Suicide

Each suicide is a personal tragedy that prematurely takes the life of an individual and has a continuing ripple effect, dramatically affecting the lives of families, friends and communities. Every year, more than 1,00,000 people commit suicide in our country. There are various causes of suicides like professional/career problems, sense of isolation, abuse, violence, family problems, mental disorders, addiction to alcohol, financial loss, chronic pain etc. NCRB collects data on suicides from police recorded suicide cases.

Rate of suicides has been calculated using projected population for the non-census years whereas for the census year 2011, the population in the Census 2011 Report was used.

A total of 1,39,123 suicides were reported in the country during 2019 showing an increase of 3.4% in comparison to 2018 and the rate of suicides has increased by 0.2% during 2019 over 2018. [LIST–2.1] The incidence and rate of suicides during 2009-2019 is presented in Table-2.1.

Sl. No.

2

5

Year

CHAPTER – 2 SUICIDES IN INDIA

LIST–2.1
Number of Suicides, Growth of Population and Rate of Suicides during 2015 – 2019

                                                                          

1

2015

           

2016

                

2019

Total Number of Suicides

(3)

1,33,623

1,31,008

1,39,123

Mid-Year Projected Population*
(in Lakh)+

 

(4)

12,591.1

12,739.9

13376.1#

Rate of Suicides*** (Col.3/Col.4)

 

(1)

(2)

(5)

    

10.6

    

10.3

    

3

2017

1,29,887

           

1,34,516

13091.6#

13233.8#

9.9

 

4

2018

10.2

              

10.4

                             

* Source: The Registrar General of India.
# Source: Report of the Technical Group on Population Projections (November, 2019), National Commission on

Population, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. + One Lakh = 0.1 Million

*** Rate of Suicides = Incidence of suicides per one lakh (1,00,000) of population.

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[194]

 

Number and Percentage Share of Suicides in States/UTs

The State/UT and City wise information on the incidents of suicides, its percentage share in total suicides and rate of suicides during the year are presented in Table–2.2.

Majority of suicides were reported in Maharashtra (18,916) followed by 13,493 suicides in Tamil Nadu, 12,665 suicides in West Bengal, 12,457 suicides in Madhya Pradesh and 11,288 suicides in Karnataka accounting for 13.6%, 9.7%, 9.1%, 9.0% and 8.1% of total suicides respectively. These 5 States together accounted for 49.5% of the total suicides reported in the country. The remaining 50.5% suicides were reported in

the remaining 24 States and 7 UTs. Uttar Pradesh, the most populous State (16.9% share of country population) has reported comparatively lower percentage share of suicidal deaths, accounting for only 3.9% of the total suicides reported in the country.

The States which have witnessed significantly higher number of suicidal deaths during the year 2017 to 2019 are presented in the LIST–2.2. Each of these States have continuously accounted for about 8.0% or more of the total suicides reported in the country from 2017 to 2019.

FIGURE–2.1
State/UT wise Major Percentage Share of Suicides in States during 2019

Andhra Pradesh 4.6%

Chhattisgarh 5.5%

Uttar Pradesh 3.9%

Odisha 3.3%

  

Other States/UTs 16.1%

Gujarat 5.5%

Telangana 5.5%

Kerala 6.1% Karnaktaka

8.1% Madhya Pradesh 9.0%

West Bengal 9.1%

Maharashtra 13.6%

Tamil Nadu 9.7%

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

Note: OTHER STATES/UTs include Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttarakhand, A & N Island, Chandigarh, D & N Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019 [195]

 

FIGURE–2.2
STATE/UT – WISE TOTAL NUMBER OF SUICIDES DURING 2019

 

Number of Suicides

upto 50 51 to 300

301 to 2000 2001 to 10000 Above 10000

     

Map Powered by DevInfo, UNICEF

• As per data provided by States/UTs. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[196]

 

LIST–2.2
States with Higher Percentage Share of Suicides during 2017 to 2019

2

3

4

Delhi, which is the most-populous UT, has reported the highest number of suicides (2,526) among UTs, followed by Puducherry (493). Remaining UTs together accounted for 2.2% of total suicides in the country. A total of 22,390 suicides were reported in the 53 mega cities of the country during the 2019.

The States and UTs which have reported significant percentage increase in suicides in 2019 over 2018 were Bihar (44.7%), Punjab (37.5%), Daman & Diu (31.4%), Jharkhand (25.0%), Uttarakhand (22.6%) and Andhra Pradesh (21.5%) while highest percentage decrease was reported in Lakshadweep (100%), Himachal Pradesh (21.1%),

        

Sl. No.

                           

1

               

Tamil Nadu (11.1%)

Year

      

2017

Maharashtra (13.6%)

2018

Maharashtra (13.4%)

Tamil Nadu (10.3%)

2019

 

Maharashtra (13.6%)

                                                  

5

Karnataka (9.0%)

Karnataka (8.6%)

Karnataka (8.1%)

                     

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

• As per data provided by States/UTs. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[197]

West Bengal (9.9%)

Madhya Pradesh (8.8%)

FIGURE–2.3

Tamil Nadu (9.7%)

West Bengal (9.2%)

West Bengal (9.1%)

  

Madhya Pradesh (9.1%)

Madhya Pradesh (9.0%)

  

Chandigarh (18.1%), Arunachal Pradesh (15.2%) and Jammu & Kashmir (13.9%) [Table–2.3, Figure-2.3].

Rate of Suicides — Trend in States/UTs

Rate of suicides i.e. the number of suicides per one lakh population, has been widely accepted as a standard yardstick for comparison. All India rate of suicides was 10.4 during the year 2019. A & N Islands reported the highest rate of suicide (45.5) followed by Sikkim (33.1), Puducherry (32.5), Chhattisgarh (26.4) and Kerala (24.3) [Figure-2.4]. The details of States/UTs which have recorded higher rate of suicides during 2017 to 2019 are given in LIST–2.3.

 

60.0 40.0 20.0

0.0 -20.0 -40.0 -60.0 -80.0

State/UT-wise Percentage Variation in Suicides during 2019 over 2018

                                    

States / UTs

 

ANDHRA PRADESH ARUNACHAL PRADESH ASSAM BIHAR CHHATTISGARH GOA GUJARAT HARYANA HIMACHAL PRADESH JAMMU & KASHMIR JHARKHAND KARNATAKA KERALA MADHYA PRADESH MAHARASHTRA MANIPUR MEGHALAYA MIZORAM NAGALAND ODISHA PUNJAB RAJASTHAN SIKKIM TAMIL NADU TELANGANA TRIPURA UTTAR PRADESH UTTARAKHAND WEST BENGAL A & NISLANDS CHANDIGARH D & N HAVELI DAMAN & DIU DELHI (UT) LAKSHADWEEP PUDUCHERRY

21.5

Percentage Variation

-15.2
-0.4

-21.1 -13.9

-11.4
-0.2

13.9

-18.1
-5.9

-1.8

-2.4
3.9

10.6 -2.9

-2.2
1.1

-4.5
10.4

-1.4

8.3 1.2

5.8 5.3

11.5 4.8

18.2

25.0

37.5 4.6

12.7 22.6

31.4 0.0

44.7

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[198]

FIGURE–2.4

A & N ISLANDS SIKKIM PUDUCHERRY CHHATTISGARH KERALA TELANGANA TRIPURA TAMIL NADU D & N HAVELI KARNATAKA GOA MAHARASHTRA MADHYA PRADESH HARYANA WEST BENGAL DELHI (UT) ANDHRA PRADESH GUJARAT CHANDIGARH DAMAN & DIU ODISHA HIMACHAL PRADESH PUNJAB ARUNACHAL PRADESH ASSAM MEGHALAYA MIZORAM RAJASTHAN UTTARAKHAND JHARKHAND UTTAR PRADESH JAMMU & KASHMIR NAGALAND MANIPUR BIHAR LAKSHADWEEP

Rate of Suicides in States/UTs during 2019

33.1 32.5

45.5

 

26.4 24.3

20.6 18.2

17.8 17.1

17.1 16.8

15.4 15.1

14.5 13.0

12.7 12.4

11.2 11.1 10.9

10.5

8.0

7.9 7.4

6.9 6.1

5.9
4.65.8 National Average 10.4

4.4 2.4

2.1 1.9 1.9

0.5 0.0

                                

                                        

0.0 10.0 20.0

30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Rate

 

States / UTs

FIGURE–2.5
STATE/UT – WISE SUICIDE RATE DURING 2019

Note:
Suicide Rate means Number of Suicides per One Lakh population.

• As per data provided by States/UTs. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[199]

Suicide Rate
All India Average 10.4

upto 2 3 to 5

6 to 10 11 to 20 Above 20

     

Map Powered by DevInfo, UNICEF

 

2017

LIST–2.3
States/UTs with Higher Suicide Rate during 2017 to 2019

                     

Puducherry 40.1

           

A & N Islands 35.6

A & N Islands 41.0

A & N Islands 45.5

  

Puducherry 33.8

Sikkim 33.1

              

Sikkim 32.9

Sikkim 30.2

            

Kerala 22.6

Kerala 23.5

Puducherry 32.5

Chhattisgarh 26.4

              

Chhattisgarh 22.5

Year

2018

Telangana 21.2

2019

  

Kerala 24.3

           

National Rate (9.9)

National Rate (10.2)

National Rate (10.4)

                 

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

Causes of Suicides

‘Family Problems’ and ‘Illness’ were the major causes of suicides which accounted for 32.4% and 17.1% of total suicides respectively during 2019. ‘Drug Abuse/ Addiction’ (5.6%), ‘Marriage Related Issues’

(5.5%), ‘Love Affairs’ (4.5%), ‘Bankruptcy or Indebtedness’ (4.2%), ‘Failure in Examination’ and ‘Unemployment’ (2.0% each), ‘Professional/Career Problem’ (1.2%) and ‘Property Dispute’ (1.1%) were other causes of suicides [Table–2.4].

FIGURE–2.6
Percentage Share of Various Causes of Suicides During 2019

Fall in Social Reputation, 0.4%

Suspected/Illicit Relation , 0.5%

Poverty, 0.8%

Death of Dear Person, 0.9%

Property Dispute, 1.1%

Professional/Career Problem, 1.2%

Unemployment, 2.0%

Failure in Examination, 2.0%

Bankruptcy or Indebtedness, 4.2%

Love Affairs, 4.5%

Other Causes, 11.1%

Impotency/ Infertility, 0.3%

Causes Not Known, 10.3%

     

Marriage Related Issues, 5.5%

Family Problems, 32.4%

Illness , 17.1%

Drug Abuse/Alcoholic Addiction, 5.6%

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

* Figure of Suicides due to ideological causes/hero worshiping, physical abuse (rape etc.) and illegitimate pregnancy included in Other Causes.

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[200]

State and UT wise and City wise details on various causes of suicides are presented in Table–2.5. The States/UTs which reported more than the All-India average share under the two major causes of suicides i.e. ‘Family Problems’ and ‘Illness’ are grouped in the LIST–2.4.

Suicide Victims by Sex and Age Group

Age group wise distribution of suicides by causes during 2019 is presented in Table–2.0. The overall male : female ratio of suicide

Professional Status of Suicide Victims

Details on professional status of suicide victims are presented in Table–2.6. House- wives accounted for 51.5% of the total female victims (21,359 out of 41,493) and constitute nearly 15.4% of total victims who committed suicides (21,359 out of 1,39,123) during 2019.

Government servants accounted for 1.2% (1,684) as compared to 6.3% (8,730) from Private Sector Enterprises out of 1,39,123 of total victims. Employees from Public Sector

Sl. No.

1

3

6

Sikkim

Goa

LIST–2.4
States & UTs Reporting Higher Share of Suicides due to Illness and Family Problems during 2019

                               

State/UT

                                                

Karnataka

17.1%

Suicides

   

72

   

654

% Share

27.7

Sl. No.

D&N Haveli

32.4%

    

Suicides

% Share

          

100

   

1845

 

3166

45.5

28.5

28.0

1

Tamil Nadu

State/UT

394

403

76.4

     

2

A & N Islands

61

33.7

Uttarakhand

 

2

Odisha

2779

60.7

       

3

55.4

    

4

Andhra Pradesh

4

Tripura

  

6843

50.7

         

5

27.8

5

41

43.2

          

6

3285

42.8

             

7

Punjab

Puducherry

120

24.3

Telangana

 

7

Kerala

3655

42.7

               

8

Kerala

       

Gujarat

1925

1634

22.5

21.3

8

Uttar Pradesh

2208

23

40.4

       

9

9

39.7

              

10

21.0

10

Manipur

234

           

11

Tripura

153

3507

18.5

Bihar

47

36.5

   

11

35.9

           

12

Maharashtra

Tamil Nadu

2501

18.5

Chandigarh

 

12

Madhya Pradesh

4363

35.0

             

13

Haryana

     

Madhya Pradesh

753

2225

18.0

17.9

13

Himachal Pradesh

203

6334

34.8

       

14

14

33.5

            

15

Maharashtra

Delhi (UT)

825

32.7

                               

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

Illness

All India % Share

Family Problems

                                                                                                                                                                               

victims for the year 2019 was 70.2 : 29.8, which is more as compared to year 2018 (68.5 : 31.5). The proportion of female victims were more in ‘Marriage Related Issues’ (specifically in ‘Dowry Related Issues’), and ‘Impotency/Infertility’. The age group (18 – below 30 years) and persons of 30 years – below 45 years of age were the most vulnerable groups resorting to suicides. These age groups accounted for 35.1% and 31.8% suicides respectively. ‘Family Problems’ (2,468), ‘Failure in Examination’ (1,577), ‘Love Affairs’ (1,297) and ‘Illness’ (923) were the main causes of suicides among children (below 18 years of age).

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

Undertakings formed 1.7% (2,311), whereas students and un-employed victims accounted for 7.4% (10,335 victims) and 10.1% (14,019 victims) of total suicides respectively. Self- employed category accounted for 11.6% of total suicide victims (16,098 out of 1,39,123).

A total of 10,281 persons involved in farming sector (consisting of 5,957 farmers/cultivators and 4,324 agricultural labourers) have committed suicides during 2019, accounting for 7.4% of total suicides victims (1,39,123) in the country. Out of 5,957 farmer/cultivator suicides, a total of 5,563 were male and 394 were female.

[201]

 

Out of 4,324 suicides committed by agricultural labourers during 2019, 3,749 were male and 575 were female.

Certain States/UTs namely, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Uttarakhand, Manipur, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi UT, Lakshadweep and Puducherry reported zero suicides of Farmers/Cultivators as well as Agricultural Labourers.

 

60 years & above 45 and above – below 60 years 30 and above – below 45 years 18 and above – below 30 years below 18 years

Male

0%

8302 20555

33518 30833

4405

20% 40%
Female Transgender

2709 2 4881 0 10765 4

17930 11 5208 0

80% 100%

          

60%

  

FIGURE–2.7
Suicide Victims by Sex and Age Group during 2019

As per data provided by States/UTs.

FIGURE–2.8
Percentage Distribution of Suicide Victims by Profession During 2019

Retired Persons, 0.9%

Students, 7.4%

Persons Engaged in Farming Sector, 7.4%

Professionals/ Salaried Persons, 9.1%

Unemployed Persons, 10.1%

Other Persons, 14.7%

Daily Wage Earner, 23.4%

House wife, 15.4%

Self-employed Persons, 11.6%

As per data provided by States/UTs.

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[202]

 

Out of total 97,613 male suicides, maximum suicides were committed by daily wage earners (29,092) followed by self- employed persons (14,319) and Unemployed Persons (11,599). A total of 41,493 females committed suicides during 2019 in the country. Of females who committed suicides, highest number (21,359) was of house-wives followed by students (4,772) and daily wage earners (3,467). A total of 17 transgender have committed suicide. Out of 17 transgender, 4 each were ‘Unemployed Persons’ and ‘Daily Wage Earners’, 2 were ‘Self-employed Persons’, 1 was ‘Students’ while 6 fall under ‘Other’ category.

State/UT-wise and profession wise analysis of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.7. Majority of suicides committed by house-wives were reported in Madhya Pradesh (2,938 out of 21,359 suicides) followed by Maharashtra (2,737 suicides) and Tamil Nadu (2,025 suicides) which accounted for 13.8%, 12.8% and 9.5% of total such suicides during 2019 respectively. Majority of suicides committed by government servants were reported in Tamil Nadu (200 out of 1,684 suicides) followed by Maharashtra (186 suicides), Rajasthan (166 suicides), Karnataka (135 suicides) and Madhya Pradesh (132 suicides) which accounted for 11.9%, 11.0%, 9.9%, 8.0% and 7.8% of total such suicides respectively. Majority of suicides committed by persons engaged in Private Sector Enterprises were reported in Maharashtra (1,807 out of 8,730 suicides), Tamil Nadu (1,237 suicides), Gujarat (776 suicides), Karnataka (749 suicides) and Madhya Pradesh (688 suicides), they accounted for 20.7%, 14.2%, 8.9%, 8.6% and 7.9% of total such suicides respectively. Of total suicides committed by students, 14.4% were reported in Maharashtra (1,487 suicides) followed by 9.0% in Madhya Pradesh (927 suicides), 8.8% in Tamil Nadu (914 suicides), 6.5% in Karnataka (673 suicides) and 5.8% in Uttar Pradesh (603 suicides). Majority of suicides committed by un-employed persons, 14.0% were in Kerala (1,963 out of 14,019 suicides), 10.8% in Maharashtra (1,511 suicides), 9.8% in Tamil Nadu (1,368 suicides), 9.2% in Karnataka (1,293 suicides) and 6.1% in Odisha (858 suicides). Majority of suicides committed by persons engaged in business activities were reported by Maharashtra (14.2%), Tamil Nadu (11.7%),

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

Karnataka (9.7%), West Bengal (8.2%) and Madhya Pradesh (7.8%). Majority of victims engaged in farming sector were reported in Maharashtra (38.2%), Karnataka (19.4%), Andhra Pradesh (10.0%), Madhya Pradesh (5.3%) and Chhattisgarh & Telangana (4.9% each).

Social Status of Suicide Victims

Social Status of victims is classified in seven categories namely ‘Un-married’, ‘Married’, ‘Widowed/Widower’, ‘Divorcee’, ‘Separated’, ‘Others’ and ‘Status Not Known’.

The information on the social status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.8(I). It is observed that 66.7% (92,757 out of 1,39,123) of the suicide victims were married while 23.6% were un-married (32,852). Widowed/Widower, Divorcees and Separated have accounted for 1.8% (2,472 victims), 0.7% (997 victims) and 0.7% (963 victims) of total suicide victims respectively during 2019.

The State/UT-wise information on the social status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.9.

Economic Status of Suicide Victims

The information on the economic status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.8(II). 66.2% (92,083) of suicide victims in 2019 were having annual income of less than `1 lakh. 29.6% (41,197) of suicide victims belong to annual income group of ‘`1 lakh to less than `5 lakh’. The State/UT wise information on the Economic Status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.10.

Educational Status of Suicide Victims

The sex-wise and education-wise break- up of suicide victims is presented in Table- 2.8(III). The maximum numbers of suicide victims (23.3%) (32,427) were educated up to Matriculation/ Secondary level, whereas Middle level educated accounted for 19.6% (27,323), Primary educated (16.3%) (22,649), Hr. Secondary / Intermediate/Pre-University educated (14.0%) (19,508) and Illiterate (12.6%) (17,588). Only 3.7% (5,185 out of 1,39,123 victims) of total suicide victims were graduates and above.

[203]

 

FIGURE–2.9
Distribution of Suicide Victims by Social Status during 2019

 

Un-Married Married Widowed/Widower Divorcee Separated Others Status Not Known

21638 66815

1378 595

672 1918

4597

20% 30% 40% Male

11202 12 25941 1 1094 0 402 0 290 1 700 2 1864 1

80% 90% 100%

                 

0% 10%

50% Female

60%

70%

 

As per data provided by States/UTs.

FIGURE–2.10
Percentage Share of Suicide Victims by Educational Status during 2019

As per data provided by States/UTs.

Professionals (MBA, etc.), 0.2%

    

Graduate & above, 3.7%

Diploma, 1.2%

Status Not Known, 8.9%

Higher Secondary Level , 14.0%

Matriculate/ Secondary Level , 23.3%

No Education, 12.6%

Primary Level, 16.3%

Middle Level, 19.6%

       

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[204]

 

LIST–2.5
Percentage of Suicide Victims by Educational Level during 2017 – 2019

 

Sl. No.      Educational Level

                                                                       

Percentage Share

      

(1)

(2)

2017

(3)

           

13.0

2018

12.7

2019

  

(4)

(5)

1

12.6

                    

3

No Education

2

Primary Level

16.3

17.1

16.3

  

Middle Level

19.4

19.5

19.6

        

4

23.6

23.6

23.3

        

5

Matriculate/Secondary Level

 

Higher Secondary Level

15.9

16.4

14.0

        

6

Diploma

1.2

1.1

1.2

        

7 8

3.3 0.3

3.7 0.2

                

9

Graduate & above Professionals (MBA etc.)

Status Not Known

3.5 0.3

6.8

6.0

8.9

         

10

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

               

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

The State/UT wise information on the Education Status of suicide victims is presented in Table–2.11.

Out of 32,427 suicides committed by persons educated up-to matriculate/secondary level, 17.6% were reported in Maharashtra followed by Kerala & Tamil Nadu (10.4% each) and Karnataka (8.6%). Out of 27,323 suicides committed by persons educated up-to middle level, 14.1% were reported in Maharashtra followed by Tamil Nadu (11.5%) and Madhya Pradesh (10.4%). Out of 17,588 suicides committed by persons with no education 16.1% were reported in Telangana followed by Madhya Pradesh (12.2%) and Andhra Pradesh (9.7%) [Table–2.11].

Percentage share of suicide victims by educational level during 2017-19 is presented in LIST–2.5.

Means Adopted for Committing Suicides

The means adopted for committing suicide varied from the easily available and effective means such as consumption of poison, jumping etc. to more painful means such as self-inflicted injuries, hanging etc. Like previous year, ‘Hanging’ (53.6%), consuming ‘Poison’ (25.8%), ‘Drowning’ (5.2%) and ‘Fire/Self- Immolation’ (3.8%) were the prominent means/mode of committing suicide. [Table– 2.12]

Percentage share of the means adopted in committing suicide during 2018-19 is presented in LIST–2.6.

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

As mode adopted by suicide victims, the share of ‘Fire/Self Immolation’ (from 4.4% to 3.8%) and ‘By Poison’ (from 26.7% to 25.8%) has decreased while shares of ‘Hanging’ (from 51.5% to 53.6%), ‘By Drowning (from 4.9% to 5.2%), and ‘By Touching Electric Wire’ (from 0.4% to 0.5%) have increased during 2019 over 2018. [LIST–2.6]

The sex-wise break-up and means adopted for suicide in various States/UTs is presented in Table–2.13.

LIST–2.6

Percentage of Means/Mode Adopted by Victims to Commit Suicide during 2018-2019

SL. Means/Mode Adopted Percentage & Number 2018 2019

          

(1)      (2)      (3)      (4)

      

1 Consuming Sleeping Pills 0.7% (939) 0.5% (753)

2       Drowning     4.9% (6,579)   5.2% (7,208)

 

3 Fire/Self Immolation 4.4% (5,950) 3.8% (5,234)

  

4 Firearms   0.4% (521) 0.3% (428)

    

5 By Hanging 51.5% (69,306) 53.6% (74,629)

6       By Poison     26.7% (35,862)   25.8% (35,882)

 

7 By Self inflicting Injury 0.6% (772) 0.6% (828)

8       By Jumping     1.9% (2,557)   1.5% (2,034)

 

9 By Coming under Running 2.9% (3,848) 2.4% (3,337) Vehicles/Trains

10       By Touching Electric Wire     0.4% (565)   0.5% (752)

 

11 By Other Means 5.7% (7,617) 5.8% (8,038)

 

12 Total           100.0    100.0

      

Note: Bracket ( ) refer to Number of victims who have committed suicides

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

                         

The number of male victims were more than females in all means of suicide except those who committed suicides by ‘Fire/Self- immolation’ where share of female victims was more (3,295 out of 41,493).

[205]

 

Suicides in Cities

City refers to mega city i.e. city having population of 10,00,000 or more.

The numbers of suicides in 53 mega cities show an increasing trend during 2016 to 2019. It increased by 1.7% (to 21,240) in 2017 and increased by 0.8% (to 21,408) in 2018. It increased by 4.6% (to 22,390) in 2019. Details on year-wise incidents in cities, percentage share to All-India, rate of suicides and percentage change during 2016 – 2019 may be seen in LIST–2.7.

However, a total of 887 victims have committed suicide in 53 mega cities due to ‘Marriage Related Issues’ accounting for 4.0% of total suicides in the cities.

Mass/Family Suicides

This section provides information on the number of cases where family members have committed suicide jointly. Mass/Family Suicides were reported in 11 States during the year 2019. State/UT & City-wise information on mass/family suicides is presented in Table– 2.14.

LIST–2.7
Incidence of Suicides in Mega-Cities, percentage share to All-India, rate of suicides and

percentage change over previous year during 2016 – 2019

        

Year

Suicides in Cities

Cities Share to All India

Rate in Cities

% Variation over Previous Year (Incidence)

                                       

2016

                                      

2018

20,879

21,408

15.9

15.9

13.0

   

13.3

0.8

                        

2019

22,390

16.1

13.9

4.6

                             

• As per data provided by States/UTs.

21,240

Out of the Mega Cities, the four Metropolitan Cities — Chennai (2,461), Delhi City (2,423), Bengaluru (2,081) and Mumbai (1,229) have reported higher number of suicides. These four cities together have reported almost 36.6% of the total suicides reported from 53 mega cities. Bengaluru City has shown a slight decline during 2019 over 2018. Chennai has shown an increase of 17.1% (from 2,102 suicides to 2,461 suicides), Mumbai 4.7% (from 1,174 suicides to 1,229 suicides) and Delhi City has observed an increase of 2.3% (from 2,369 suicides to 2,423 suicides). [Table–2.3]

The suicide rate in cities (13.9) was higher as compared to All-India suicide rate (10.4). Kollam followed by Asansol have reported the highest suicides rate of 41.2 and 37.8 respectively. [Table–2.2].

‘Family Problems (other than marriage related issues)’ was the major cause of suicide in cities which accounted for 37.2% (8,343) followed by ‘Illness’ (17.1%) (3,829) victims out of 22,390 victims.

A total of 72 cases of mass/family suicides were registered during the year 2019. In these suicides, a total of 180 persons, comprising of 126 married persons and 54 unmarried persons, lost their lives.

Maximum cases of mass/family suicides were reported in Tamil Nadu (16 cases) followed by Andhra Pradesh (14 cases), Kerala (11), Punjab (9 cases) and Rajasthan (7 cases) during 2019 with a total 43 persons in Tamil Nadu, 36 persons in Andhra Pradesh, 24 persons in Kerala and 22 persons in Rajasthan losing lives. [Table–2.14]

Out of 53 cities, mass/family suicides were reported in 3 cities. These three cities have registered 10 cases of mass/family suicides in which 23 persons have committed suicides during 2019. Among these persons, 21 were married and 2 were unmarried persons. [Table–2.14]

16.4

13.2

6.2

2017

1.8

    

Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2019

[206]

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