeida Oliveira, 62, Pediatric, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Alex Sandro de Carvalho, 39, Nursing Technician, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Francesco De Francesco, 82, Retired, Former Hospital Doctor, Sculptor and Painter, Bergamo, Italy
Domenico De Gilio, 66, General Practitioner, Lecco, Italy
Victor de Jesus, 58, Pediatrician, Hospital HIMA, Caguas, Puerto Rico
Antonio De Pisapia, age unknown, General Practitioner, Dentist, Italy
Adelina Alvino De Martino, age unknown, Retired Cardiologist, former primary care physician, Italy
José Manoel de Melo Gomes, age unknown, Anesthesiology, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Carlos Torres del Pozo, 62, Family Doctor, Toledo, Spain
Leo Dela Cruz, age unknown, Geriatric Psychiatrist, Carepoint Hospital, Jersey City, New Jersey
Elizabeth B. DelMundo, 59, Nurse, Dover, New Jersey
Amarante Dias, age unknown, Healthcare Worker, Weston General Hospital, Weston-super-Mare, North Somerset, England
Gastão Dias Júnior, 51, Phisician, Pediatrics, Hospital da Unimed, Balneário Camboriú, Brazil
Joaquín Díaz Domínguez, 64, Chief of Surgery and Digestive Diseases, Hospital Universitario La Paz, and Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Hospital Universitario La Paz & Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain
Ade Dickson, age unknown, Mental Health Nurse, Barnet Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment Team, London, UK
Pedro Di Marco, 64, Cardiologist, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Danielle Hedrick DiCenso, 33, Registered Nurse, Wellington, Florida
Alan Patrick do Espírito Santo, 38, Nursing Technician, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Carla do Nascimento Dias, 46, Nursing Technician, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Daisy Doronila, age unknown, Nurse, Hudson County Jail, Kearny, New Jersey
Maurice Dotson, 51, Certified Nursing Assistant, Austin, Texas
Ahmad Soleimani Doust, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Qom, Iran
Fanny Durán Cuellar, 36, Surgical Nurse, Montero, Bolivia
İsmail Durmuş, 35, Pharmacist, Istanbul, Turkey
Iwan Dwiprahasto, 58, Medical Doctor, Professor of Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Page | 149


Hanieh Edalati, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Takestan, Iran
Elizabeth Edwards, age unknown, Phlebotomist, CarolinaEast Medical Center, New Bern, North Carolina Obinna Chibueze Eke, age unknown, Nurse, Irvington, New Jersey
Josiane Zauma Ebonja Ekoli, 55, Agency Nurse, Harrogate District Hospital, Harrogate, England
Amged el-Hawrani, 55, ENT Specialist, Queen’s Hospital Burton, Burton on Trent, England
Si Ahmed El Mahdi, 58, Professor, Department of Surgery, Hospital Frantz-Fanon de Blida, Algeria
Adil el-Tayar, 63, Transplant Surgeon, Isleworth, London, England
Maureen Ellington, 60, Healthcare Assistant, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, England
Chugbo Emeka, 60, Medical Practitioner, OB-GYN, Lagos, Nigeria
Vincenzo Emmi, age unknown, Resuscitator, Italy
Judson Frazier Eneas, 72, Nephrologist, Nassau, Bahamas
Raul D. Eslao, 53, Registered Nurse, Westland, Michigan
Tahereh Esmaili, age unknown, Nurse, Qom, Iran
Orlando Espinoza, 53, Family Practitioner, Broward County, Florida
Raul Garcia Espinoza, 53, Nurse, Centro Medico La Raza, Mexico City, Mexico
Carlos Augusto Estorari, 48, Physician, Parauapebas, Brazil
Eduardo Martínez Etchart, 51, Physician, Tlatelolco México
Lisa Ewald, 54, Nurse, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan

Gholamreza Fakhri, age unknown, Physician/ICU Specialist, Amir-Al-Momenin Hospital, Tehran, Iran Majid Farhad, 46, General Practitioner, Kashan, Iran
Taghi Ahari Farshchi, age unknown, Pediatrician, Tabriz, Iran
Gino Fasoli, 73, General Practitioner (retired), Brescia, Italy

Mehdi Fathabadi, 50, Emergency Medicine, Tehran, Iran
Antoni Feixa, 57, Doctor, Quirón Hospital, Barcelona, Spain
Kwedi Felix, 48, Rheumatologist, Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon
Henry Fernandez, 77, Physician, Pangasinan, Philippines
Jessie Ferreras, 55, Primary Care Physician, Waldwick, New Jersey
Mike Field, 59, Emergency Medical Technician, Valley Stream, New York
Alex Filippov, 51, Neurosurgeon, Alexandrovskaya Hospital, St. Petersburg, Russia
Barbara Finch, 63, Licensed Practical Nurse, Southern Virginia Regional Medical Center, Emporia, Virginia Giuseppe Finzi, 62, Hematologist and Contract Professor of Vascular Diseases at the University of Parma, Parma, Italy
Chris Firlit, 37, PGY6 Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery Chief Resident, Detroit, Michigan (presumed)
Anna Maria Focarete, 69, Provincial Councilor FIMMG, SIMG President and Former Councilor Prov. of the Medici, Lecco, Italy
Francesco Foltrani, 67, General Practitioner, Macerata, Italy
Amanda Forde, age unknown, GP Receptionist, The Vale Practice, London, England
Octavia Foxworth, 80, Nurse, St. Clair Shores, Michigan
Devin Dale Francis, 44, Radiology Technician, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida
Bernadette Albertine Francisca, age unknown, ENT Surgeon, Makassar, Indonesia
Giovanni Francesconi, 90, General Practitioner, Brescia, Italy
Carlos Enrique Burbano Freire, 50, OB-GYN, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Jacques Fribourg, Emergency Physician, Trappes Private Hospital, Trappes, France
Luigi Frusciante, 71, General Practitioner, Como, Italy
Clair Marie Fuqua, 28, Receptionist, Pediatrics, Pineville, Louisiana

Frank Gabrin, 60, Emergency Medicine Physician, New York City
Bruna Galavotti, 86, Psychiatrist, Dean of the Women’s Medical Association of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy Maurizio Galderisi, 65, Cardiologist, Professor of Internal Medicine at the Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Franco Galli, 65, General Practitioner, Mantua, Italy


Page | 150

Jay Galst, age unknown, Ophthamologist, New York City
Carlos Garay, age unknown, General Practitioner, Clínica Hospital Garay, Manabí, Ecuador
José Martín Ruiz Garcia, 52, Surgeon, Mexico City, Mexico
Pilar García, 64, Nurse, Hospital Santa Bárbara, Puertollano, Spain
Hector Garrido Vecino, 59, Pediatrician, Ciudad Real, Spain
Ivano Garzena, 48, Dentist, Turin, Italy
Salvacion Rodriguez-Gatchalian, 67, Pediatrician, Infectious Diseases Specialist, Manila, Philippines
Deborah Gatewood, Phlebotomist, Beaumont Health Farmington Hills, Farmington Hills, Michigan
Amor Gatinao, 50, Nurse, National Health Service (NHS), United Kingdom
Scott Geiger, age unknown, Emergency Medical Technician, Atlantic Health System, Morristown, New Jersey Rosario Vittorio Gentile, 67, General Practitioner, Specialist in Allergology and Hematology, Cremona, Italy Calogero Giabbarrasi, 68, General Practitioner, Caltanissetta, Italy
Orlandini Giancarlo, age unknown, Italy
Pierre Gilet, 64, General Practitioner, Dannemarie, France
Raffaele Giura, 80, Pneumologist, Como, Italy
Mario Giovita, 65, General Practitioner, Bergamo, Italy
Miguel Angel Giron Guzmán, 60, Emergency Room Director, La Perla General Hospital, Nezahualcoyotl, Mexico Sami Gjoka, 52, Cardiologist, University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK), Pristina, Kosovo
Liz Glanister, 68, Nurse, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, England
Gerard Fabian Goco, 52, Physician, Nuclear Medicine, St. Luke’s Medical Center, Philippines
Mohammad Kazem Golresan, age unknown, Laboratory Technician, Yazd, Iran
Diamir Gomes, 74, Anesthesiologist, Santos, Brazil
Eduardo Gomes da Silva, 48, Nursing Assistant, Tide Setúbal Municipal Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil (presumed) Nerio Valarino Gonzalez, 59, Internist, Murcia Spain
Oscar Gonzalez, 56, General Physician, Cali, Colombia
James T. Goodrich, 73, Neurosurgeon, Director of the Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Montefiore Health System, Professor of Clinical Neurological Surgery, Pediatrics, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City
Kourosh Goudarzipour, 49, Hematologist Specialist, Mofid Hospital, Tehran, Iran
Janice Graham, 58, Nurse, Greenock, Scotland
Kevin Graiani, 56, Nurse Practitioner, Garnerville, New York
Renzo Granata, 68, General Practitioner, Alessandria, Italy
Ali Dennis Guillermo, 44, ICU Registered Nurse, Long Island Memorial Hospital, Patchogue, New York Alexander Gusev, 57, Medical Technician, Reno, Nevada
Antonio Gutiérrez, age unknown, Medical Coordinator, Eras de Renueva Health Clinic, Léon, Spain
William Gutiérrez, 59, Anesthesiologist, Chief of ICU, Centro Policlínico del Olaya, Bogotá, Colombia
Ernesto Gutiérrez Vera, 82, Physician, Epidemiologist, Virologist, Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Medicina Tropical Leopoldo Izquieta Pérez, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Cuauhtémoc de Gyves de la Cruz, 65, Hospital Maintenance Worker, Hospital General Macedonio Benítez Fuentes, Juchitán de Zaragoza, Oaxaca, Mexico

Syed Haider, 80s, General Practitioner, United Kingdom
Dino Ezra Hailil, 39, Pediatrician, West Metro Medical Center, Zamboanga, Philippines
Abdelkrim Hammoudi, 61, General Practitioner, EPSP Bouzereah, Algiers, Algeria
Hanifullah Hanif, 42, Family Medicine, Kabul, Afghanistan
Rose Harrison, age unknown, Long-term Care Nurse, Hamilton, Alabama
Thomas Harvey, 57, Healthcare Assistant, North East London NHS Foundation Trust, London, England Young-Gu Heo, 59, Internal Medicine Physician, Dasgu, South Korea
Capt. Douglas Linn Hickok (US Army), 57, Physician Assistant, East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania
Wahyu Hidayat, age unknown, Otolaryngologist, Jakarta, Indonesia
Sudadi Hirawan, 48, Occupational Medicine Specialist, Occupational Medicine University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Greg Hodge, 59, Emergency Medical Technician, New York City
Amir Reza Honarkar, age unknown, Physiotherapist, Tehran, Iran
Nader Hosseinpour, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Lahijan, Iran


Page | 151

Ghorbanali Hosseinzadeh, age unknown, Nurse, Kashan, Iran
James House, 40, Registered Nurse, Omni Continuing Care, Detroit, Michigan
Andy Howe, 48, Bus Driver running transit service to hospitals, Nottingham, England Alex Hsu, 67, Internal Medicine, Northwest Medical Center, Margate, Florida
Steven J. Huber, 62, Orthodonist, Jefferson City, Missouri

Giandomenico Iannucci, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Jermain Ifill, 38, Emergency Medical Technician, Guyana
Javed Iqbal, 55, Otorhinolaryngology, Hayatabad Medical Complex/Khyber Girls Medical College, Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
Vahid Iravani, 56, Psychiatrist, Tehran, Iran
Goran Ivankovic, 56, Urology, Cuprija, Serbia
Fariba Izadpanahi, 40, Nurse, Beheshti Hospital, Shiraz, Iran

Molud Jafari, age unknown, Nurse, Tehran, Iran
Javad Jalalinia, age unknown, Anesthesiologist, Babol, Iran
Carol Jamabo, 56, Care Worker, Bury, Greater Manchester, England
Sadaf Jameel, 38, Nurse, Isolation Ward, Aziz Bhatti Shaheed Hospital, Gujrat, Pakistan
Aleksandar Janackovic, 76, Internal Medicine, Nis, Serbia
Marcelo Jaochico, 56, Chief, Pampanga Pampanga Provincial Health Office, Philippines
Raul Diaz Jara, 71, Cardiologist, Philippines
Amadeo Gualberto Andriuoli Jaramillo, General Practitioner, Clínica Andriuoli, Babahoyo, Ecuador Antônio César Ferreira Pitta Jesus, 48, Nurse Technician, Hospital Santo Antônio, Salvador, Brazil
Jiang Xueqing, 55, Head of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, China
Hossein Johari, age unknown, ENT Specialist, Qom, Iran
Aleyamma John, 65, Registered Nurse, NYC Health+Hospitals/Queens Hospital Center, New York City Norman Jones, 72, Cardiologist, Former Cardiology Chief of the Trabattoni-Ronzoni Rehabilitation Center in Seregno, Como, Italy
Frederic Jota Silva Lima, 32, Physician, UPA Itaquera, São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
Djoko Judodjoko, 70, General Surgeon, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Fernando Juarez, age unknown, Orderly, IMSS Hospital Regional No. 2 Villa Coapa, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Mexico

Dmitry Kapitanov, 55, Otolaryngologist, Professor, Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia Shahrouz Karimian, 45, Nurse, Tehran, Iran
Vahid Mosef Kasmaei, age unknown, Emergency Medicine Specialist, Rasht, Iran
Zabihullah Kaviani, age unknown, Healthcare Worker, Borujen, Iran

Kious Kelly, 48, ER Nurse, Mount Sinai West, New York City
Mohsen Khadem, age unknown, Operating Room Nurse, Kashan, Iran
Nabeel Khair, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Narges Khanalizadeh, 25, Nurse, Milad Lahijan Hospital, Lahijan, Iran
Priya Khanna, 43, Nephrologist, Khanna Nephrology, Glen Ridge, New Jersey
Tahsin Khrisat, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Gholamreza Vosughi Kia, age unknown, Nurse, Rasht, Iran
Soheil Kianfar, 43, Urologist, Pars Hospital, Rasht, Iran
Curwin King, 59, Hospital Attendant, Brooklyn
Kim King-Smith, 53, EKG Technician, Newark, New Jersey
Oscar King Jr, age unknown, Hospital Porter, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England
Svetlana Kiseleva, 47, Registered Nurse, Vitebsk, Belarus
Nasrin Kodim, 72, Physician, Professor of Epidemiology, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
Reza Koochekinia, 52, General Practitioner, Astane Ashrafieh, Iran
Maria Krier, age unknown, Nurse, Life Care Center of Nashoba Valley, Littleton, Massachusetts Igor Kuninets, 46, Pathologist, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine


Page | 152

Cuma Kurt, 57, Environmental Health Technician, Provincial Directorate of Health Affairs, Diyarbakir, Turkey L

Eric Labeja-Acellam, 69, Consultant, University Hospital Lewisham, London, England Giuseppe Lanati, 73, Pulmonologist, Como, Italy
Robert Lancaster, 98, Psychiatrist, New Orleans, Louisiana
Michele Lauriola, 67, General Practitioner, Bergamo, Italy

Miodrag Lazić, 65, Surgeon, Nis, Serbia
Joyce Pacubas-Le Blanc, 53, Nurse, Neuroscience ICU, UIC Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois
Vincenzo Leone, 65, General Practitioner, Vice President of SNAMI, Bergamo, Italy
Marco Lera, 68, Dentist, Lucca, Italy
Juan José López Lerena, 61, Nuclear Medicine Specialist, Montevideo, Uruguay
Kevin Levia, 24, Emergency Medical Technician, Dover, New Jersey
Li Wenliang, 33, Ophthalmologist, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, China
Roger Liddell, 64, CCU Supply Chain Manager, Flint, Michigan
Mary Grace Lim, 40, Emergency Medicine, Physician, Asian Hospital and Medical Center, Alabang, Philippines Gilmar Calazans Lima, 58, Doctor, Hospital Regional Costa do Cacau, Ilhéus, Brazil
Liu Fan, 59, Nurse, Wuchang Hospital in Wuhan, China
Liu Zhiming, 51, Director of Wuchang Hospital in Wuhan, China
Vasily Lipilin, 50, Paramedic, Borisov, Belarus
Ecaterina Litvinschi, 79, Emergency Medicine, Chisinau, Moldova
Biljana Natic Ljumovic, 59, OB-GYN, Niš, Serbia
Carlos Joaquin Romero Llontop, General Practitioner, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Theresa Lococo, 68, Pediatric Nurse, Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, New York
Exsenveny Lolapua, 57, Medical Doctor, Director of RSUD Kota Madya Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
Gabriele Lombardi, 68, Dentist, Brescia, Italy
Lydia Lopez, 63, Laundry Services, Samaritas Senior Living, Saginaw, Michigan
Sara Bravo López, 28, General Practitioner, Cuenca, Spain
Iván Tomás López de Santiago, age unknown, Endovascular Neurologist, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Zumpango, Zumpango, State of Mexico, Mexico
Hamid Lotfi, age unknown, Orthopedic Surgeon, Rasht, Iran
Carmen Olivia Janeta Lopez, age unknown, OB-GYN, Babahoyo, Ecuador
Roberto Mario Lovotti, 69, General Practitioner, Milan, Italy
Eric Loupiac, 60, Emergency Physician, Lons-le-Saunier, France
Piero Lucarelli, 74, Anesthesiologist, Bergamo, Italy
Ravasio Luigi, age unknown, Italy
Viviane “Vivi” Rocha de Luiz, 61, Nurse, Brasília, Brazil
Francisco Avelino Siy Lukban, 62, Cardiologist, Metro Manila, Philippines
Rosario Lupo, 65, Medical Examiner, Manager of the INPS Legal Medical Center of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy Silvio Lussana, age unknown, Internist Physician, Ex Primary Medicine, Italy

Romeo Gregorio “Greg” Macasaet III, 62, Anesthesiologist, Manila Doctors Hospital, Manila, Philippines Rebecca Mack, 29, Nurse, Newcastle, England
Grant Maganga, 56, Mental Health Nurse, Hurst Place in Ashton-under-Lyne, Manchester, Manchester, England

Antonio Maghernino, 59, Medical Continuity Doctor, Foggia, Italy
Hamidreza Mahini, age unknown, General Practitioner, Pakdasht, Iran
Iqbal Omari Mahmoudzai, 35, Pediatric Surgery Specialist, Shinozadah Hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan Giuseppe Maini, 74, General Practitioner, Piacenza, Italy
Abdulghani Taki Makki, 78, Dentist, Italy
Gholamali Manavian, age unknown, General Practitioner, Sari, Iran
Christine Mandegarian, 54, Personal Support Worker, Altamont Care Community, Scarborough, Canada Emilio Isaías Manzo Espinoza, age unknown, Occupational Medicine, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Michael “Mike” Marceaux, age unknown, ER Nurse, Shreveport, Louisiana


Page | 153

Leonardo Marchi, 65, Infectious Disease Doctor, Medical Director of the San Camillo Nursing Home, Cremona, Italy
Cinthia Marín Guerrero, 32, Radiology Technician, IMSS Unidad de Medicina Familiar No 39, Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico

Francisco Marín, 61, Physician, Director of Health, Municipality of Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina
Dragan Marković, 63, Professor, General Surgery Specialist, Vascular Surgery Subspecialist, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Elio Cesar Marson, 52, Physician, Mossoro, Brazil
Christopher David Matus, 46, Medical Examiner Investigator, Swartz Creek, Michigan
David Martin, Paramedic, American Medical Response, Natchez, Mississippi
Julián Santos-Gonzalez Martinez, 64, Secretary of Medicine, College Albacete, Albacete, Spain
Miguel Ángel Martínez, age unknown, Nurse, ISSSTE Regional Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico
JD Martínez Pérez, age unknown, Nurse, Secretaría de Salud, San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico
Ronaldo Mateo, 48, Surgeon, Silang, Cavite, Philippines
Giunio Matarazzo, age unknown, Dentist, Italy
Griselda Damián Mateo, age unknown, Nurse, Hospital Enrique Cabrera, Mexico City, Mexico
Jorge Mateo, age unknown, Respiratory Therapist, Coral Gables Hospital, Miami, Florida
Jaime Matsumoto, Orthopedist, Brazil
Ivan Mauri, 69, General Practitioner, Lecco, Italy
Cláudio Maurício Santana, 59, Healthcare Assistant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Leilani Medel, 41, Nurse, Bridgend, Wales
Mohammad Ghader Norouz Mehr, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Rasht, Iran
Janine Meritet, 59, Patient Care Assistant, Smithtown, New York
Rabbi Yaakov Meltzer, 60, Physician Assistant, Brooklyn, New York
Eduardo Méndez Martinez, 65, Orthopedic Surgeon (retired), Hospital Administrator, ISSSTE Hospital Regional General Ignacio Zaragoza, Iztapalapa, Mexico City, Mexico
Luis Alberto Mendez, age unknown, Pneumologist, Monclova, México
Cynthia “Chi” Mendoza, 68, Retired Nurse and Hospital Volunteer, Norfolk, Virginia
Joel Carpio Mendoza, age unknown, Nuclear Medicine Physician, The Medical City Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga, Philippines
Assyad Meryem, age unknown, General Practitioner, Casablanca, Morocco
Tchouamo Michel, 50, Otorhinolaryngologist, Douala, Cameroon
Roberto Mileti, 59, Gynecologist, Rome, Italy
Anjanette Miller, age unknown, Nurse, Chicago, Illinois
Hossein Ahmad Miri, age unknown, General Practitioner, Kashan, Iran
Sorena Mirmirani, age unknown, Psychologist, Amol, Iran
Fernando Miyake, 56, Internal Medicine, Hospital Beneficiência Portuguesa, Santo André, Brazil
Mohammad Mohammadi, age unknown, General Practitioner, Rasht, Iran
Francis “Frankie” Molinari, 70, Internal MedicinePhysician, Clara Maass Medical Center, Belleville, New Jersey Vahid Monsef, age unknown, Emergency Medicine Specialist, Gilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran Ana Cláudia Monteiro, 46, Ophthamologist, Divinopolis, Brazil
Gianroberto Monti, age unknown, Dentist, Italy
Barbara Moore, 54, Patient Discharge Planner, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, England
Ali Sheikh Moradi, age unknown, Nurse, Rasht, Iran
Alejandro García Morales, age unknown, Pediatric Anesthesiologist, IMSS Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, Mexico
Ernesto Morán Roque, age unknown, Nurse, IMSS Hospital Regional No. 2 Villa Coapa, Tlalpan, Mexico, Mexico Rueven Morath, , Emergency Medical Technician, Volunteer Ambulance Corps, Hackensack, New Jersey Ferdinando Moretti, 73, Painting Crew Foreman, Mt. Sinai South Nassau, Oceanside, New York
Idalgo Moura dos Santos, 45, Nurse, Hospital Municipal do Tatuapé, São Paulo, Brazil (presumed)
Seyyedeh Azemat Mousavi, age unknown, Obstetrician, Sari, Iran
Ghvont Mrad, age unknown, Thermal Doctor, Italy
Gladys Mujajati, 46, Mental Health Nurse, Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Derby, England Gustavo Adolfo Munizaga Concha, 73, Orthopedic Surgeon, University Professor, Chief of Service, Hospital del IESS de Manta, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro, Manta, Ecuador
Elvia Muñoz, 50, Physician, Transplant Coordinator, Panama
Isabel Muñoz, 59, General Practitioner, Salamanca, Spain


Page | 154

Ruben Muñoz Jr., age unknown, Surrey and Sussex NHS Trust (SASH), London, England
William “Bill” Murdock, 63, MRI Technologist, Miami, Florida
Denise Roxana Murillo Martínez, 56, Primary Care Physician, San Pedro Sula, Honduras
Belinda Jane Murphy, 73, Clinical Support Worker, ER, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Scotland
John F. Murray, 92, Pulmonary and Critical Care Physician, San Francisco General Hospital, California Dominique Musafiri, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy

Seyyed Yousef Musavi, age unknown, General Practitioner, Golestan, Iran
Nurettin Mutluergil, age unknown, Ophthalmology Specialist, Kütahya State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey N

Prea Nankieshore, 34, Emergency Room Unit Clerk, LIJ Forest Hills, New York
Kimberly Napper, 62, Registered Nurse, Madison, Mississippi
Areema Nasreen, 36, Nurse, Walsall Manor Hospital, Walsall, England
Darioush Nasseri, Orthopedic Surgeon (retired), Good Samaritan Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
Marcello Natali, 56, General Practitioner, Secretary of the Federation of General Practitioners of Lodi, Lodi, Italy

Iraj Ebrahimi Nezhad, age unknown, General Practitioner, Babol, Iran Reza Kouchaki Nia, age unknown, Pediatrician, Rasht, Iran
Carlos Fabian Nieto, 33, General Practitioner, Bogota, Colombia Farid Niruyi, age unknown, Surgeon, Babol, Iran

Carlos Torres Noé, Hospital Director, University Professor, Hospital Básico De Durán, Durán, Ecuador Claudia Nogueira Cardoso, 56, Endocrinologist, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Italo Nosari, age unknown, Diabetologist, Italy
Nahid Noshad, age unknown, Nurse, Gilan, Iran

Paul Novicki, age unknown, Critical Care Paramedic, Detroit, Michigan
Gladys Nyemba, age unknown, Nurse, Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Nottingham, England

Freda Ocran, 50, Psychiatric Nurse, Jacobi Medical Center, New York City Olumide Okunuga, 63, Pathologist, Italy
Arturo Olvera Martínez, age unknown, Physician, Hidalgo, Mexico
Maria Altamira de Oliveira, 71, Proctologist, Natal, Brazil

Julie Omar, 52, Nurse, Alexandra Hospital, Redditch, England
Alice “Kit” Tak Ong, 70, Nurse, National Health Service, London, England
Aimee O’Rourke, 39, Nurse, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Hospital, Margate, England
Emilio Ortega Consuegra, age unknown, Internal Medicine, Private Practice, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ephraim Neal C. Orteza, 64, Medical Director and Pediatrician, Ospital ng Parañaque, Parañaque, Philippines Natasha Ott, 39, Social Worker, CrescentCare, New Orleans, Louisiana
Feriha Oz, 87, Pathologist, Professor, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey
Cemal Ozkan, 74, Urologist, Acıpayam State Hospital, Denizli, Turkey

Manny Pacheco, 62, Chief Nurse, Mandaluyong City Medical Center, Mandaluyong City, Philippines Faye Marie Luna Palafox, age unknown, Nurse, Philippines General Hospital, Philippines
Paulo Fernando Moreira Palazzo, 56, Emergency Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
Laurentius Panggabean, 57, Managing Director, Psychiatrist, SH Mental Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia Shatrughan Panjwani, 62, General Physician, Indore, India

Alexis Panetta, 40, Nurse, Santa Maria, Colombia
Alberto Paolini, age unknown, Italy
Riccardo Paris, age unknown, Cardiologist, Italy
Sefik Pasagic, 61, Epidemiology, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Arvin Pascual, 44, Nurse, Manila, Philippines

Carlo Alberto Passera, 62, General Practitioner, Bergamo, Italy
Alejandro Passarelli, 59, Doctor, Cipolletti, Río Negro, Argentina
Angelo Patsalis, 63, Family Physician, Henry Ford Medical Group, Detroit, Michigan


Page | 155

Tomas Pattugalan, 70, Internal Medicine Physician, Queens, New York
Omark Kadota Payán, 39, Anestheiologist, La Paz, Mexico
Habibullah Peiravi, age unknown, Vascular Surgeon, Tehran, Iran
Esteban Peñarrubia, 57, ICU Operating Room Nurse, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Spain Peng Yinhua, 29, Respiratory Doctor, First People’s Hospital of Jiangxia District, Wuhan, China

David Perea, 35, Traveling Nurse, Reno, Nevada
Luis Pérez, 61, Emergency Doctor, Madrid, Spain
Hugo Díez Pérez, 62, Neurologist, Asuncion, Paraguay
Paolo Peroni, age unknown, Ophthalmologist, Italy
Emily Perugia, 29, NHS Care Worker, Northwood, London, England
Dino Pesce, 74, Internist Physician, Former General Physician at the Villa Scassi Hospital in Genoa, Italy Guy Pfister, 75, Family Physician (General Practitioner), Wassy, France
Ricardo Piacenso, age unknown, Internal Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Wilfried Piribauer, 69, General Practitioner, Lower Austria, Austria, Austria
Livette Plan, age unknown, Registered Nurse, New York City
Jacob Plange-Rhule, 63, Internal Medicine Consultant, Accra, Ghana
Mary Ellen Porter, 65, Nurse Manager, Staten Island, New York
Jean Pouaha, 58, Dermatologist, Hospital of Metz-Thionville, Thionville et Metz, France
Antonio Pouchè, age unknown, Former Professor, Italy
Esmaeil Bakhshi Pour, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Fouman, Iran
Reza Poursaki, age unknown, Nurse, Abadan, Iran
Freddy Pow Hing, 59, Interventional Cardiologist, Hospital IESS Durán, Durán, Ecuador
Iwan Dwi Prahasto, 60, General Practitioner, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia Sumith Premachandra, 55, Registered Nurse, Dandenong Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Valeriu Pripa, 59, Head of Radiological Imaging Department, Chisinau, Moldova
Rosalinda “Rose” Pulido, 46, Oncologist, San Juan de Dios Hospital, Pasay City, Philippines
Ratih Purwarini, age unknown, General Practitioner, Jakarta, Indonesia

Mohammad Ali Rabi’e, age unknown, General Practitioner, Shaft, Iran
Seyyed Mozaffar Rabi’e, 67, Anesthesiologist, Babol, Iran
Shirin Rouhani Rad, age unknown, General Practitioner, Pakdasht, Iran
Hermes Roberto Radtke, 43, Physician, Radiology, Omnimagem RioMar Fortaleza, Clínica Trajano Almeida, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

Raola Ragutam, age unknown, Internal Medicine, Saveh, Iran
Mahen Ramloll, 70, General Practitioner, Fessenheim, France
Renzo Ramirez, 38, General Practitioner, IMSS Clinic 75, Zacatecas, Mexico
Gita Ramjee, 64, HIV Researcher, Chief Scientific Officer, Aurum Institute, Durban, South Africa Jean-Jacques Razafindranazy, 67, Emergency Doctor, Compiègne, France
Heriberto Ramírez Morales, age unknown, Lab Technician, IMSS Family Medicine Unit 120, Mexico City, Mexico
Francisco Reinaldo Ramos Carcelén, 63, Radiologist, Quito, Ecuador
Betânia Ramos, 55, Nurse, Recife, Brazil
Jitendra Rathod, 62, Heart Surgeon, United Kingdom
Ade Raymond, 48, Healthcare Assistant, Student Mental Health Nurse, London, England
Jean-Jacques Razafindranazy, 67, Emergency Doctor, Lille, France
Mark Respler, 66, Urologist, Brooklyn, New York
Leandro Resurreccion III, 57, Pediatric Transplant Surgeon, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines Gualberto Reyes, 45, Emergency Medicine Physician, Mexico
Jorge Manuel Reyes Villón, age unknown, General Practitioner, Director of Health Center No. 5, Cristo del Consuelo, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Ian Reynolds, 53, Paramedic, London Ambulance Service, London, England
Usama Riaz, 26, Physician, Gilgit, Pakistan
Elbert Rico, age unknown, Hospital Porter, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England
Jesús Ricardo Ríos, age unknown, Pediatrician, Hospital General de Atizapán, Atizapán, Mexico
Guido Riva, 78, General Practitioner, Bergamo, Italy


Page | 156

Luciano Riva, age unknown, Pediatrician, Former Primary at the Desio Hospital, Italy
Victor C. Rivera, 77, Pediatrician, Langhorne, Pennsylvania
Gareth Roberts, age unknown, Nurse, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board, Cardiff, Wales
Luigi Rocca, 93, Pediatrician, Piacenza, Italy
Ruben Rodriguez, age unknown, Emergency Medical Technician, Ridgewood Volunteer Ambulance Corps, Ridgewood, New York
Sonia Román, 61, Nurse, Hospital Auxilio Mutuo, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Roghieh Ronaghi, age unknown, Healthcare Worker, Someh Sara, Iran
Mario Ronchi, age unknown, Dentist, Italy
Flavio Roncoli, 89, Retired, Bergamo, Italy
Burton “Bud” Rose, 77, Nephrologist (retired), Creator of UpToDate, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
Hugo Rosero, 44, Surgeon, Ecaudor
Mario Rossi, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Arastu Rostamnezhad, 69, General Practitioner, Pakdasht, Iran
Liliana del Carmen Ruiz, 52, Pediatrician, La Rioja, Argentina
Reza Rusta, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Tehran, Iran

Liana Sa, age unknown, Emergency Medical Technician, Newark, New Jersey
Alfa Saadu, 68, Former Medical Director, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Harlow, England
Charlie Safley, 78, Dermatologist, Memphis, Tennessee
Barbara Sage, 68, Oncology Nurse, Bromley, South London, England
Peter Sakas, 67, Veterinarian, Niles Animal Hospital, Northbrook, Illinois
Mario Luigi Salerno, 68, Physiatrist, Bari, Italy
Joel Baltazar Salinas, 63, Diagnostic Radiologist, Mexico City, Mexico
Mario Salonga, 59, Physical Therapist, Mount Sinai South Nassau, Oceanside, New York
Mostafa Samadi, age unknown, Pediatrician, Babol, Iran
Elliott Samet, 69, Pediatrician, Passaic, New Jersey
José Manuel Sanchez Ortega, age unknown, General Surgery, Barcelona, Spain
Vicente Sánchez, age unknown, Ambulance Physician, Servicio de Asistencia Médica de Urgencias (SAMU), Valencia, Spain
Germán Sandoval Molina, 65, Anesthesiologist, Hospital de la Policía Nacional Guayaquil No. 2, Ecuador Usman Sani, 48, Pathologist, Malaysia
Dilvani Santana, 57, Nurse, Macae, Brazil
Joaquín Satizábal, 58, Ambulance Driver, Ginebra, Colombia
Efren German Santos Rodriguez, age unknown, Cardiologist, Fundación Nahím Isaías Barquet, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Jose Ramon Izquierdo Sanz, 61, General Practitioner, Cuenca, Spain
Aileen Sartaguda, age unknown, Dental Surgeon, Toothill, Swindon, England
Bartholomeus Bayu Satrio, 45, General Practitioner, General Hospital Jakarta Barat, Indonesia
Elsie Sazuze, 44, Nurse, Wolverhampton, England
Gianpaolo Sbardolini, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Nelson Martins Schiavinatto, 80, Radiology, Paraná, Brazil
Olivier-Jacques Schneller, 68, General Practitioner, Trévenans, France
Ellyn Schreiner, 68, Registered Nurse, Crossroads Hospice, Dayton, Ohio
Stephen Schwartz, 78, Pathologist, Seattle, Washington
Gary Sclar, 66, Neurologist, Mount Sinai Hospital of Queens, New York City
Anton Sebastianpillai, 70s, Geriatrician, United Kingdom
Jose “Jun” Islani Allapitan Sepal Jr., 60, Supervisor, Sterile Processing Department, Livingston, New Jersey Sa’adat Shakibayi, age unknown, Nurse, Yasouj, Iran
Mahmoud Shamsuddini, age unknown, Hospital Staff, Yazd, Iran
Pooja Sharma, 33, Clinical Pharmacist, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Eastbourne, England
Lukman Shebubakar, 67, Orthopedic Surgeon, Premier Bintaro Hospital and Bethsaida Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
Tarek Shoukry, age unknown, Doctor, Deputy, Abbasia Hospital for Mental Health, Cairo, Egypt


Page | 157

Sami Shousha, 79, Histopathology Doctor, Charing Cross Hospital, London, England Rahima Bibi Sidhanee, 68, Nurse, Grennell Lodge, Sutton, London, England
Julio Sierra, age unknown, Ambulance Driver, Hospital de la Ribera, Valencia, Spain Alvin Simmons, 54, Environmental Services worker, Rochester (N.Y.) General Hospital Samar Sinjab, 62, Physician, Veneto region, Italy

Noel Sinkiat, 64, Registered Nurse, Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC Susan Sisgundo, 50, Registered Nurse, Neonatal ICU, Bellevue Hospital, New York, New York
Ardeshir Shiran, age unknown, General Practitioner, Isfahan, Iran
Ali Mahmood Khan Shirazi, age unknown, General Practitioner, Shiraz, Iran

Mohammed Sami Shousha, 79, Professor of Histopathogy and Breast Tissue Specialist, London, England Marino Signori, age unknown, Occupational Physician, Italy
Toni Daniel Silitonga, 57, Medical Doctor, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
Samar Sinjab, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy

Charles Rodney Smith, 92, Psychiatrist, New Orleans, Louisiana
Kevin Smith, age unknown, Plaster Technician, Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster, England
Cláudio Raimundo Soares, 56, Nurse Technician, Unimed João Pessoa, João Pessoa, Brazil
Soekotjo Soerodiwirio, 54, Radiologist, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia Ernesto Jaime Solis, age unknown, Pediatric Surgeon, Hospital Juárez de México, Mexico City, Mexico Heriberto Arenas Solís, 32, Nurse, Atizapan, Mexico
Song Yingjie, 28, Hospital Pharmacist, Wuhan, China
Abdul Qadir Soomro, 55, Dermatologist, Karachi, Pakistan
Blanca Elizabeth Salvatierra Sornoza, age unknown, General Practitioner, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Alicia Soto, age unknown, Chief of Radiology, ISSSTE Hospital Manuel Cárdenas de la Vega, Culiacán, Mexico Giuseppe Aldo Spinazzola, age unknown, Cardiologist, Italy
Manfredo Squeri, 75, Former Hospital Physician, Head of the Medicine Department in the Piccole Figlie di Parma Nursing Home affiliated with SSN, Parma, Italy
Roberto Stella, 57, General Practitioner, Varese, Italy
Cristian Stupiuc, 55, Registered Nurse, Suceava County Ambulance Service, Suceava County, Romania
Jimmy Alberto Suarez Suarez, age unknown, General Practitioner, IESS Hospital de Ancón, Ancón, Ecuador Donald Suelto, 51, Nurse, London, England
Vojkan Šuluburic, 59, Orthopedist, Cacak, Serbia
Ketty Herawati Sultana, age unknown, unknown title, Medistra Hospital, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Bambang Sutrisna, 71, Professor of Epidemiology, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Catherine Sweeney, 64, Care Worker, West Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Efrizal Syamsuddin, 53, Medical Doctor, Director of RSUD Prabumulih, Prabumulih, South Sumatera, Indonesia T

Edson Takeda, 55, Physician, Itaquaquecetuba, Brazil
Ucok Martin Tambunan, 49, Pulmonologist, Medan, Sumatera, Indonesia
Charles Kwame Tanor, age unknown, Healthcare Worker, United Kingdom
Valter Tarantini, 71, Gynecologist, Forlì Cesena, Italy
Cemil Tascioglu, 67, Professor of Internal Medicine at Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
William Prudencio Tay-hing Miranda, age unknown, General Practitioner, Private practice, Buena Fe, Ecuador Juan Miguel Ochoa Tejeda, 62, Plastic Surgeon, Campina, São Paulo, Brazil
Anthony Thomas, age unknown, Paramedic, Emergency Medical Services, Brooklyn, New York
Vianna Thompson, 52, Registerd Nurse, Intensive Care Unit, Reno, Nevada
Giulio Titta, 73, General Practitioner, Former Secretary of FIMMG, Turin, Italy
Gaetana Trimarchi, 57, General Practitioner, Messina, Italy
Naek Lumban Tobing, 79, Medical Doctor, Psychiatry, Jakarta, Indonesia
Israel Tolentino, 33, Emergency Medical Technician, Passaic, New Jersey
Ana Cristina Tomé, age unknown, Nursing Technician, Getúlio Vargas Hospital, Recife, Brazil
Giovanni Battista Tommasino, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Adriano Vicente García Torres, age unknown, Internal Medicine, Hospital Director, Policlínica Garcia, La Libertad, Ecuador
Abbas Tousan, age unknown, ENT Specialist, Surgeon, Babol, Iran
Andrew Treble, 57, Theatre Assistant, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, Wrexham, Wales


Page | 158

Mario Guadalupe Trejo Garnica, age unknown, Administrative Deputy Director, IMSS General Hospital, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico
Sara Trollope, age unknown, Nurse, Hillingdon Hospital, Central and North West London (CNWL) NHS Foundation Trust, London, England

Dennis Ramon Tudtud, age unknown, Oncologist, Cebu, Philippines
Helen Tudtud, 66, Pathologist, Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center, Cebu, Philippines Peter Tun, 62, Associate Specialist in Neurorehabilitation, Reading, England
Chiang Jeng Tyng, 55, Interventional Radiology, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Marcello Ugolini, 70, Pulmonologist, Councilor of the Medical Association, Pesaro Urbino, Italy V

Nerio Valarino González, 59, Internal Medicine, Murcia, Spain
Warlito Valdez, 47, Residential support worker for people with disabilities, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada
Jérôme Valette, 65, Family Physician (General Practitioner), La Tour-d’Auvergne, France
Jesus Vaquero, 70, Neurosurgeon, Head of Neurosurgery, Puerta de Hierro Hospital, Madrid, Spain Disneyda Vare Suárez, 43, Nurse, Law Student, Hospital Germán Vacadiez, Roboré, Bolivia
Mehdi Variji, age unknown, General Practitioner, Tehran, Iran
Giuseppe Vasta, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Capt. César Antonio Carrillo Védova (Retired), 78, Proctologist, Military Doctor, Hospital del IESS Teodoro Maldonado Carbo, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Arturo Tapia Vélez, age unknown, Neonatologist, ISSSTE Hospital General Tacuba, Mexico City, Mexico Lorenzo Vella, age unknown, Occupational Physician, Italy
Juha M. Venäläinen, 64, General Practitioner, Kuopio, Finland
Encarni Vicente Verdejo, 52, Nurse, Hospital Galdakao, Bilbao, Spain
Ronald Verrier, 59, Trauma Surgeon, Bronx, New York
Federico Vertemati, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Ivano Vezzulli, 61, General Practitioner, Sports Physician, Lodi, Italy
Anita Viana, 63, Nursing Technician, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Jesus Villaluz, 75, Patient Transport Services, Holy Name Medical Center, Teaneck, New Jersey
Denis Vincent, 62, Dentist, North Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Valeria Viveros, 21, Nursing Assistant, Extended Care Hospital of Riverside, Riverside, California
Morteza Vojdan, age unknown, General Practitioner, Mashhad, Iran

Craig Wakeham, 59, General Practitioner, Cerne Abbas Surgery and NHS Dorset Clinical Commissioning Group, Cerne Abbas, Dorset, UK
Wang Tucheng, 27, Doctor, Henan’s Xinwangzhuang village, China
Barry Webber, age unknown, General Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, Queens, New York

Sylvain Welling, 60, General Practitioner, Moselle, France
Bartholomeus Wibowo, age unknown, Medical Doctor, Jakarta, Indonesia
Patricia Wilke, 63, Pharmacist, Winslow, Arizona
Diedre Wilkes, 42, Mammogram Technician, Piedmont Newnan Hospital, Newnan, Georgia
Cheryl Williams, age unknown, Housekeeper, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, England
Judy Wilson-Griffin, , Perinatal Clinical Nurse Specialist, SSM Health St. Mary’s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri Commodore (ret.) Jeanne P.M.R. Winaktu, 65, Neurosurgeon, Former Director of Indonesian Navy Hospital, Former Head of Indonesian Navy Health Service, Indonesia
Leone Marco Wischkin, 71, Internist, Pesaro Urbino, Italy
David Wolin, 74, Radiologist, Mammography , Brooklyn Hospital Center, Piermont, New York
Liang Wudong, 62, ENT Specialist, Hubei Xinhau Hospital, Wuhan, China

Xia Sisi, 29, Gastroenterologist, Union Jiangbei Hospital, Wuhan, China


Page | 159

Xu Hui, 51, Leader of a hospital’s virus control group, Nanjing, China Y

Vahid Yahyavi, age unknown, Hematologist, Oncologist, Bojnord Hospital, Bojnord, Iran Aliyu Yakubu, 60, Doctor, Private Practice, Daura, Katsina State, Nigeria
Betty Marlene Cruz Yagual, age unknown, Obstetrician, Guayaquil, Ecuador Mohammad Yar-Ahmadi, 40, Nurse, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Saqez, Iran

Esmail Yazdi, age unknown, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Tehran, Iran Rebecca Yee, age unknown, Nurse, New York City


Mohammad Bakhshali Zadeh, age unknown, General Practitioner, Rasht, Iran
Narjes Khanali Zadeh, 25, Nurse, Lahijan, Iran
Iman Moein Zadeh, age unknown, Nurse, Astaneh Ashrafieh, Iran
Habib Zaidi, 76, General Practitioner, Eastwood Group Practice, Leigh-on-Sea, England Jesus Zambrano, 54, Pediatrician, Mt. Sinai South Nassau, Oceanside, New York

Carlo Zavaritt, 80, Pediatrician and Child Neuropsychiatrist, Bergamo, Italy Hamidreza Zeinali, age unknown, Pharmacist, Tehran, Iran
Marzio Carlo Zennaro, age unknown, General Practitioner, Italy
Mei Zhongming, 57, Ophthalmologist, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, China Michael Ziekursch, 68, Family Doctor, Internist, Baden-Baden, Germany Dušanka Živković, 63, Infectious Disease Specialist, Leskovac, Serbia

Jack Zoller, 91, OB-GYN, New Orleans, Louisiana Riccardo Zucco, age unknown, Neurologist, Italy Anonymous


Beatriz (Anonymous), 41, Nurse, Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico

Ambulance Driver, 62, Volyn Region, Starovyzhevskaya Central District PCR Hospital, Ukraine Assistant Nurse, age unknown, Spain
Doctor, 58, London, England
Emergency Room Doctor, 45, IMSS General Hospital, Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico


Forensic Practitioner, age unknown, Bangkok, Thailand
Healthcare Employee, 48, Donalsonville Hospital, Donalsonville, Georgia Healthcare Worker, 70, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan Healthcare Worker, 48, Donalsonville Hospital, Donalsonville, Georgia Hospital Cleaner, 58, Brampton Civic Hospital, Brampton, Canada Mammogram Technician, 42, Piedmont Newnan Hospital, Newnan, Georgia Nurse, age unknown, Nurse, Atlanta, Georgia
Nurse, 48, Prague, Czech Republic
Nurse Assistant, age unknown, Bangkok, Thailand
Pharmacy Technician, 25, San Diego County, California
Physiotherapist, 46, Radom, Poland
Prison Doctor, age unknown, Foggia, Italy


Page | 160

Further reading

1. Audit of doctor deaths

2. NEJM 23 deaths

3. Healthcare workers deaths in UK
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/16/doctors-nurses-porters-volunteers-the-uk- health-workers-who-have-died-from-covid-19

4. Why healthcare workers got infected in China

5. Population prevalence 50-80 fold than confirmed cases in Bay Area, California, a serological survey of 3330 people, 2.8 % population adjusted prevalence. COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California Eran Bendavid

6. 7293 healthcare workers affected in Germany: 12 deaths to date

7. Robert Koch Institute of Germany bulletin
https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/InfAZ/N/Neuartiges_Coronavirus/Situationsberichte/2020-04-19- en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile

8. Doctors falling ill in Germany

9. Doctors and nurses around the world are falling sick
https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/doctors-and-nurses-around-the-world-are-calling-in- sick/

10. Doctor dies in Lagos, Nigeria after treating patient with COVID-19. The patient had no travel or contact history.

11. Dr Irina Sannikova, Infectious Disease expert from Russia could be jailed for 5 years after becoming a super spreader, concealing the details of a holiday trip to Spain, infecting at least 11 colleagues https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/1258423/coronavirus-latest-russia-news-super-spreader- doctor-irina-sannikova


Page | 161

12. Medscape attempts to keep a list of doctors and nurses who die of COVID-19

13. Italy’s list of doctors who died of COVID-19 grows to 131 as of 20.4.20

Elenco dei Medici caduti nel corso dell’epidemia di Covid-19

14. Profile of doctors who died in Italy, the majority, that was 38% of the first 61 doctors who died were GP’s. Two young dentists also were among the dead. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/927753

15. 67-year-old Dr Roberto Sello died after he continued to see patients after PPE ran out in Italy

16. Over 30 nurses and 100 doctors die in Italy of COVID19

17. Family doctors visiting patients at their home without PPE got the infection first
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/arab-doctors-died-frontlines-italy-epidemic- 200410093425609.html

18. Over 100 doctors and nurses dead from COVID
https://www.newsweek.com/coronavirus-deaths-infections-doctors-nurses-healthcare-workers- medical-staff-1496056

19. Pharmacist, 27 and her father, 61, die of Covid-19 in UK

Pharmacist succumbs to COVID-19, hours after virus takes life of father

20. Details of healthcare workers who died in UK from Covid-19
https://www.expressandstar.com/news/uk-news/2020/04/16/the-nhs-workers-who-have-died- during-the-covid-19-outbreak-2/

21. The first doctors who died in the UK, fighting COVID-19saa, a report by Al-Jazeera news
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/muslim-minority-doctors-die-front-line-uk-pandemic- 200401082454308.html

22. Plight of Indian origin doctors and nurses in the UK and US: Economic times reports
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/nri/nris-in-news/doctors-of-india-origin-at-the-covid-19- front-lines-in-uk/articleshow/74986000.cms?from=mdr

23. Deaths of doctors in the UK: The NY Times

24. Dr Frank Gabrin dies in New York, lack of PPE blamed


Page | 162

https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/02/us/emergency-room-doctor-dies-coronavirus-husbands- arms/index.html

25. Over 1/3 of doctors in the UK are immigrants
https://theprint.in/world/eight-uk-doctors-have-died-fighting-coronavirus-all-of-them- immigrants/398639/

26. Dr Mohammaed Shafi, histopathologist dies in UK at age 79
https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/coronavirus-prominent-british-egyptian-muslim-doctor-dies- london-covid19

27. List of nurses who died in the UK
https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/workforce/in-memory-a-list-of-nursing-staff-who-have-sadly- died-from-covid-19-20-04-2020/

28. Inadequate PPE for UK Nurses
https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/coronavirus/concerns-raised-over-emergency-ppe-reuse- guidance-18-04-2020/

29. PPE concern for UK nurses
https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/workforce/half-of-nursing-staff-under-pressure-to-work- without-ppe-finds-rcn-survey-18-04-2020/

30. Why men who get Covid-19 are at greater risk of dying than women

31. UK Health secretary alleges overuse of PPE by UK staff

Hancock suggests NHS staff are overusing protective equipment

32. BMA claims shortage of PPE

Healthcare workers will die without adequate PPE for COVID-19, says BMA

33. Worldwide healthcare workers get infected
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/front-line-medical-staff-deaths-grow-highlight-virus- risks-1.4882447

34. Egypt healthcare worker outbreak at National Cancer institute, infecting 17 including 3 doctors and 12 nurses
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/medics-at-egypt-s-main-cancer-centre-test-positive- for-virus-1.4882465

35. Nurses abused in UK, called “disease spreaders”
https://rcni.com/nursing-standard/newsroom/news/covid-19-community-nurses-verbally-abused- streets-159006/?=recommended


Page | 163

36. Lack of PPE blamed for nurses deaths
https://rcni.com/nursing-standard/newsroom/news/covid-19-death-of-four-nurses-overseas- highlights-need-ppe-says-icn-chief-159076

37. In Italy, 8800 nurses are infected with Covid-19, 34 have died
https://www.ansa.it/english/news/2020/04/17/coronavirus-nurse-death-toll-in-italy-rises-to- 34_b5327acc-964f-42b4-98bc-f066e80f35ec.html

38. healthcare workers infected all over the world

39. Nurses suicide in Italy

40. Photos of healthcare workers at work
https://www.businessinsider.in/slideshows/miscellaneous/dramatic-photos-show-doctors-and- nurses-struggling-on-the-front-line-of-the-coronavirus-pandemic-around-the- world/slidelist/74781282.cms#slideid=74781288

41. Indian American doctors dead from Covid-19

42. Doctor, 85, dies at Mumbai from Covid-19, family test positive
https://indianexpress.com/article/coronavirus/coronavirus-latest-live-updates-india-lockdown- global-deaths-us-italy-china-6333842/

43. Doctor deaths at Indonesia

44. healthcare workers > 100 times at risk to get Ebola infection

45. healthcare workers 21-32 times more likely to get Ebola: WHO paper
https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/171823/WHO_EVD_SDS_REPORT_2015.1_eng.pd f?sequence=1

46. The importance of testing and isolation: the vast majority of infections are asymptomatic, and isolating them quickly reduced the spread of infection in the community.
https://corrierefiorentino.corriere.it/firenze/notizie/cronaca/20_marzo_15/dobbiamo-cambiare- rotta-ef23a500-669a-11ea-a40a-86d505f82a96.shtml?refresh_ce-cp


Sergio Romagnani, a

professor of clinical immunology at the University of Florence, has reported how blanket testing in a

completely isolated village of roughly 3000 people in northern Italy saw the number of people with

covid-19 symptoms fall by over 90% within 10 days.


Page | 164

47. Testing and isolating, an effective strategy
https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.m1165?ijkey=3c60f2ea35da6783a8b6696b7ae9c44a2abec 49a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

48. How healthcare workers became the route of transmission in Italy

COVID-19 How many Healthcare workers are infected?

49. Hospital-related transmission was suspected in 41% of patients in this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients in Wuhan, China https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2761044

50. How one patient gave the infection to 138 people: SARS of 2003 at a Hong Kong Hospital
https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa030685?url_ver=Z39.88- 2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

51. Factors that led to healthcare worker infection in SARS, Toronto 2003.


workers from 6 hospitals developed disease that met the case definition for SARS after

of 39+/-2.3 years. Two healthcare workers were not interviewed because of illness. Of the remaining

Seventeen healthcare

implementation of infection control precautions. These healthcare workers had a mean age (+/-SD)

15, only 9 (60%) reported that they had received formal infection control training. Thirteen

healthcare workers (87%) were unsure of proper order in which personal protective equipment

should be donned and doffed. Six healthcare workers (40%) reused items (eg, stethoscopes, goggles,

and cleaning equipment) elsewhere on the ward after initial use in a room in which a patient with

SARS was staying. Use of masks, gowns, gloves, and eyewear was inconsistent among healthcare

workers. Eight (54%) reported that they were aware of a breach in infection control precautions.

Healthcare workers reported fatigue due to an increased number and length of shifts; participants

worked a median of 10 shifts during the 10 days before onset of symptoms. Seven healthcare

workers were involved in the intubation of a patient with SARS. One healthcare worker died, and the

remaining 16 recovered.


52. Implementation of precautions resulted in preventing further spread of infection to hospital staff in a patient with SARS, in whom the diagnosis was made only on day 12. By then, it spread to

53. Level of ignorance about infection control practices among healthcare professionals, the hidden elephant in the room.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270896670_Knowledge_attitude_and_practice_of_stand ard_precautions_of_infection_control_by_hospital_workers_in_two_tertiary_hospitals_in_Nigeria


individuals (10 hospital staff, 3 patients and 2 visitors). No additional cases were identified after



infection control precautions had been implemented.


Page | 165


Study from Australia reports that failure of healthcare and professional organisations to address

doctors’ poor IPC practices and unprofessional behaviour, threatens patient safety and undermines

efforts to minimise the risks of infection.


55. Views of an experienced surgeon who worked at Wockhardt Hospital Mumbai, where an outbreak occurred among healthcare workers https://theprint.in/opinion/sick-doctors-shut-hospitals-guidelines-wockhardt-doctor-india-covid- response/403426/

56. Evidence based answers to 25 Questions that doctors ask about COVID-19: Dr Rajeev Jayadevan

57. How to solve the problem of PPE availability in India: an evidence-based approach. Dr Rajeev

58. Protecting healthcare workers- an evidence-based approach, Dr Rajeev Jayadevan

59. How does the SARS-Cov-2 virus really spread? Dr Rajeev Jayadevan
https://english.manoramaonline.com/lifestyle/health/2020/04/10/how-does-sars-cov2-virus- spread-coronavirus-covid19.html

60. The need to improve Covid-19 testing rates in India, Dr Rajeev Jayadevan
https://english.manoramaonline.com/lifestyle/health/2020/04/14/covid19-testing-ppe-safety- gears-for-healthcare-workers.html

61. Reverse quarantine for the elderly and the vulnerable. Dr Rajeev Jayadevan
https://english.manoramaonline.com/lifestyle/health/2020/04/17/reverse-quarantine-10-steps- protect-elderly-vulnerable-from-covid-19.html

62. Dr Atul Gawande explains how the use of standard precautions kept healthcare workers safe at Singapore
https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/keeping-the-coronavirus-from-infecting-health-care- workers

63. Over 50 healthcare workers infected in India: report by India Today, 3 April. A doctor from AIIMS dept of physiology also has tested positive. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/over-50-doctors-medical-staff-test-positive-for-covid-19- govt-probing-if-they-got-infected-from-patients-1662917-2020-04-03

64. Doctors in India are frustrated due to inability to test for SARS-Cov 2 even in relevant cases, due to extraordinarily restrictive inclusion criteria https://caravanmagazine.in/health/lack-testing-kits-understaffed-hospitals-covid-exposes-india- crumbling-healthcare-system


Page | 166

65. The practical difficulty of getting a PCR test done in India are described by these doctors who work in public health

66. Nurses get infected at Mumbai hospital
https://english.manoramaonline.com/news/nation/2020/04/14/keralite-nurses-mumbai- coronavirus.html

67. Large numbers of healthcare workers get infected at three major Mumbai hospitals. Wockhardt and Jaslok hospitals, had 80 and 57 affected employees respectively. Overall, close to 300 medical professionals in the city have tested positive for coronavirus. The count of positive doctors and nurses at Bhatia Hospital has increased to 45, according to TOI April 22 report. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/mumbai-10-more-bhatia-hospital-staff-positive- tally-now-45/articleshow/75290913.cms

68. Mumbai’s Susrutha Hospital has 8 staff who have picked up the infection
https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/6-more-staff-at-sushrusha-hospital-test- positive/article31326194.ece

69. Neurosurgeon, 55, dies in India following Covid-19

70. Six GP’s have died in UK of Covid-19

71. Twenty-six-year-old Dr Riaz from Pakistan was one of the youngest victims of Covid-19.
https://www.theweek.in/news/world/2020/03/24/pakistan-26-year-old-hero-doctor-passes-away- in-fight-against-covid-19.html?fbclid=IwAR12scrY8R1be-meeiKr93X-idnBDxPOaSo_zcqYDl0B5W3hx- D-DPRR0LE

72. The Guardian runs a web page that attempts to list all American healthcare workers who died fighting Covid-19, see link below. It has some amount of detail about the departed. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/apr/15/nurses-surgeons-janitors-first-us-health- workers-to-die-covid-

73. List of healthcare workers who died of Covid-19 in the US

74. Dr Frank Gabrin died of Covid-19 in the US, and as an ER doctor, he had warned about PPE shortages and the lack of sufficient testing before he got sick. He said he wore the same mask over and over




Lost On The Frontline

Page | 167

again, for four days at a stretch. A week later, he developed symptoms and suddenly deteriorated while self-quarantining at home. He had been treated for testicular cancer in the past, and had survived a murder attempt by a patient in the ER once. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/apr/09/first-doctor-die-coronavirus-us-frank-gabrin- er

75. Ten reasons why the numbers shown on media do not show the true picture of the pandemic

https://theprint.in/opinion/10-reasons-why-covid-19-data-on-testing-and-fatalities-might-not-be- accurate/401178/

76. Review article outlining the practice of Covid-19 infection control from the anaesthetist and critical care standpoint.


78. Dr Lakshmi Narayana Reddy, Nellore, AP, India died from Covid-19 on 13 April. His wife, a paediatrician also developed the infection. Media reports state that on 5 April, he had operated on a person who had participated in the religious event of Tablight Jamaat in Delhi. http://www.drugtodayonline.com/medical-news/nation/10935-ap-doctor-dies-of-covid-19-2nd- such-death-in-india.html

79. Nine doctors dead from Covid-19 in Philippines

https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/philippines-reports-that-nine-doctors-have-died-from- covid-19-and-many-more-infected

80. Young cardiologist dies after patient conceals high risk history. The patient also eventually died.

https://filipinotimes.net/news/2020/03/22/young-doctor-dies-covid-19-ph-patient-lies-travel- history-2/
81. Patients conceal their high-risk history, putting healthcare workers at risk. A woman who died of Covid-19 at Delhi did not disclose her contact history, thus putting 68 healthcare workers in quarantine. https://scroll.in/latest/959452/coronavirus-68-doctors-nurses-of-delhi-hospital-quarantined-after- suspected-patient-dies

82. An 82-year old doctor died in Mumbai of Covid-19. He apparently got it after his grandson visited from the UK. Six other family members have also tested positive. https://www.freepressjournal.in/mumbai/coronavirus-in-mumbai-82-year-old-doctor-passes-away- in-citys-hinduja-hospital


PPE for airborne precautions involving aerosol generating procedures should

include a respirator, a disposable gown, at least double gloves, and disposable eye protection.

Aprons should also be used if gowns are not fluid resistant. Disposable theatre caps might offer

additional protection from infection by limiting contamination of hair. Healthcare workers were

often exposed to a high viral load in the emergency department or ICU before standard PPE was

donned for emergency intubation procedures.


Page | 168

https://indianexpress.com/article/coronavirus/mumbai-surgeon-covid-19-coronavirus-death-son- positive-6335228/

83.Up to 80% of Covid-19 cases are asymptomatic: New study from China. This leads us to believe


84. Doctor who had to work without gloves dies of Covid-19 in Italy

https://www.euronews.com/2020/03/18/italian-doctor-dies-of-coronavirus-after-working-without- gloves-due-to-shortage

85. Ayurveda doctor, 65, died in Indore from Covid-19

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/madhya-pradesh-coronavirus- claims-another-doctors-life-in-indore/articleshow/75085596.cms

86. Death of Dr Panjwani, Indore

https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/coronavirus-indore-doctor-dies-toll-goes- up-to-22-in-city/article31297170.ece https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/india-news-doctor-who-tested-positive-for- coronavirus-dies-in-indore/350374

87. Death of Meghalaya doctor from Covid-19

https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/covid-19-patient-dies-in- meghalaya-six-family-members-test-positive/articleshow/75171627.cms

88. PPE shortage has been reported from India

https://nypost.com/2020/03/31/indian-doctors-fight-coronavirus-with-raincoats-helmets-amid-lack- of-equipment/

89. How Germany was proactive in developing testing kits early.

https://www.charite.de/en/service/press_reports/artikel/detail/researchers_develop_first_diagnost ic_test_for_novel_coronavirus_in_china/

90. Lessons from Italy: paper published by Italian Society of Anaesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care in partnership with the European Airway Management Society https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/anae.15049

91. The death of doctors in France



that covid-19 may be far more widely distributed than previously thought.


Prof. Dr. Christian Drosten, Director

of the Institute of Virology on Campus Charité Mitte, and team developed the world’s first diagnostic

test for the coronavirus and made it publicly available.


Page | 169

92. Narjes Khanalizadeh, one of the first nurses in Iran to fall victim to the outbreak, was also from Gilan. The 25-year-old Khanalizadeh died in February after contracting the coronavirus from patients she had been treating in a hospital in the city of Lahijan. Shortage of PPE is implicated.

https://www.rferl.org/a/battling-coronavirus-iran-health-workers-complain-of-severe- shortages/30478095.html

93. Three pharmacists have died in Turkey of Covid-19, including the 35-year-old Ismail Durmus. Pharmacists do not know the health information of their clients in advance, which puts them at risk.




94. The following link provides details of US-based healthcare worker deaths. https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1245126583536562177.html

95. The following link is about nurses who passed away in New York state.



96. The following links are about healthcare workers who passed away in the UK.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/16/doctors-nurses-porters-volunteers-the-uk- health-workers-who-have-died-from-covid-19



97. The following is a list of healthcare workers who passed away in Iran

https://irannewsupdate.com/news/general/7015-iran-111-medical-staff-have-died-of-coronavirus- so-far-regime-lays-off-nurses.html

98. In China, 14 people who died in fight against COVID-19 identified as martyrs


99. Shortage of PPE linked with death of doctors and nurses in Iran. It was claimed that 41% of Covid-19 patients in the province of Kirman were healthcare workers, with “the main reason being the failure to provide them with masks, alcohol, and gloves”. https://www.iranfocus.com/en/life-in-iran/34379-dozens-o-doctors-die-in-iran-hospital-from- coronavirus

100. In Iran, 43 doctors and nurses have died according to sources. Large patient volume as well as shortage of PPE are frequently reported. https://english.alaraby.co.uk/english/indepth/2020/4/3/medics-and-martyrdom-irans-dying-doctors

101. Doctor deaths from Covid-19


Page | 170

Click to access 2020.04.05.20054494v1.full.pdf

102. The Lombardy experience from Italy


103. Mortality or CFR Case Fatality Rate of Covid-19 depends on quality of care available. If systems are overwhelmed, the mortality increases up to 5-fold. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/6/20-


104. Lack of preparedness from insufficient information led to healthcare workers getting infected

early in China


105. Ministry of Health and Family welfare guidelines for disinfection of clinics and hospitals

Click to access Guidelinesondisinfectionofcommonpublicplacesincludingoffices.pdf

106. CDC guideline on disinfection


107. Overcoming ignorance of healthcare workers is an important step in preventing work-related infection



108. Standard precautions are protective even if there is unexpected exposure to aerosol


109. Multiple healthcare workers infected following hernia surgery in Jaipur

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/five-sms-hosp-staff-testpositive-for- coronavirus/articleshow/75306889.cms

110. Healthcare workers implicated in spread of virus in Jaipur, BBC report


111.The need to screen healthcare workers to prevent spread of Covid-19



Page | 171

112.New CDC guideline on reuse of N95 mask during times of shortage

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/decontamination-reuse- respirators.html

113.Analysis of healthcare worker deaths in the UK revealed the following: 1) the proportion of overall healthcare worker’s death is the same as in the general population 2) Black and ethnic minority appears over represented among those who died 3) Conventional high risk specialties such as anaesthesia and critical care doctors or nurses are not among those who died, this could be the result of their superior knowledge of using PPE 4)As the disease is widespread, it is difficult to ascertain whether they acquired the infection from the workplace or the community 5) Preponderance of women among the dead could be the result of a higher proportion of workforce in certain sectors of work.


114. Intensive care management of COVID-19: challenges and recommendations: review published in Lancet respiratory Medicine, April 6

Click to access PIIS2213-2600(20)30161-2.pdf

115. Inadvertent exposure is a continuing story, highlighting the need for standard precautions without exception. This story from NRS Medical College West Bengal.

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/55-nrs-jr-docs-nurses-sent-to- quarantine/articleshow/75000187.cms

116. Death of Unani practitioner in Kurnool, AP, India

https://www.thehansindia.com/andhra-pradesh/coronavirus-kurnool-keeps-andhra-pradesh- telangana-state-on-tenterhooks-618087

117. Funerals act as superspreading events in Albany, Georgia, US


118. African Americans are more affected by Covid-19 in the US

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/04/coronavirus-disproportionately-impacts- african-americans/

119. Lack of testing is a problem in the US

https://nypost.com/2020/03/30/former-head-nurse-of-jacobi-medical-center-psychiatric-unit-dies- of-coronavirus/


Page | 172

120. Asymptomatic transmission is the Achilles heel of community spread of Covid-19: Article and Editorial published in NEJM April 24



121. Speech generates droplets that are effectively blocked by a cloth mask: study with video published in NEJM April 15


122.: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India advises face masks for the public to protect the community at large. Guideline published 2 April.

https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/Advisory&ManualonuseofHomemadeProtectiveCoverforFace&Mou th.pdf

123. Dr Alfa Saadu of the UK died after returning from retirement.

https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/top-doctor-alfa-saadu-dies-from-coronavirus-after- returning-from-retirement_uk_5e84553dc5b6a1bb76504309

124. Two hospital porters (attenders) died of Covid-19 in the UK. This shows the virus affects everyone who is connected with health system, not just doctors and nurses


125. The situation in Afghanistan, Lancet


126. Media report of doctor deaths in Afghanistan

https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/covid-19-rips-through-fragile-afghan-health-system- /1812821

127. New York times photo story about the ground reality of Covid-19 in Afghanistan

127. Doctors protest against shortage of PPE in Pakistan

https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/pakistan-medical-personnel-detained-while-protesting-over- coronavirus-crisis/30534188.html

128. Tribute to Nasreen, young British-Pakistani nurse who die fighting Covid-19

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/04/a-smiling-hero-tributes-pour-in-for-nurse-dead- at-36-from-covid-19

129. Cause of Covid-related deaths in China


Page | 173


130. Analysis of C19 among HCW in the US till 9 April : CDC report


131. Dr Roberto Stella was the first victim of the virus among doctors of Italy

https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2020/04/26/covid-19-tally-of-infected-doctors- reaching-350

133. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 28 February 2020

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final- report.pdf

134. Covid-19 by age group in India


135. Age-distribution of Covid-19 deaths, India

https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/covid-19-mortality-rate-in-india-around-3-point-3-per-cent- health-ministry-1668549-2020-04-19

136. The Australian Government’s Covid-19 action plan

https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/02/australian-health-sector- emergency-response-plan-for-novel-coronavirus-covid-19_2.pdf

137. US doctor commits suicide after treating Covid-19 patients

Dr Rajeev Jayadevan, MD, DNB, MRCP, ABIM (New York) (Medicine, Gastroenterology) Cochin, India
http://www.rajeevjayadevan.com 29 April 2020


132. The Dhaka Tribune, quoting the Bangladesh Doctors’ Foundation (BDF), wrote on April 26

that the total number of infected doctors stands at 352, almost a six-fold increase from just

54 on April 14.


Page | 174

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