TREATMENT PROTOCOL FOR COVID19 PATIENTS

(VERSION 3.0) DISCLAIMER: This Recommendation is derived from the prevailing trials published and collation of

various guidelines. These guidelines would change with the evolving evidences

DEFINITIONS:

• ILI is defined as one with acute respiratory infection

–  with fever ≥ 380 C (100.40F) and

–  cough

–  with onset within last 10 days

• SARI is defined as one with acute respiratory infection

–  with fever ≥ 380 C (100.40F),

–  cough

–  with onset within the last 10 days and

–  requiring hospitalization

• Respiratory failure

–  Represents the failure of the lung to maintain adequate gas exchange

–  Characterized by ABG abnormalities: PaO2< 60 mmHg with or without hypercarbia
PaCO2> 46 mmHg (with drop in pH<7.30)
COVID 19 RT-PCR POSITIVE PATIENT
1. Management of any COVID 19 patient mandates the Health Care Personnel (HCP) to be in full Personal Protection Equipment(PPE).
2. Patient is Categorized in to three groups:

   

CATEGORY

Type of patients who are provided treatment and care

Group A

Asymptomatic/Patients with mild symptoms

RR<24/m & SpO2>94% in room air

Group B

Symptomatic patient with mild to moderate Pneumonia with no signs of severe disease

RR: 24-30/m (or) SPO2: 90%-94% at Room Air

Group C

Symptomatic patient with Severe Pneumonia with

RR > 30/min (or) SPO2 < 90% at Room Air (or) less than 94% with oxygen, ARDS, Septic Shock

Page 1 of 17

CLINICAL CATEGORIES

Clinical category

Description

Parameters

Asymptomatic

No Symptoms

SpO2: ≥94% in room air
RR: ≤ 24/m
No evidence of hypoxemia or breathlessness

Mild

Patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection.

SpO2: ≥94% in room air
RR: ≤ 24/m
No evidence of hypoxemia or breathlessness

Moderate

Pneumonia with no signs of severe disease

Sp02: 94%-90% in room air RR: 24-30/m

Severe

Severe Pneumonia

SpO2: < 90% room air RR: >30/m

Critical

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Onset: new or worsening respiratory symptoms within one week of known clinical insult. Chest imaging (Chest X ray and portable bed side lung ultrasound): bilateral opacities, not fully explained by effusions, lobar or lung collapse, or nodules.
Origin of Pulmonary infiltrates: respiratory failure not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload. Need objective assessment (e.g. echocardiography) to exclude hydrostatic cause of infiltrates/ oedema if no risk factor present. Oxygenation impairment in adults:
Mild ARDS: 200 mmHg < PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg (with PEEP or CPAP ≥5 cm H2O) Moderate ARDS: 100 mmHg < PaO2/FiO2 ≤200 mmHg with PEEP
≥5 cm H2O)
Severe ARDS: PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100 mmHg with PEEP ≥5 cm H2O)
When PaO2 is not available, SpO2/FiO2 ≤315 suggests ARDS (including in non- ventilated patients)

Critical

Septic Shock

Adults: persisting hypotension despite volume resuscitation, requiring vasopressors to maintain MAP ≥65 mmHg and serum lactate level > 2 mmol/L

Page 2 of 17

INVESTIGATIONS

Timing

Mild

Moderate

Severe/Critical

At admission

CBC
RBS
ECG
HbA1C (if Diabetic) D-Dimer

(If starting on Tab Favipiravir)
RFT
S.Electrolyte

S. Uric Acid

• CompleteBloodCount (with N/L RATIO)

• LFT,RFT,RBS
• S.Electrolytes
• 12leadECG
• CHESTXRay–PAview • CRP, D-DIMER

• S.FERRITIN,S.LDH • PROCALCITONIN
• TROP–I&T
• PT/INR

• ABG
• CTThorax(ifAvailable) • Bloodculture(iftotal

count is high) IL–6

S.Cortisol 2D

ECHOCARDIOGRAP

HY
COVIDAntibody

IgM/IgGTests

•Complete Blood Count (with N/L RATIO)

•LFT, RFT, RBS
•S. Electrolytes
•12 lead ECG
•CHEST X Ray –PA view •CRP, D-DIMER

•S. FERRITIN, S.LDH •PROCALCITONIN •TROP – I & T •PT/INR

•ABG
•CT Thorax (if Available) •Blood culture (if total

count is high) IL – 6

S. Cortisol S.Mg2+, S.Ca2+ 2D

ECHOCARDIOGRA

PHY
NTproBNP

HsCRP
S. Lactate COVID Antibody

IgM/IgGTests

Repeat Daily

_

Complete Blood Count, LFT, RFT
ABG

Complete Blood Count, LFT, RFT
ABG

Repeat Every 72hrs

If initial D-Dimer is high

CRP, D-DIMER
S. FERRITIN, S.LDH Chest X ray

CRP, D-DIMER
S. FERRITIN, S.LDH Chest X ray

At the time of discharge

_

CRP, D-DIMER
S. FERRITIN, S.LDH Chest X ray

CRP, D-DIMER
S. FERRITIN, S.LDH Chest X ray
RT-PCR – Nasal & Throat swab

Other Investigations should be done based on patient’s Co-morbid status

Page 3 of 17

IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH-RISK PATIENT

CO MORBIDITIES

CLINICALLY

LABORATORY VALUE

Age>50 yrs

Hypoxia- SPO2<94%

Lymphopenia (<20) with Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio >17

Ischecmic Heart Disease

Tachycardia>100/min

CRP>100 mg/L

Diabetes

Respiratory Distress RR>30/min

Serum Ferritin >300 microg/L

Hypertension

Hypotension
Systolic BP < 90mmHg

LDH >450

Lung Disease (COPD/Asthma/Post TB Sequele)

Altered Sensorium

D-Dimer > 1000ng/ml

Chronic Kidney Disease/ Chronic Liver Disease

  

Immunosuppression / HIV / Malignancy

Obesity

Note: Calculation tool for predicting critically ill COVID-19 at admission can be used as reference tool. (Development of Validation of Clinical risk score to predict the occurrence of critical illness in hospitalised patient with COVID19. JAMA internal Medicine –published online, May 12/05/2020)

GENERAL MEASURES AND GUIDELINES

. 1)  Categorize in to A, B, C based on Symptoms, SpO2 & Respiratory Rate

. 2)  Supportive Care:

• Finger Pulse Oximeter for continuous monitoring of Heart rate and Oxygen saturation

• Start oxygen with Mask at saturation of 94% or lower

• HFNC to be used if there is failed oxygen therapy and Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to be
used appropriately with two limb circuit expiratory filters

• Counselling of COVID19 patients ( By Counsellor/psychologist/psychiatrist)

• Normal feeding, no dietary restrictions, good oral hydration

• Maintenance IV fluids (If indicated)

• Maintain blood glucose levels <180 mg/dl.

• If Patient is on ACE inhibitors/ARBs, should be continued

• Avoid using NSAIDs other than Paracetamol Unless Absolutely Necessary

• Avoid using Nebulized drugs to avoid aerosolization of virus. PREFER MDI with SPACER

• Antibiotic selection in case of superadded bacterial pneumonia should be according to institution
antibiogram.

  

Page 4 of 17

GROUP A – MILD CASES

TREATMENT

PRECAUTIONS

ANTIVIRAL THERAPY

• TAB HYDROXYCHLOROQUININE(HCQ) 400MG BD FOR 1 DAY Followed by 200MG 1-0-1 X 4 DAY for patients in COVID CARE CENTER/HOME ISOLATION

(OR)

Tab FAVIPIRAVIR 1800mg 1-0-1 on Day 1 f/b 800mg 1-0-1 for 6 days (total 7 days) for PATIENTS IN DCHC

(OR)

If Tab HCQ/Tab FAVIPIRAVIR is contraindicated, then combination of
Cap DOXYCYCLIN 100mg 1-0-1 for 5 days

+
Tab IVERMECTIN 12mg 1-0-0 for 3 days

#Cap Oseltamavir 75mg 1-0-1 for 5 days

ANTICOAGULATION

• Inj ENOXAPARIN 40mg S/C 1-0-0 X 7 DAYS (IF D-DIMER IS MORE THAN 1000NG/ML (OR) X-RAY/CT THORAX SHOWING GROUND GLASS OPACITIES)

SUPPORTIVE THERAPY

• TABZINC50MG0-1-0X7DAYS

• TAB VITAMIN C 500 MG 1-1-1 X 7 DAYS

• Tab N Acetylcysteine 600mg 1-1-1 If Patients
Having Cough

     

• CATEGORIZATION SHOULD BE REASSESSED REGULARLY

• CONTRAINDICATION FOR HCQ-

• QT INTERVAL > 480ms

• Pre-existing cardiomyopathy and cardiac rhythm disorders

• History of Unexplained Syncope

• Retinopathy,

• Hypersensitivity to HCQ or 4-
aminoquinoline compounds

• G6PD deficiency

• Epilepsy

• Hypokalemia (K+ < 3 Meq)

• Contraindications for Tab FAVIPIRAVIR: Hyperuricaemia, severe hepatic & renal impairment, Pregnant women and lactating mothers

• PREGNANCY IS NOT A CONTRAINDICATION FOR HCQ

• # Cap OSELTAMAVIR is advised due to possibility of H1N1 co infection along with COVID19 disease with present weather condition. Its usage will be reviewed at a later date.

Page 5 of 17

GROUP B – MODERATE CASES

TREATMENT

 

PRECAUTIONS

 

ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
Inj REMDESIVIR 200 mg IV on day 1 followed

by 100 mg IV daily for 4 days (total 5 days)

IF REMEDESVIR IS NOT AVAILABLE TO START TAB HYDROXYCHLOROQUININE(HCQ) 400MG BD FOR 1 DAY followed by 200MG 1-0-1 X 4 DAY

Co-administration of Inj REMDESIVIR with HCQ or chloroquine should be avoided

Cap Oseltamavir 75mg 1-0-1 for 5 days

STEROIDS

• Inj.MethylPrednisolone0.5-1mg/kg (or)

Inj. Dexamethasone 0.1 – 0.2 mg/kg for 3-5 Days

ANTICOAGULATION

• Inj ENOXAPARIN 40MG S/C 1-0-0 x 7 DAYS IV ANTIBIOTICS ACCORDING TO LOCAL

ANTIBIOGRAM AWAKE PRONING

CONVALASCENTPLASMATHERAPY:4to 13 ml/kg (usually 200 ml single dose given slowly over not less than 2 hours)

SUPPORTIVE THERAPY

 TABZINC50MG0-1-0X7DAYS
 TAB VITAMIN C 500 MG 1-1-1 X 7 DAYS  TAB N-ACETYL CYSTEINE 1-1-1 IN

PATIENTS WITH COUGH

   

Contraindications for Inj REMDESIVIR:

  AST/ALT > 5 times Upper limit of
normal (ULN)

  Severe renal impairment (i.e., eGFR < 30ml/min/m2 or need for hemodialysis)

  Pregnancy or lactating females

  Children (< 12 years of age)

  No dose adjustment for Inj REMDESIVIR if eGFR >30ml/min

  Formula to calculate eGFR in Adults

• eGFR, Male: (140 – age in years) × (weight in kg)
/ 72 × (serum creatinine in mg/dL);

• eGFR, Female: (140 – age in years) × (weight in
kg) × 0.85 / 72 × (serum creatinine in mg/dL)
STEROIDS

  to be started preferably within 48 hours of admission (or) if oxygen requirement is increasing and if inflammatory markers are increased.

  PATIENT SHOULD BE REASSESSED EVERY 12 HRLY AND CONTINOUS MONITORING OF SATURATION.

  START ON OXYGEN-NASAL PRONGS 2-5 L/MIN or FACE MASK 5L/MIN

  

Page 6 of 17

GROUP C – SEVERE/CRITICAL CASES

TREATMENT

 

PRECAUTIONS

 

ANTIVIRAL THERAPY

If the patient has not received Inj REMDESIVIR, such patients can be started on Inj REMDESIVIR.
Inj REMDESIVIR
200 mg IV on day 1 followed by 100 mg IV daily for 4 days (total 5 days)

Inj. TOCILUZUMAB 8mg/kg (maximum 800 mg at one time) given slowly in 100 ml NS over 1 hour; dose can be repeated once after 12 to 24 hours if needed

(Or)
Inj ITOLIZUMAB: 1st dose – 1.6mg/kg dose

iv infusion. Subsequent dose: weekly 0.8mg/kg dose infusion over 4hours if required

Cap Oseltamavir 75mg 1-0-1 for 5 days

STEROIDS
 Inj. Methyl Prednisolone 1-2 mg/kg (or)

Inj. Dexamethasone 0.2 – 0.4 mg /kg for 5-7 Days

ANTICOAGULATION

 Inj ENOXAPARIN 1mg/kg body wt s/c 1-0-1 X 7 DAYS

PRONE VENTILLATION

Inj CEFTRIAXONE 1gm IV 1-0-1 AND CAN BE ESCALATED ACCORDING TO LOCAL ANTIBIOGRAM OR TREATING PHYSICIAN

CONSIDER SEPSIVAC (IF AVAILABLE) 0.3ml INTRADERMAL ONCE A DAY FOR 3 DAYS IN CASE OF SEPTIC SHOCK

IV Diuretics in case of evidence of Heart Failure secondary to Myocarditis
SUPPORTIVE THERAPY

 TAB ZINC 50 MG 0-1-0X 7 DAYS
 INJ. VITAMIN C 1.5GM IV 6 HOURLY X

5DAYS
 TAB N-ACETYL CYSTEINE 1-1-1

   

Indication for TOCILUZUMAB/ITOLIZUMAB:-

1. IL-6 levels 50-100 fold higher than normal (Normal range 0 – 9.5pg/ml

2. Worsening trend of the inflammatory markers (Ferritin, LDH, CRP)

3. Deteriorating clinical condition with worsening of PaO2/Fio2 ratio (more than 25% deterioration from the immediate previous value).

Contraindications for Inj TOCILIZUMAB/ITOLIZUMAB

PLHIV, those with active infections (systemic bacterial/fungal), High Serum. Procalcitonin, Tuberculosis, active hepatitis, Absolute Neutrophil Count < 2000/mm3 and Platelet count < 1,00,000/mm3, hepatic and renal impairment; patients on chronic steroid therapy, Paediatric patients <18 years old; Pregnancy and, Nursing mothers

  PATIENT SHOULD BE CONTINOUSLY MONITORED

  TO START ON OXYGEN WITH FACE MASK WITH NON REBREATHING BAG @ 8-10 lt/m

  BASED ON PaO2/FiO2 ratio, HIGH FLOW NASAL OXYGEN (HFNC)/NIV SHOULD BE GIVEN AND IF PATIENT DETERIORATES INTUBATION SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AND LUNG PROTECTIVE VENTILATION TO BE FOLLOWED AS PER ARDSnet PROTOCOL

  ABG TO BE DONE REGULARLY FOR MONITORING OF ACIDOSIS AND HYPOXEMIA

  INOTROPHIC SUPPORT (NORADRENALINE – TITRATE ACCORDING TO THE MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE)

  CORRECTION OF ACIDOSIS

  MAINTAIN Hb% GREATER THAN 8gm%

  

Page 7 of 17

MILD

Antiviral Therapy*
Tab Hydroxychloroquinine(HCQ)

400mg Bd For 1 Day F/B 200mg 1-0- 1 X 4 Day for patients in COVID CARE CENTER/HOME ISOLATION

(OR)
Tab FAVIPIRAVIR
1800mg 1-0-1 on

Day 1 f/b 800mg 1-0-1 for 6 days for PATIENTSINDCHC

(OR)

If Tab HCQ/Tab FAVIPIRAVIR is contraindicated, then combination of

Cap DOXYCYCLIN 100mg 1-0-1 for 5 days

+

Tab IVERMECTIN 12mg 1-0-0 for 3 days

Anticoagulation
Inj Enoxaparin
40mg S/C 1-0-0 x 7

days (If D-dimer Is More Than 1000ng/Ml or X-ray/CT Thorax Showing Ground glass opacity)

Supportive Therapy

Tab Zinc 50 Mg 0-1-0x 7 Days Tab Vitamin C 500 Mg 1-1-1 X 7 Days Tab N Acetylcysteine 1-1-1 If Patients

Having Cough

1. Continous monitoring of oxygensaturationby pulse oximeter and early diagnosis ofhypoxemia isessentialin all group of patients

2. Indications and contraindications of the drugs are to be considered before use which is mentioned in detail below

3. Transition of patients between the clinical categories is based on SpO2, RR & PaO2/FiO2 ratio

4. Treatment of all co morbid illness to continue

 

SEVERE/CRITICAL Antiviral Therapy*

Inj. TOCILUZUMAB 8mg/kg (maximum 800 mg at one time) given slowly in 100 ml NS over 1 hour; dose can be repeated once after 12 to 24 hours if needed

(Or)

st
Inj ITOLIZUMAB: 1 dose – 1.6mg/kg

doseivinfusion.Subsequentdose: weekly 0.8mg/kg dose infusion over 4hours if required

STEROIDS
Inj. Methyl Prednisolone
1-2 mg/kg

for 5-7 Days (or)
Inj. Dexamethasone
0.2 – 0.4 mg /kg

for 5-7 Days

ANTICOAGULATION
Inj Enoxaparin
1 Mg/Kg Body Weight

S/C 1-0-1 X 7days

Inj Ceftriaxone 1 Gm Iv 1-0-1 And Can Be Escalated According To Local Antibiogram Or Treating Physician

Start on oxygen with face mask+NRM and change over to HFNC/NIV (based on PaO2/FiO2)

IF PATIENT DETERIORATES with HFNC/NIV trial (repeat ABG after 6hrs suggests worsening of oxygenation) then EARLY INTUBATION SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AND LUNG PROTECTIVEVENTILATIONTOBE FOLLOWED AS PER ARDSnet PROTOCOL

ProneVentillation

SEPSIVAC 0.3ml INTRADERMAL ONCE A DAY FOR 3 DAYS

Supportive Therapy

Inj. Vitamin C 1.5gm Iv 6 Hourly X 5 days

Tab Zinc 50 Mg 0-1-0x 7 Days

Tab N Acetylcysteine 1-1-1 If Patients Having Cough

SUMMARY OF TREATMENT OF COVID-19 PATIENTS BASED on CLINICAL CATEGORIES

MODERATE Antiviral Therapy*

Inj REMDESVIR 200 mg IV on day 1 followed by 100 mg IV daily for 4 days

(Or)

IF REMEDESVIR IS NOT AVAILABLE TO START

Tab Hydroxychloroquinine(HCQ)

400mgBDFor1Day F/B200mg 1-0-1 X 4 Day

Co-administration of Inj REMDESVIR with HCQ or chloroquine should be avoided

STEROIDS
Inj. Methyl Prednisolone
0.5 -1

mg/kg (or) Inj. Dexamethasone 0.1 – 0.2 mg /kg for 3-5 Days

ANTICOAGULATION
Inj Enoxaparin
40mg S/C 1-0-0 x 7

days (if Wt >65kg, 60md 1-0-1 for 7days)

Iv Antibiotics According to Local Antibiogram

Awake Proning
Start on oxygen
–Nasal Prongs 2-

5l/min or face mask 5l/min

CONVALASCENT PLASMA THERAPY: 4 to 13 ml/kg (usually 200 ml single dose given slowly over not less than 2 hours

SupportiveTherapy

Tab Zinc 50 Mg 0-1-0x 7 Days

TabVitaminC500Mg1-1-1X7 Days

Tab N Acetylcysteine 1-1-1 If Patients Having Cough

Special Note:
*Cap Oseltamavir 75mg 1-0-1 for 5 days to be added to patients of all categories
All the investigational therapies and drugs approved recently by DGCI should be used with caution

Page 8 of 17
and after informed consent from

the patient

1. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)
Dose: Tab HCQ 400MG BD FOR 1 DAY Followed by 200MG 1-0-1 X 4
Days
CONTRAINDICATION FOR HCQ

• QT INTERVAL > 480ms

• Pre-existing cardiomyopathy and cardiac rhythm disorders

• History of Unexplained Syncope

• Retinopathy,

• Hypersensitivity to HCQ or 4-aminoquinoline compounds

• G6PD deficiency

• Epilepsy

• Hypokalemia (K+ < 3 Meq)

2. Anticoagulant Agents
Pro Coagulant factors are increased in COVID-19 infection and associated with increased risk of thrombosis
Pneumonia and sepsis are complicated by DIC, but although COVID-19 patients do have abnormalities of coagulation and are not atypical of DIC.
The most marked abnormality is an elevation of D-Dimer (if D-dimer is more than 1000ng/ml) but without a parallel fall in platelet or prolongation of clotting time, this suggests that local rather disseminated thrombin generation and fibrinolysis is taking place
Dose:
Inj ENOXAPARIN 40MG S/C Once daily for mild and moderate. Twice daily in severe cases.
Other options:

• Inj Fondaparinux 2.5mg OD SC

• Unfractioned Heparin 5000 Units BD SC
Contraindications:
ESRD, active bleeding, emergency surgery, platelets < 20,000/mm3, BP >200/120 mmHg)

       

Page 9 of 17

INVESTIGATIONAL THERAPIES (as per MOHFW)

1. Remdesivir (under Emergency Use Authorization) may be considered in patients with moderate disease (those on oxygen) with none of the following
contraindications:

 AST/ALT > 5 times Upper limit of normal (ULN)

 Severe renal impairment (i.e., eGFR < 30ml/min/m2 or need for hemodialysis)

 Pregnancy or lactating females

 Children (< 12 years of age)
Dose: 200 mg IV on day 1 followed by 100 mg IV daily for 4 days (total 5 days)

2. Convalescent plasma (Off Label) may be considered in patients with moderate disease who are not improving (oxygen requirement is progressively increasing) despite use of steroids. Special prerequisites while considering convalescent plasma include:

 ABO compatibility and cross matching of the donor plasma

 Neutralizing titer of donor plasma should be above the specific threshold (if the latter is
not available, plasma IgG titer (against S-protein RBD) above 1:640 should be used)

 Recipient should be closely monitored for several hours post transfusion for any transfusion related adverse events

 Use should be avoided in patients with IgA deficiency or immunoglobulin allergy Dose: Dose is variable ranging from 4 to 13 ml/kg (usually 200 ml single dose given slowly
over not less than 2 hours

3. Tocilizumab (Off Label) may be considered in patients with severe disease with progressively increasing oxygen requirements and in mechanically ventilated patients not improving despite use of steroids. Long term safety data in COVID 19 remains largely unknown. Special considerations before its use include:
o IL-6levels50-100foldhigherthannormal(Normalrange0-9.5pg/ml
o Worseningtrendoftheinflammatorymarkers(Ferritin,LDH,CRP)
o DeterioratingclinicalconditionwithworseningofPaO2/Fio2ratio(more
than 25% deterioration from the immediate previous value)
The drug is contraindicated in
PLHIV, those with active infections (systemic bacterial/fungal), High Serum. Procalcitonin, Tuberculosis, active hepatitis, Absolute Neutrophil Count < 2000/mm3 and Platelet count < 1,00,000/mm3, hepatic and renal impairment; patients on chronic steroid therapy, Paediatric patients <18 years old; Pregnancy and, Nursing mothers
Dose: 8mg/kg (maximum 800 mg at one time) given slowly in 100 ml NS over 1 hour; dose can be repeated once after 12 to 24 hours if needed

   

Page 10 of 17

Drugs Recently approved by DGCI

1. ITOLIZUMAB (An anti-CD6 IgG1 monoclonal antibody) Indication:

1. IL-6 levels 50-100 fold higher than normal (Normal range 0 – 9.5pg/ml 2. Worsening trend of the inflammatory markers (Ferritin, LDH, CRP)

3. Deteriorating clinical condition with worsening of PaO2/Fio2 ratio (more than 25% deterioration from the immediate previous value).

Dose: 1st dose – 1.6mg/kg dose iv infusion

• Subsequent dose: weekly 0.8mg/kg dose infusion over 4hours if required based on lung function parameters

Contraindication:

PLHIV, those with active infections (systemic bacterial/fungal), High Serum. Procalcitonin, Tuberculosis, active hepatitis, Absolute Neutrophil Count < 2000/mm3 and Platelet count < 1,00,000/mm3, hepatic and renal impairment; patients on chronic steroid therapy, Paediatric patients <18 years old; Pregnancy and, Nursing mothers

Side effects:

• In trial Infusion reactions have been reported in 15% of the patients

• In clinical practice also infusion reaction ranged from 12% to 15%

• Other adverse events include Diahorea, Pruritus in 7 – 12 % of cases

2. Tab. FAVIPIRAVIR
Mechanism of action:
It is considered that favipiravir is metabolized in cells to a ribosyl

triphosphate form (favipiravir RTP) and that favipiravir RTP selectively inhibits RNA polymerase involved in influenza viral replication

Indications: mild to moderate cases of COVID19 in adults >18yrs old Dose: 1800mg bid followed by 800mg bid upto maximum of 14days

Contraindications: Hyperuricaemia, severe hepatic & renal impairment, Pregnant women and lactating mothers

Side Effects: increased Uric Acid levels, diarrhea, decreased neutrophil counts, increase in AST/ALT levels
Drug Interactions: metabolised partly by Aldehyde Oxidase(AO) and partly by Xanthine Oxidase(XO). Precauitons for co-administration with Pyrazinamide, Repaglinide, Theophyline, Famciclovir

         

Page 11 of 17

PRONE VENTILATION

Early self-proning in awake, non-intubated patients – Moderate cases

  Any COVID-19 patient with respiratory embarrassment severe enough to be admitted to the hospital may be considered for rotation and early self-proning.

  Care must be taken to not disrupt the flow of oxygen during patient rotation

Criteria to be fulfilled

Avoid proning

  Patients with oxygen requirement of >4L

  Normal mental status

  Able to self-prone or change
position with minimal assistance

  Hemodynamic instability

  Close monitoring not possible

 Typical protocols include 30–120 minutes in prone position, followed by 30–120 minutes in left lateral decubitus, right lateral decubitus, and upright sitting position
(Caputo ND, Strayer RJ, Levitan R. Academic Emergency Medicine 2020;27:375–378)

Requirements for safe prone positioning in ARDS

  Pre-oxygenate the patient with FiO2 1.0

  Secure the endotracheal tube and arterial and central venous catheters

  Adequate number of staff to assist in the turn and to monitor the turn

  Supplies to turn (pads for bed, sheet, protection for the patient)

  Knowledge of how to perform the turn as well as how to supine the patient in case of an emergency
Contraindications to prone ventilation

  Spinal instability requires special care

  Intra cranial pressure may increase on turning

  Rapidly return to supine in case of CPR or defibrillation
When to start proning in SEVERE CASES?

  P/F ratio <150 while being ventilated with FiO2 >0.6 and PEEP >5 cm H2O When to stop proning?

  When P/F exceeds 150 on FiO2 > 0.6 and > 6 PEEP
What portion of the day should patients be kept prone?

  As much as possible (16-18 hours a day)

  Adult patients with severe ARDS receive prone positioning for more than 12 hours per day (strong recommendation, moderate-high confidence in effect estimates)
(ATS-ERS Guideline. Am J RespirCrit Care Med;2017;195(9):1253-1263)

Page 12 of 17

Oxygen delivery protocol

• SpO2 < 94% ~ Supplement with nasal prongs or simple face mask at 2-5L/min

• Monitor continuous SpO2 with finger pulse oximetry

• If SpO2 < 94% on simple face mask or nasal prongs, change to non-rebreather mask oxygen
(NRB) at 10-15L/min

• Oxygen Delivery Devices & approximate FiO2%

            

Page 13 of 17

HFNO (High Frequency Nasal Oxygen) and NIV (Non-invasive Ventilation)

• When oxygen requirement increases to needing NRB, options of High Frequency Nasal Oxygen (HFNO) or NIV should be considered.

• HFNC flow rates to be set from 30 -60 L/min titrating to maintain SpO2 ≥ 92%

• HFNC provides PEEP up to 5-6 cm H20 and can deliver FiO2 up to 100%

• If HFNC non-available or patient not maintaining SpO2 on flow rates up to 60L/min, initiate on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) only with an ICU ventilator with two limbed circuit and expiratory HME filter with a NIV mode available. Caution is to be exercised to not use potable home BiPAP or CPAP machines with single circuit for these patients.

  Appropriate mask with good seal to be ensured when initiated on NIV. Helmet masks/hoods if available, to be preferred to minimize aerosol contamination.

  Once initiated on NIV, close monitoring of respiratory variables hourly is important.

  Reassess clinical condition hourly, monitor and observe ABG’s 4-6hrly

  Look for signs of clinical improvement in the form of settling tachycardia, improving SpO2,
reduced tachypnea and reduced work of breathing.

  On NIV when there are signs of clinical deterioration in the form of worsening sensorium,
increased accessory muscles of breathing, raising Pco2, worsening pH on ABG ~ failure of NIV has to be considered and patient has to be planned for intubation and mechanical ventilation after consent from the family.

 

N I V settings:
FiO2 to be titrated to maintain SpO2 ≥ 92%.
Pressure Support (IPAP): 12-15cm H2O (to target
tidal volume of 6ml/kg)
PEEP (EPAP): 5-15 cmH20 as tolerated to achieve
SpO2 ≥ 90-92%
Backup rate: 15 breaths/min
Backup I:E ratio 1:3
Trigger: maximum sensitivity

Page 14 of 17

Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation

  Indication for intubation: ARDS with PaO2/FiO2 < 200

  Worsening respiratory distress even on NIV

  Patient in Shock
Initial Settings: Controlled Mode ventilation: VCV (volume-controlled ventilation) or PCV (pressure-controlled ventilation)

  Tidal Volume (Vt) 6-8ml/PBW (predicted body weight)

  PEEP 8 – 18 cmH2O (follow FiO2-PEEP table) to titrate to target SpO2 90-92%

  FiO2 ~ target SpO2 90-92% with lowest FiO2 possible

  Respiratory rate 14-18/min (maximum up to 35/min)

  Plateau pressure < 30 cmH2O and driving pressure < 16cmH2O

  ABG targets: PaO2 55-80 mmHg, pH > 7.3

  Measure compliance 6hrly ~ Vt in ml /Pplat – PEEP
Notes:
Additional steps: If Pplat > 30cmH2O, reduce Vt upto 4ml/PBW

  If SpO2 < 88% despite ARDSnet protocol: increase depth of sedation

  Optimize secretions clearance/bronchodilation

  Initiate early muscle relaxant infusion (cis-atracurium or vecuronium)

  Early prone ventilation

        

Indication for prone ventilation:

  Intubation and mechanical
ventilation < 36hrs

  PaO2/FiO2 < 150, FiO2 > 60%,
PEEP > 5, Vt 6ml/PBW

  Duration of proning: 12-16 hrs.

  Multiple sessions until
favorable trends are achieved.

   

Page 15 of 17

Adjunctive measures when intubated and mechanically ventilated:
Antibiotics guided by protocols
Steps to reduce VAP (ventilator associated pneumonia) by following VAP bundles Head-end elevation
Thrombo-prophylaxis
Adequate analgesia and sedation

In absence of ABG facility at the hospitals, use SpO2/FiO2 ratio as described in the below table

  

Page 16 of 17

REFERENCES:

1. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL: COVID-19 Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Directorate General of Health Services (EMR Division) Version 5. 03.07.20

2. Development of Validation of Clinical risk score to predict the occurrence of critical illness in hospitalised patient with COVID19. JAMA internal Medicine –published online, May 12/05/2020

3. FACT SHEET FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS EMERGENCY USE AUTHORIZATION (EUA) OF REMDESIVIR (GS-5734TM

4. TOCILIZUMAB Drug Monograph

5. ITOLIZUMAB Drug Monograph

6. FAVIPIRAVIR Drug Monograph

7. Matthew Wemple / Joshua O. Benditt. Fishman’s Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders. Fifth
Edition.

8. Pratik P. Pandharipande et al. Derivation and validation of SpO2/FiO2 ratio to impute for
PaO2/FiO2 ratio in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score. Crit Care Med. 2009 April ; 37(4): 1317–1321. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819cefa9

Page 17 of 17

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